Crime committed using a computer and the
internet to steal a person's identity or illegal
imports or malicious programs
Cybercrime is nothing but where the
computer used as an object or subject of
first spam email took place in 1978 when
it was sent out over the Arpanet (Advanced
Research Projects Agency Network),.
The first virus was installed on an Apple
computer in 1982 when a high school
student, Rich Skrenta, developed the Elk
Cybercrime is a term for any illegal
activity that uses a computer as its
primary means of commission. The U.S.
Department of Justice expands the
definition of cybercrime to include any
illegal activity that uses a computer for
the storage of evidence.
CYBER CRIMES ARE
MAINLY CLASSIFIED AS:
Those against a person.
Crime targetting the government.
Against a Person
i. Harassment via e-mails:
Harassment through e-mails is not a new concept. It is
very similar to harassing through letters.
ii. Cyber-stalking :
Cyber stalking involves following a person movements
across the Internet by posting messages.
iii. Email spoofing:
A mail which misrepresents its origin. It shows it's origin to
be different from which actually it originates.
Damaging or destroying data rather than
stealing or misusing them is called cyber
These are programs that attach themselves
to a file and then circulate .
They usually affect the data on a
computer, either by altering or deleting it.
Terrorist attacks on the Internet is by distributed
denial of service attacks, hate websites and hate
emails, attacks on sensitive computer
networks, etc. Technology savvy terrorists are
using 512-bit encryption, which is impossible to
The recent example may be cited of – Osama Bin
Laden, the LTTE, and attack on America’s army
deployment system during Iraq war.
Those who are doing crimes by using the
computer as an target or object.
i. Children and adolescents between the age
group of 6 – 18 years
ii. Dissatisfied employees
iii. Professional hackers / crackers
iv. Organized hackers
Modes & Manners of
Committing Cyber Crimes
Unauthorized access to computer systems or
This is generally
‘Hacking’. That is accessing the
information of others without proper
Theft of information contained in electronic
This includes theft of information
stored in computer hard disks, removable
storage media etc.
This is altering raw data just before a
computer processes it and then changing it
back after the processing is completed.
Denial of Service attack:
The computer is flooded with more requests
than it can handle which cause it to crash.
Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS) attack
is a example.
It means unauthorized programmer. It gains control over
another’s system by representing itself as an authorized
This term is derived from the term hi jacking. In these
kinds of offences the hacker gains access and control
over the web site of another.
It refers to sending large numbers of mail to the
victim, which may be an individual or a
company by ultimately resulting into crashing.
Intrusion into a computer system without
the permission of the computer
E.g : Hacking into Best Western
Types of Cyber Crimes
i. Child Pornography:
The use of computer networks to create, distribute, or
access materials that sexually use underage children.
ii. Cyber Contraband:
Transferring illegal items through the internet (such
as encryption technology) that is barred in some
iii. Cyber laundering:
Electronic transfer of illegally-obtained money with
the goal of hiding its source and possibly its
Threats that creates fear through the use of
messages, webcams, websites or videos.
Using a computer to steal. This includes
entering, unlawful appropriation, identity
theft, fraud, malicious hacking and piracy.
Cyber security involves protection of
sensitive personal and business
detection, and response to different
Cyber security actually protects your
personal information by responding,
detecting and preventing the attacks.
Protecting Your Privacy
Before submitting your name, email address, or
other personal information on a web site, look for
Evidence that your information is being
To protect attackers from hijacking your
information, any personal information submitted
online should be encrypted. Many sites use SSL
or secure sockets layer, to encrypt information.
How Can We Protect
Keep software up to date:
If the seller releases patches for the software
operating your device, install them as soon as
possible. Installing them will prevent attackers
from being able to take advantage.
Use good passwords:
Select passwords that will be difficult for thieves
to guess. Do not choose options that allow your
computer to remember your passwords.
Disable remote connectivity:
Some PDA’s and phones are equipped with
wireless technologies, such as Bluetooth, that
can be used to connect to other devices or
computers. You should disable these features
when they are not in use.
Extent of Progress on Updating
Cyber Crime Laws
Substantially or Fully Updated (10):
Australia, Canada, Estonia, India,
Japan, Mauritius, Peru, Philippines,
Turkey, United States
Partially Updated (9):
Brazil, Chile, China, Czech
Malaysia, Poland, Spain,
No Updated Laws (33):
Albania, Bulgaria, Burundi, Cuba, Dominican Republic,
Egypt, Ethiopia, Fiji, France, Gambia, Hungary, Iceland,
Iran, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lebanon,
Lesotho, Malta, Moldova, Morocco, New Zealand,
Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Romania, South Africa,
Sudan, Vietnam, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Cyber Laws in INDIA
India has enacted the first I.T.Act, 2000
based on the UNCIRAL model
recommended by the general assembly of
the United Nations.
Offence under IT Acts
Tampering with Computer source documents
Hacking with Computer systems, Data alteration
Publishing obscene information Un-authorised
access to protected system
Breach of Confidentiality and Privacy
Publishing false digital signature certificates
Computer Related Crimes
Covered under IPC & Special
Sending threatening messages by email
Sending defamatory messages by email
Forgery of electronic records
Bogus websites, cyber frauds
Online sale of Drugs
Online sale of Arms
DRAWBACKS OF PRESENT CYBER
Jurisdiction is the highly debatable issue
Due to growing arms of cyber space the
territorial boundaries seem to vanish
Loss of evidence because
data are routinely destroyed
collection of data outside the territorial extent
Requirement for highly technical staff
High technology crime & investigation
A law regulating the cyber-space
Weak penalties limit deterrence
These crimes have large-scale economic
and social effects.
Self-protection remains the first line of
defense for e.g.
Finding the holes in the network
Using intrusion alert programs
A law regulating the cyber-space
Co-operation for exchange of material
and evidence of computer crimes
between law enforcement agencies.