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Population by suresh kumar kundur

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IGCSE GEOGRAPHY …

IGCSE GEOGRAPHY
POPULATION


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  • 1. should be able to: Describe the growth of the world’s population and associated problems and show an understanding of the causes and consequences of overpopulation and underpopulation.
  • 2. Identify and suggest reasons for contrasting patterns of population growth (or decline) as influenced by migration, . birth rate and death rate, especially the(benefits and  Describe the consequences impact of HIV/AIDS problems) of different patterns of population growth.  Identify and suggest reasons for different types of population structure as shown by age/sex pyramids.  Describe the factors influencing the density and distribution of population and population migration.
  • 3. POPULATION  Number of people living in an area or country or region is known as population.  Distribution of population: Describes the way in which people are spread out across the world. This distribution is uneven and changes over periods of time.
  • 4. Distribution of population:  Sparsely populated:  Densely populated:  Population explosion  The annual growth rate of the world’s population rose slowly but steadily until the beginning of the 19th century. For the next 150 years it grew at an increasingly faster rate. This process called a POPULATION EXPLOSION.
  • 5. Density of population: •The number of people living in one square kilometer of an area. Density of population can be calculated by total population divided by total area. This is shown by choropleth map.
  • 6. FACTORS AFFECTING DISTRIBUTION AND DENSITY OF POPULATION (Reasons for the differences in population distribution and density)  Physical factors such as relief, climate, vegetation, soil, natural resources, water supply and water supply.  Social factors such as the proportion of urban to rural population, better housing opportunities, education, health facilities and entertainment.  Economic factors such as the resources, amount of industrialization, transportation and development of tourism.  Political factors such as government policy on birth control.
  • 7. A map of the world, with colours to highlight the population density of each country or territory. Numbers on the legend are in people per km2 and all countries smaller than 20,000 km2 are represented by a dot.
  • 8. A Map shows the physical distribution of specific data for a geographic area. This style of map shows statistical information rather than topographical information
  • 9. THE POPULATION GROWTH  Birth rate: Birth rate describes the average number of live births in a year for every 1000 people per year.   Death rate: Death rate describes the average number of deaths per 1000 people in the population per year.  The difference between the birth rate and death rate is either the natural increase or natural decrease.
  • 10. THE POPULATION GROWTH  Natural increase: where the birth rate is the higher is known as natural increase of population. (growth of population as a result of births and deaths)  Birth Rate - Death Rate = Natural Increase  Natural decrease: where the death rate is the higher is known as natural decrease.
  • 11. The population growth rate (‘natural increase of population) is calculated by No of births ─ No of deaths X 100 Total population Example: 60753 – 30457 X100 =1.03% 2938475
  • 12. THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL This model shows the relationship between birth rates and death rates and it is used to represent population changes over a period of time
  • 13. population change Stage 1ss Stage 1 High birth rate due to lack of family planning method, high infant mortality rate an Agricultural family needs more children to support agricultural field. Children’s are considered assign of virility and high religious belief. High death rate due to shortage of food, dangerous diseases such as plague, malaria etc poor hygienic and shortage of medical facilities.
  • 14. Stage 2 There is a sudden falling down of death rate due to improvements in medical facilities improvement in food production, improvement in sanitation and improvement in transport.
  • 15. Stage 3 Sudden falling down of birth rate in the 3rd stage due to improvements in family planning methods, improving in education especially in women, increased desire for material wealth emancipation of women( equal rights) and later marriage.
  • 16. Stage 4 Birth rate is falling more slowly Due to family planning, government policy, improving in education, later marriage. And also death rate falling very slowly due to improvements in medical facilities improvement in food production.
  • 17. Stage 5 Zero population it means neither increase nor decrease of population. E.g. Italy, Sweden, Germany, Switzerland. It has a broad base due to high birth rate. It doesn’t have bulges at its middle, because of less number of working population. It goes on shaping towards the top due to short life expectancy rate.
  • 18. Uses of the demographic transition model Studying the way population change. Understanding trends in births, deaths and natural increase.  Predicting the changing structure of population and planning to meet its changing needs.
  • 19. The limitation of the Demographic Transition Model  LEDCs may not follow the patterns of change found in MEDCs 30 to 50 years ago.  Birth rates have not fallen as rapidly as might be expected in some LEDCs because of social customs and beliefs.  Government planning for population change may interrupt the model, e.g. the one child policy in china.  Some industrialising LEDCs are moving more rapidly through the stages than the MEDCs did.
  • 20. Over population and under population  OVER POPULATION:  The number of population is higher than the availability of resources. E.g. china, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Indonesia.  UNDERPOPULATION  The numbers of people are too few to fully exploit the available resources. Quality of life can only slowly be improved.  Optimum population: the population is such that it can maximise the benefits from the resources available. It is only when we have optimum population that the quality of life is maximised.
  • 21. CAUSES OF OVER POPULATION Reasons for High Birth rate:  High birth rate due to lack of education  Lack of medical facilities  High infant mortality rate  Agricultural family needs more children to support the agricultural field.  Children are considered to be sign of virility and religious belief
  • 22. PROBLEMS OF AN OVER POPULATED COUNTRY (The problems of population growth in LEDCs)  Unemployment  House shortages  Lack of food  Shanty towns  Crime prostitution  Strain on services  Overcrowded buses and trains  Poor sanitation etc
  • 23. POPULATION STRUCTURE (What are the reasons for different types of population structure?)  Population structure is important for future planning     of a country. The population structure can be studied using a population pyramid of age and sex pyramid. The rate of natural increase, the birth rate, the death rate and life expectancy all affect the population structure of a country. POPULATION PYRAMID: the age and sex structure of a population can be present as a diagram known as population pyramid. LIFE EXPECTANCY: is the number of years that the average person born in a country can expect to live.
  • 24. POPULATION STRUCTURE The population pyramid displays the age and sex structure of a country or given area OLD DEPENDANTS Population in Five Year Age bands MALES Usually, but not always, To the left In % to make for easier comparisons between countries ECONOMICALLY ACTIVE YOUNG DEPENDANTS FEMALES To the right
  • 25. What Population Pyramids Show Us Economically More Developed Country Economically Less Developed Country KEY slope of pyramid indicate the death rate width of the base is related to birth rate/fert proportions of men and women can suggest male o height of graph can indicate life expectancy (i wedge as occurs on graph B as these people are "kinks" indicate dramatic reductions in birth r death rate in the past area of graph indicates total population - comp population age groups or different sex on one g The overall shape of the population pyramid can indic Economically More Developed Country or Economically L
  • 26. Population Pyramids related to the Demographic Transition Model Stage 1 IMPLICATIONS Stage 2 Stage 3 IMPLICATIONS IMPLICATIONS Stage 4 IMPLICATIONS Both birth rates and Population continues Low Crude Birth Ra Population Death rates are to grow but at and Crude Death Ra slower starts High, so population rate. Low C Death Rate. Higher dependancy to grow at an growth rates are Dramatically declining and longer life ex exponential slow but population Crude Birth Rate. Crude Death Rate d rate due to Is usually restored Crude Rise slightly beca fall in Due to high birth The ageing populat Death Rate. Rate. Short life More living In Expectancy EXAMPLES middle age. Life Scotland today. EXAMPLES EXAMPLES expectancy Japan, USA Scotland before 1760 Scotland 1870 -1950 rises Scotland 1760 - 1830 New Guinea Algeria, Tunisia Infant Republic of Congo Remote parts of Morocco mortality rate Amazonia falls. There is some merit in including or considering
  • 27. Population pyramid of a less developed nation Population Pyramid of Nigeria (1995)
  • 28. Importance of Population Pyramids A BROAD BASE POPULATION PYRAMID MEANS: •increase food production •build more homes & schools •plan for more job opportunities for the young in future •implement birth control programme/campaigns •Usually agricultural with problems of overpopulation. •Many Dependents
  • 29. Population pyramid of a developed nation Population Pyramid of Sweden (1995)
  • 30. Importance of Population Pyramids A NARROW BASED POPULATION PYRAMID MEANS: Birth rate and Death rate low •Work out incentives to encourage more births •hiring foreign labour •proper medical services & health care for the aged
  • 31. Stages of development
  • 32. THANK YOU BY: SURESH KUMAR KUNDUR BILLABONG HIGH INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL MALDIVES