A POWERPOINT PRESENTATION
PROJECT TEAM NO. 4
IV – CHARITY
DEFINITION OF PACKAGING
Packaging is the science, art, and technology of enclosing
or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and
use. Packaging also refers to the process of
design, evaluation, and production of packages.
Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of
transport, warehousing, logistics, sale, and end use.
contains, protects, preserves, transports, informs, and
sells. In many countries it is fully integrated into
government, business, institutional, industrial, and
BRIEF HISTORY OF PACKAGING
Paper may be the oldest form of what today is referred to as
"flexible packaging.” In early days there is less need for
packaging, either for transportation or storage. Before the creation of
pure packaging materials people use many of the natural things to
make a basket for packaging to protect products from
contamination, from environmental damage, from theft or from any
other damage. They used woven grasses, animal organs or this type of
things for that. But these days we are using paper products, glass
products, metal products and Plastic products for packaging.
One rather recent development in packaging is the labeling of the
product with the company name and contents information. Official
trademarks were pioneered in 1866 by Smith Brothers for their cough
drops marketed in large glass jars. This was a new idea _ using the
package to "brand" a product for the benefit of the consumer. In
1870, the first registered U.S. trademark was awarded to the
Eagle_Arwill Chemical Paint Company.
IMPORTANCE OF PACKAGING
To attract attention
Protection of the goods inside
Assist in promotion
Provide machine identification (barcodes, etc.), impart essential or
- Help in utilization and consumption
- Used for track and trace purposes
Packaging also fulfils a key role for it provides us with a recognizable
logo and also we can instantly know what the goods are inside.
From the consumer perspective, packaging plays a major role when
products are purchased – as both a cue and as a source of
IMPORTANCE OF PACKAGING TO MARKETING
Packaging is a very important marketing strategy to
glamorize your product in order to attract the consumer’s
attention. Sometimes packaging is so important that it cost
more than the product itself in order to lure the consumers
to buy it. Packaging should definitely be included in the 4
major P’s of marketing (product, place, promotion and
Packaging plays an important role in the marketing context.
The right packaging can help a brand carve a unique
position in the marketplace and in the minds on consumers.
Packaging has a better reach than advertising does, and can
set a brand apart from its competitors. It promotes and
reinforces the purchase decision not only at the point of
purchase, but also every time the product is used.
Packaging has a better reach than advertising does, and can
set a brand apart from its competitors. It promotes and reinforces
the purchase decision not only at the point of purchase, but also
every time the product is used. Packaging in different serving sizes
can extend a product into new target markets or help to overcome
cost barriers. Packaging can even drive the brand choice (especially
in the context of children’s products).
It was found out that most consumers like the product quality
after they purchased their desired packaged products. Based on
those facts, we cannot say there is a 100% equal relationship
between good package and good product quality, but there is a
positive thinking and trend about well - designed package shows
high product quality. As a matter of fact, people are becoming more
and more demanding; packaging has been gradually shown his
important role in a way to serving consumer by providing
information and delivering functions.
Packaging in different serving sizes can extend a
product into new target markets or help to overcome
cost barriers. Packaging can even drive the brand choice
(especially in the context of children’s products). As the
market becomes more competitive and shelf space is at
a premium, products need to be able to stand out from
the crowd and packaging needs to provide more than
just functional benefits and information.
With its different functionality to ease and to
communicate with consumers, there is no doubt about
increasingly important role of packaging as a strategic
tool to attract consumers’ attention and their perception
on the product quality.
Having attractive packaging doesn’t mean you
should neglect quality either. In fact, you need to make
high quality products in order to have repeated sales.
Converting first time buyers into loyal customers should
be the main goal of your business and packaging is the
door to it.
PACKAGING DESIGN has the primary goal to attract
customers’ attention. For this purpose, package designs can
not simply inform the customers, but also provoke feelings and
communicate emotions. An effective packaging looks
attractive, impresses with its creativity and is just nice to have
on the shelf.
Colors, fonts, descriptions and logos are the tools that are
used in packaging design. Companies market their brands by
creating a specific "look and feel" to their product's packaging.
A customer must feel comfortable enough with the
presentation of the company's brand to want to purchase the
CLASSIFICATION OF PACKAGING
Primary packaging is the material that first envelops the
product and holds it. This usually is the smallest unit of
distribution or use and is the package which is in direct
contact with the contents.
Secondary packaging is outside the primary
packaging, perhaps used to group primary packages
Tertiary packaging is used for bulk handling, warehouse
storage and transport shipping. The most common form is
a palletized unit load that packs tightly into containers.
POINTS TO CONSIDER WHEN DEVELOPING PACKAGING
1. Make sure the packaging is unique.
- The packaging must stand out from the crowd and be different
from your competitors.
2. Make sure it performs the function required.
- Part of the firms packaging strategy maybe to make the packaging
a functional part of the product. Some drink cartons follow this
strategy. Muller yogurts corner have their packaging divided into
two sections where consumers can mix yogurt and fruit as and when
they choose. The packaging therefore encourages the consumer to
interact with the product. If it is a food product, the packaging must
also preserve the product for a period of time. The packaging must
also be safe and tested to make sure consumers can safely use it.
Many users give up using the product if the packaging of it makes it
difficult for the consumer to access and use the product.
3. Make sure packaging promotes your product and brand.
- Packaging must be designed so it promotes the benefits of the
product and promotes the product brand. The brand name must be
clearly visible, and the benefits of the product clear for the
consumer to see.
4. Make sure packaging is identifiable and reinforces the brand.
- When the product sits on the shelf of the retailer the packaging
must stand out and be identifiable by the consumer. The packaging
of the product must reinforce not just the product brand but also
the corporate brand. Will it follow a common colour scheme? Will
fonts be similar to other products with the range? In essence does
the packing have to follow the family brand strategy? This is really
important as consumer who walk down an aisle of a shop recognize
a product through its packaging strategy and will often pick up a
product without double checking their purchase.
TYPES OF PACKAGING
- Paper and Carton Packaging
Paper and carton packaging is used for different types of goods
(food, electronics, toys, shoes, kitchenware and even other packaging materials).
Paper and carton packaging companies produce wrapping paper, inflated
paper, sheets, boxes, tubes, pallets, interlayers, corners, edges and custom
protective systems (depending on the dimension and shape of the packed
good, the carton is cut and modeled to fix and protect the product). Paper can be
used to laminate other materials in order to make them stronger. There is also
anticorrosive paper that can be used to wrap goods or to laminate other
- Film Packaging
There are multiple types of films used in the packaging industry, most
commonly polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyolefin and polyvinyl
chloride (PVC) films. The films usually come on a roll and are used to wrap
goods, cover goods, protect boxes and make other packaging products (such as
bags, tubes, bubble wrap and sheets). Films can be used for lamination, printed
or perforated. They can be anticorrosive, antistatic, shrinkable or
nonshrinkable, and slippery or nonslippery.
- Foam Packaging
Foam used for packaging can be produced on a roll or in sheets of
different thicknesses. The foam is used to wrap goods or make bags (usually
laminated with high-density PE), corners, edges and custom systems. The
corners and edges are used to protect flat glass, furniture and sharp edges.
Foam can be cut and modeled on the product's shape to fix and protect it.
It can be antistatic and has good insulation properties.
- Textile Packaging
There are some goods that are best protected by textiles. For
example, there are custom-made textile insertions used in the automotive
industry to protect car parts during transportation. The textile insert is put
on a metal frame that fits into a metal container. There is also textile
material used for box covers.
- Plastic Boxes and Containers
Multiple types of plastic boxes and containers are used in all industries.
For example, in the food industry there are plastic containers for goods like
ketchup, yogurt, milk and juices. Plastic boxes are mainly used for
transporting goods and are reusable. They can be stacked, folded when
empty to save storage space and recycled.
Packaging companies offer different types of systems that can be
divided into two categories: special solutions and packaging machines.
The special solutions are used for valuable products that don't have a
regular, simple shape. For example, parts of airplanes or expensive
decorative glass objects need special solutions to be packed. The goods
fit perfectly into the packaging and are protected against damages.
Packaging machines are used for wrapping (wrapping the stretch
film on the pallet), strapping (applying and sealing straps on
boxes), sealing (with tape for boxes and with heat for films) and shrink
wrapping (applying PVC or polyolefin film on products or boxes). There
are also machines that inflate film, paper and instant foam.
Adhesive tapes are also considered packaging materials, as they
help seal boxes. They are usually made out of PE or PP film that has
acrylic or solvent glue applied to it and that can be printed on. Strapping
tapes are usually applied on boxes or pallets. They are made out of PE or
PP and can be printed with one color. The standard colors are black and
clear for PP and green for PE.
DIFFERENT MATERIALS USED
CARTRIDGE PAPER - is used for general
drawing. It is often good quality and generally
100 to 135g in thickness. This paper is used for
design and technology projects and will take
colour from pencils and felt pens without too
much leaking to the opposite side of the paper.
CARDBOARD - is thicker than paper as it is
made up of a number of layers, glue or
laminated together. The diagram opposite
shows a net / development of a package. It can
be folded to produce a carton.
DUPLEX BOARD - This is used for containers
and can contain liquids as it may have a waterproof liner on the inside. It can have a wax
feel. This type of card is used by the food
industry and consequently recycled card is not
used in its manufacture.
SOLID WHITE BOARD - This is normally top
quality cardboard made from quality bleached
wood pulp. It is the best card for printing on to
and consequently it is used for hard backed
books and more expensive items.
CORRUGATED BOARD - This type of board is
often used for packaging large electrical items.
These large boxes (often brown in colour)
protect the contents from damage. Corrugated
board is strong because it is composed of a top
and bottom layer and in between there is a
triangulated section. A triangular section is
very strong compared to its weight.
FOIL LINED BOARD - is good quality
cardboard with a aluminium foil lining. This
type of container is ideal for ready made
meals or take away meals. The foil retains the
heat and helps keep the food warm.
TRACING PAPER -Is used pupils, students and
designers. It allows the designer to copy an
existing drawing / shape. Tracing paper can be
useful when there is a need to produce several
drawings that are based on the same outline.
Also, tracing paper makes it possible to place
one design on top of another to produce a
second layer. The original design can be seen
under the second drawing.
GLASS CONTAINERS - Glass jars and bottles are
very popular for packaging foods. They protect
food from moisture, pests, and micro organism.
These are very useful as they can be processed
under heat, reusable, recyclable, rigid, can be
stored and are transparent to display its contents
or the food inside. Along with different advantages
it has certain disadvantages too. They are heavier
and for this require higher transport costs. They
can be easily broken, especially, when transporting
through rough roads. These are mainly used for
packing foods like different preservatives such as
jams, jellies, juices, pickles, beer, wine, etc.
PLASTIC - is a versatile foodpackaging material. Often in the
form of custom bags, plastic is used
for bread, frozen goods, snack foods
environmentally friendly because it's made of
recycled materials and can again be recycled.
Aluminum food containers can store food
safely for extended periods. It is perfect for
storing canned goods, potted meats and
fish, as an inner liner for bags, or even as
covers for foods stored in plastic trays.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PACKAGING
Food and drink products are packaged and sold in glass, plastic, aluminum and paper. Each
of these materials has advantages and disadvantages for the consumer and the
Packaging food makes it safer and less vulnerable to contamination. Though the Food
and Drug Administration has expressed concern about the safe use of recycled
packaging, it is generally considered to be safe.
Food lasts longer and stays fresh longer when it's packaged successfully. Unpackaged
food can quickly become dry, moldy or spoiled.
Food packaging accounts for a large amount of all waste in the United States. Though
some packaging is recyclable, it's difficult to improve the efficiency of most packaging.
Packaging accounts for a percentage of all food manufacturers' costs, and that is
factored into the final price of each food product for the consumer.
Single-serving packages and packaged perishable items are convenient because
consumers don't have to wrap them up or put them in containers before storing them.
Labeling is an important process in the food
processing chain and should not be overlooked. The
label is the first point of contact between a
consumer and the producer. It is used to identify
one product from another and also to make a
decision over which product to purchase. The label
is therefore the most important marketing tool for a
product. It should be attractive and eye catching
while at the same time being informative. A
dirty, confused, untidy label will not help to sell a
The objective of foodstuff labeling is to guarantee that
consumers have access to complete information on the
content and composition of products, in order to protect
their health and their interests. Other information may
provide details on a particular aspect of the product, such
as its origin or production method. Some foodstuffs, such
as genetically modified organisms, allergenic foods, foods
intended for infants or even various beverages, are also
subject to specific regulations.
Labeling of certain non-food products must also contain
particular information, in order to guarantee their safe
use and allow consumers to exercise real choice. In
addition, the packaging of foodstuffs must adhere to
production criteria in order to avoid contaminating food
THE PURPOSE OF A LABEL
To provide consumers with information on the product
To advertise the product
To distinguish the product from that of competitors
(establish a brand)
It is a legal requirement
IMPORTANT POINTS TO CONSIDER IN LABELING
The design of a label and the quality of the paper or other materials
that are used is of critical importance in promoting the product. In
general a simple, uncluttered image on the label is better than a
complex design. The brand name or the name of the company should
stand out clearly and if pictures are used, they should be an accurate
representation of the product or its main raw material.
Color can be used to produce either a realistic picture (full color
printing) or blocks of one or two bold colors to emphasize a particular
feature. Care is needed when choosing colors as they are culturally very
significant and have a direct effect on peoples’ perceptions of the
product. For example, in many societies white is associated with death,
whereas in others, it is red or black. In some areas, browns, ochre and
greens are associated with ‘nature’ or natural unprocessed products,
with an image of health and good quality. In others, bright oranges and
yellows can either mean excitement or cheap, low quality products.
In view of the importance of labels, producers
should pay the highest price that they can afford to
obtain the best possible quality. Professional
designers or graphic artists may be located at
universities, art schools or in commercial agencies
and these should be employed to produce a range of
ideas. These can then be discussed with the Bureau
of Standards and then a printer to obtain quotations
before a final decision is made. Most printers require
a print run of several thousand labels and great care
should be taken to check the design for errors before
printing, as these would be very costly and time
consuming to correct during production.