P ART  IV T RAINING THE  S ALES  T EAM
C HAPTER  10 T HE  M ANAGEMENT OF  S ALES  T RAINING AND  D EVELOPMENT
<ul><li>What sales training is and what its purposes are. </li></ul><ul><li>How to plan a sales training program, includin...
W HAT IS  S ALES  T RAINING? Sales training is the effort an employer puts forth to provide sales people job-related cultu...
R EENGINEERING  T RAINING On-time training, one-on-one coaching, and behavioral-change training are just some of the strat...
C HANGE  B RINGS  A BOUT  T RAINING  R EENGINEERING
P URPOSES OF  S ALES  T RAINING <ul><ul><li>Increasing customer satisfaction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helping salespeop...
P URPOSES OF  S ALES  T RAINING <ul><ul><li>Lowering selling costs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informing salespeople. </li...
FIGURE 10.1 A SALES TRAINING MODEL – DETERMINE HOW TO EVALUATE TRAINING WHEN PLANNING
P HASE  O NE:  P LANNING FOR  S ALES  T RAINING The first step when developing or maintaining an ongoing sales training pr...
O RGANIZATIONAL  A NALYSIS <ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass </li></ul></...
O PERATIONAL  A NALYSIS A difficulty analysis uncovers and analyzes problems salespeople experience.
S ALES  P ERSONNEL  A NALYSIS The behavioral objectives identify the goals of the training program for both the trainer an...
C USTOMER  A NALYSIS Incorporate “the voice of the customer.”
M AKING THE  N EEDS  A SSESSMENT <ul><ul><li>Identify the requirements of the position. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determi...
M AKING THE  N EEDS  A SSESSMENT  continued <ul><ul><li>Develop training objectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct th...
FIGURE 10.2 REVISION OF TRAINING PROGRAM BASED ON NEEDS ASSESSMENT
S OURCES OF  I NFORMATION FOR  D ETERMINING  T RAINING  N EEDS <ul><ul><li>Questionnaires. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inte...
Failure analysis determines the reasons low-performing salespeople fail to achieve their sales goals. Success analysis is ...
P HASE  T WO:  O RGANIZING FOR  S ALES  T RAINING <ul><ul><li>Training objectives to be accomplished. </li></ul></ul><ul><...
P HASE  T WO:  O RGANIZING FOR    S ALES  T RAINING  continued <ul><ul><li>Each trainee’s ability to learn and past  exper...
T ECHNOLOGY- B ASED  T RAINING  M ETHODS <ul><ul><li>Interactive multimedia training. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electroni...
R OLE  P LAYING In role playing the trainee acts out an event such as the sale of a good or service to a hypothetical buyer.
O N-THE- J OB  T RAINING The best and most frequently used training takes place on the job.
T RAINING  L EARNING  C URVES The shape of the learning curve indicates the extent to which the rate of learning increases...
Salespeople go through three phases of “usage” before true behavioral changes occur as a result of training. <ul><ul><li>A...
<ul><ul><li>The nature of the material itself. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The manner in which the material is  presented. ...
FIGURE 10.3 A HYPOTHETICAL S-SHAPED LEARNING CURVE WITH A PLATEAU
<ul><ul><li>Centralized training. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decentralized training. </li></ul></ul>W HERE  D OES  T RAINI...
<ul><ul><li>Training begins the first day of work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It continues throughout the career. </li></u...
P HASE  T HREE:  S TAFFING FOR  S ALES  T RAINING <ul><ul><li>Corporate staff trainers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales f...
P HASE  F OUR:  D IRECTING  T HE  S ALES  T RAINING  E FFORT Sales culture is the set of key values, ideas, beliefs, attit...
S UPPORT FROM THE  T OP L EADERSHIP PHASE FOUR: continued
P HASE  F IVE:  S ALES  T RAINING  E VALUATION <ul><ul><li>Determine what should be measured. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D...
<ul><li>Components to measure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><ul><li>Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presenter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OT...
Specific items to measure can be derived from training objectives. Items to measure:
<ul><ul><li>Questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><ul><li>After only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before/after </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before/after with control group ...
T HE  B OTTOM  L INE Effective sales training provides the foundation for an effective sales force. A director of a sales ...
T HE  B OTTOM  L INE  continued Once the training plans and evaluation procedures have been developed and organized, the n...
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Chapter 10

  1. 2. P ART IV T RAINING THE S ALES T EAM
  2. 3. C HAPTER 10 T HE M ANAGEMENT OF S ALES T RAINING AND D EVELOPMENT
  3. 4. <ul><li>What sales training is and what its purposes are. </li></ul><ul><li>How to plan a sales training program, including conducting a needs assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>That organizing a training program includes various training methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Who is involved in the staffing of a training program. </li></ul><ul><li>The motivating influence of a sales training culture. </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of an effective evaluation system. </li></ul>L EARNING O BJECTIVES To establish and maintain a productive sales force, an ongoing sales training program is essential. This chapter should help you understand:
  4. 5. W HAT IS S ALES T RAINING? Sales training is the effort an employer puts forth to provide sales people job-related culture, skills, knowledge, and attitudes that should result in improved performance in the selling environments.
  5. 6. R EENGINEERING T RAINING On-time training, one-on-one coaching, and behavioral-change training are just some of the strategies companies are applying to sales training curricula across the country.
  6. 7. C HANGE B RINGS A BOUT T RAINING R EENGINEERING
  7. 8. P URPOSES OF S ALES T RAINING <ul><ul><li>Increasing customer satisfaction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helping salespeople become managers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orienting new salespeople to the job. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving knowledge in areas such as product, company, competitors, or selling skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowering absenteeism and turnover. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positively influencing attitudes in such areas as job satisfaction. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. P URPOSES OF S ALES T RAINING <ul><ul><li>Lowering selling costs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informing salespeople. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtaining feedback from salespeople. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing sales in a particular product or customer category. </li></ul></ul>continued
  9. 10. FIGURE 10.1 A SALES TRAINING MODEL – DETERMINE HOW TO EVALUATE TRAINING WHEN PLANNING
  10. 11. P HASE O NE: P LANNING FOR S ALES T RAINING The first step when developing or maintaining an ongoing sales training program is assessing needs. Needs assessment entails determining the training needs of the sales force and setting objectives for satisfying those needs.
  11. 12. O RGANIZATIONAL A NALYSIS <ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul></ul>Four principles ensure a successful training effort:
  12. 13. O PERATIONAL A NALYSIS A difficulty analysis uncovers and analyzes problems salespeople experience.
  13. 14. S ALES P ERSONNEL A NALYSIS The behavioral objectives identify the goals of the training program for both the trainer and the trainee.
  14. 15. C USTOMER A NALYSIS Incorporate “the voice of the customer.”
  15. 16. M AKING THE N EEDS A SSESSMENT <ul><ul><li>Identify the requirements of the position. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the difference between performance objectives and results. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine why a difference exists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revise the training program (if needed). </li></ul></ul>This requires the following sequence:
  16. 17. M AKING THE N EEDS A SSESSMENT continued <ul><ul><li>Develop training objectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct the training program. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the training program. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revise the training program (if needed). </li></ul></ul>This requires the following sequence:
  17. 18. FIGURE 10.2 REVISION OF TRAINING PROGRAM BASED ON NEEDS ASSESSMENT
  18. 19. S OURCES OF I NFORMATION FOR D ETERMINING T RAINING N EEDS <ul><ul><li>Questionnaires. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests given during meetings for diagnostic purposes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct observation in the field. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyses of sales, profits, and activity reports. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Failure analysis determines the reasons low-performing salespeople fail to achieve their sales goals. Success analysis is used to identify factors that appear to make salespeople successful. Other ways to assess training needs: Exit interviews determine attitudes toward the job.
  20. 21. P HASE T WO: O RGANIZING FOR S ALES T RAINING <ul><ul><li>Training objectives to be accomplished. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of trainees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainer’s experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each salesperson’s understanding of the subject matter. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. P HASE T WO: O RGANIZING FOR S ALES T RAINING continued <ul><ul><li>Each trainee’s ability to learn and past experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training materials available. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The costs per trainee of each method. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extent of presession assignments. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. T ECHNOLOGY- B ASED T RAINING M ETHODS <ul><ul><li>Interactive multimedia training. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic performance support system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-tech customer service. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance learning. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. R OLE P LAYING In role playing the trainee acts out an event such as the sale of a good or service to a hypothetical buyer.
  24. 25. O N-THE- J OB T RAINING The best and most frequently used training takes place on the job.
  25. 26. T RAINING L EARNING C URVES The shape of the learning curve indicates the extent to which the rate of learning increases, levels off, or decreases with or without training and practice.
  26. 27. Salespeople go through three phases of “usage” before true behavioral changes occur as a result of training. <ul><ul><li>Awkward usage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscious usage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural usage. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><ul><li>The nature of the material itself. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The manner in which the material is presented. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time intervals between training. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The extent of follow-up and OTJ training. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The trainee’s attitude toward learning. </li></ul></ul>Plateaus The rate of learning change will be influenced by factors such as:
  28. 29. FIGURE 10.3 A HYPOTHETICAL S-SHAPED LEARNING CURVE WITH A PLATEAU
  29. 30. <ul><ul><li>Centralized training. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decentralized training. </li></ul></ul>W HERE D OES T RAINING T AKE P LACE?
  30. 31. <ul><ul><li>Training begins the first day of work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It continues throughout the career. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales meetings serve as important training methods. </li></ul></ul>W HEN D OES T RAINING O CCUR?
  31. 32. P HASE T HREE: S TAFFING FOR S ALES T RAINING <ul><ul><li>Corporate staff trainers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales force personnel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside training specialists. </li></ul></ul>W HO IS I NVOLVED IN T RAINING?
  32. 33. P HASE F OUR: D IRECTING T HE S ALES T RAINING E FFORT Sales culture is the set of key values, ideas, beliefs, attitudes, customs, and other capabilities and habits shared or acquired as a sales group member. T RAINING C ULTURE
  33. 34. S UPPORT FROM THE T OP L EADERSHIP PHASE FOUR: continued
  34. 35. P HASE F IVE: S ALES T RAINING E VALUATION <ul><ul><li>Determine what should be measured. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the information collection method. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the measurement methods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze the data, determine the results, and draw conclusions for making recommendations. </li></ul></ul>S TEPS IN THE E VALUATION
  35. 36. <ul><li>Components to measure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OTJ results </li></ul></ul>W HAT S HOULD B E M EASURED?
  36. 37. <ul><ul><li>Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presenter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OTJ results </li></ul></ul>Groups to Evaluate:
  37. 38. Specific items to measure can be derived from training objectives. Items to measure:
  38. 39. <ul><ul><li>Questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Company data </li></ul></ul>What should be the information collection method?
  39. 40. <ul><ul><li>After only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before/after </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before/after with control group </li></ul></ul>What should be the measurement methods?
  40. 41. T HE B OTTOM L INE Effective sales training provides the foundation for an effective sales force. A director of a sales training program can divide the program into five equally important phases. Planning the sales training program, step one, involves determining the sales force’s training needs and establishing objectives to meet these needs. After the plans have been made, the next step is organizing the program.
  41. 42. T HE B OTTOM L INE continued Once the training plans and evaluation procedures have been developed and organized, the next step is to determine who will do the actual training. The fourth phase in the sales training program deals with directing the training effort. Evaluation is the fifth and final phase in a sales training program.
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