What influences the intensity of the behavioral arousal?
What directs the person’s behavior?
How is this behavior maintained over time?
In any discussion about the motivation of salespeople, the following four questions need to be considered:
Motivation refers to the arousal, intensity, direction, and persistence of effort directed toward job tasks over a period of time.
T HE S ALES M OTIVATIONAL M IX Motivational Mix – The arousal, intensity, direction, and persistence of people’s behavior. Extrinsic Outcomes – Rewards obtained from individuals’ environment. Intrinsic Outcomes – Occur purely from the performance of the task itself.
TABLE 12.1 THE SEVEN COMPONENTS OF THE SALES MOTIVATIONAL MIX AND EXAMPLES OF EACH MOTIVATIONAL METHOD
D EVELOP A S ALES C ULTURE Sales culture refers to a set of key values, ideas, beliefs, attitudes, customs, and other capabilities and habits shared or acquired as a member of the sales group.
Many companies use a specific saying, slogan, metaphor, or other language form to convey special meaning to employees.
TABLE 12.2 EXAMPLES OF CULTURAL VALUES AND BELIEFS AND THEIR IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN THE SALES FORCE
W HAT’S IN I T FOR M E? Expectancy theory is based on the assumption that salespeople have expectancies about what they should receive from their employer as a result of their work efforts.
Expectancy is the salesperson’s estimate of the probability that expending a given amount of effort on a task will lead to an improved level of performance on some dimension. W HAT I S THE P ROBABILITY OF S UCCESS?
FIGURE 12.1 FOUR QUESTIONS SALESPEOPLE ASK TO DETERMINE HOW MUCH EFFORT THEY WILL DEVOTE TO THEIR JOBS. Motivation to Work “ What Is the Probability of Success?” Performance Level “ Will I Be Rewarded for Success?” Rewards Intrinsic Extrinsic “ Are the Rewards Worth It?” Equity Determination Inputs vs. Outputs “ Are the Rewards Fair?” Satisfaction Intrinsic Extrinsic Feedback
The salesperson’s estimate of the probability that achieving an improved level of performance dimension will lead to increased attainment of a particular reward or outcome may be defined as instrumentality. W ILL I B E R EWARDED FOR S UCCESS?
Valence for rewards refers to the value the salesperson places on the reward. A RE THE R EWARDS W ORTH I T?
FIGURE 12.3 A SALESPERSON’S BEHAVIORAL MODEL HELPS ILLUSTRATE MOTIVATIONAL PROCESS
G ET TO KNOW THE PERSONAL SIDE OF SALESPERSONS! U NDERSTAND THE S ALESPERSON’S M OTIVATIONAL B EHAVIOR
M ATCH P EOPLE’S M OTIVES WITH I NCENTIVES T HEY V ALUE Incentives are aspects of the environment that appeal to the salesperson’s motives and have enough worth to motivate purposeful behavior to obtain them.
Incentives that motivate people to do their best are high motivators.
Examples of high motivators:
Rewards for successes
Recognition for achievement
Freedom to manage oneself
Training and sales meetings
Incentive compensation plans
Incentives that motivate little or not at all or, if incentives are absent, that demotivate are low motivators.
Examples of low motivators:
Company policy and procedures
Sales managers would do well to explore different aspects of incentives. Several things to consider are:
Some salespeople like material incentives versus nonmaterial incentives.
The attraction to short-range incentives versus long-range incentives.
Positive incentives in most instances motivate more successfully than negative incentives.
Six keys to managing a successful incentive program:
Identify the business goal you hope to target.
Communicate the business needs to your salespeople.
Listen to your salespeople.
Make sure the goals are reachable.
Don’t repeat the same programs over and over.
Don’t try to do everything at once.
M OTIVATIONAL C OACHING IS N EEDED FOR H IGH- P ERFORMANCE R ESULTS SALESPEOPLE HAVE BOUNDARY POSITIONS Salespeople are involved in meeting both the needs of their customers and the needs of their company.
Salespeople experience role ambiguity when they do not possess the information necessary to adequately perform their jobs. Salespeople experience role conflict when conflicting, inconsistent, or incompatible job demands occur from two or more people.
FIGURE 12.4 ROLE PERCEPTIONS INFLUENCE PERFORMANCE
T HE B OTTOM L INE To achieve company and individual objectives, salespeople need to be motivated. The first component involves an understanding of the motivational concept. The second component in a motivational program is a high-performance sales culture. Salespeople have basic needs that influence behavior and lead to goal attainment.
T HE B OTTOM L INE A realization that salespeople want to know “what’s in it for them” is the fourth component. Knowing the theory of motivation is not enough. Proper motivational coaching is the sixth component of the motivational program. Being realistic about motivating salespeople is the final part of the program.