The many sources of a leader’s power and their differences.
The many facets involved in an integrative sales manger’s model of leadership.
That supervision, coaching, and counseling are important leadership activities.
L EARNING O BJECTIVES The leader of a sales force must have a firm grasp of his or her power and of the leadership behaviors from which to choose. This chapter should help you understand:
T HE N ATURE OF L EADERSHIP Leadership is the ability to influence other people toward the attainment of objectives.
L EADERS V ERSUS M ANAGERS Management is the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through:
Controlling organizational resources
A sales manager is a person whose job is the management of sales resources – people and budgets. Leading is part of the manager’s directing function.
FIGURE 14.1 THE SALES MANAGER’S BEHAVIOR IS AN IMPORTANT INFLUENCE ON THE SALESPERSON’S DECISION ON HOW MUCH EFFORT TO PUT INTO THE JOB
AN INTEGRATIVE SALES MANAGER’S MODEL OF LEADERSHIP Six factors are important for the attainment of acceptable performance levels:
1. The sales manager.
2. The sales manager’s behavior and activities.
3. The salesperson.
Six factors are important for the attainment of acceptable performance levels: continued
4. The sales group.
5. The situation.
6. The salesperson’s behavior.
FIGURE 14.2 A SITUATIONAL MODEL OF LEADERSHIP FOR SALES PERSONNEL Influence Sales Manager
Needs and Motives
Past Experience and
The Task Being Faced
Needs and Motives
Sales Manager's Behavior and Activities
T HE S ALES M ANAGER P ERSONALITY C HARACTERISTICS N EEDS AND M OTIVES P OWER P AST E XPERIENCE AND R EINFORCEMENT
Power is the ability to influence the behavior of others.
Legitimate power comes from a formal management position in an organization and the authority granted to that position.
Reward power stems from the leader’s authority to bestow rewards on other people.
Coercive power is the opposite of reward power: it is the leader’s authority to punish or recommend punishment.
Expert power is the result of a leader’s special knowledge or skill regarding the tasks followers perform.
Referent power comes from the leader’s personality characteristics that command followers’ identification, respect, and admiration, so they wish to emulate the leader.
T HE S ALES M ANAGER’S B EHAVIOR AND A CTIVITIES The sales manager’s personality characteristics, needs and motives, power, and past experiences have a direct influence on the person’s natural leadership style. Natural refers to how the person really would prefer to behave toward a salesperson.
B EHAVIOR I NFLUENCES S ALESPEOPLE A leader exhibits task behavior when describing the duties and responsibilities of an individual or group. Relationship behavior is the extent to which the leader uses two-way communication, not the one-way communication of task behavior.
FIGURE 14.3 FOUR BASIC LEADERSHIP STYLES THAT INFLUENCE SALESPEOPLE
Style 1: Tells Above-average levels of task behavior and below-average levels of relationship behavior.
Style 2: Persuades Above-average amounts of both task and relationship behavior.
Style 3: Participates Above-average levels of relationship behavior and below-average levels of task behavior.
Style 4: Delegates Below-average levels of both task behavior and relationship behavior.
FIGURE 14.4 THE LEADERSHIP STYLES IN TERMS OF TASK AND RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIOR
The situation itself can influence the sales manager’s behavior and effectiveness. Four factors that influence the leader’s effectiveness are:
T HE B OTTOM L INE As one of the most important elements affecting sales force performance, leadership is defined as a process by which one individual attempts to influence the activities of others on matters of importance in a given situation. Power is a tool sales managers use to influence the sales force. The choice of leadership behaviors to use depends on the relationships involved in the integrative leadership model. The sales manager’s behavior is based on that individual’s personality, needs and motives, power, and past experience.
The appropriate leadership style depends a great deal on the individual salesperson. The sales group is the third factor in the integrative leadership model. Circumstances surrounding an individual situation, such as the task faced and the amount of time allotted to complete the task, also can affect a leader’s management style. Organizational factors also have a bearing on a leader’s effectiveness. The final factor in the integrative leadership model is the salesperson’s behavior. T HE B OTTOM L INE