THE greatest soul in the world MAHATMA GANDHI “BAPU”
MohandasKaramchandGandhi was bornon 2 October 1869in Porbandar,Gujarat commonlyknown asMahatmaGandhi. Hisfather’s name wasKaramchandGandhi andmother’ namewas Putlibai.
In May 1883, the13-year-oldMohandas wasmarried to 14-year-old KasturbaiMakhanji (herfirst name wasusuallyshortened to"Kasturba“.
In 1888, Gandhi travelled to London, England, to study law at University College London where he studied Indian law and jurisprudence and to train as a barrister at the Inner Temple.His attempts at establishing a law practice in Bombay failedbecause he was too shy to speak up in court. He returned toRajkot to make a modest living drafting petitions for litigantsbut was forced to close it when he ran afoul of a Britishofficer.
Gandhi spent 21 yearsin South Africa, wherehe developed hispolitical views, ethicsand political leadershipskills. Indians in SouthAfrica were led bywealthy Muslims, whoemployed Gandhi as alawyer, and byimpoverished Hinduindentured laborerswith very limited rights.
Reactions to blacks After the black majority came to power in South Africa, Gandhi was proclaimed a national hero with numerous monuments.Gandhi focused his attention on Indians in South Africa, but historians have also examined his changing ideas on the proper role for blacks. White rule enforced strict segregation among all races and generated conflict between these communities. At first Gandhi shared racial notions prevalent in the 1890s. Bhana and Vahed argue that Gandhis experiences in jail sensitized him toM.K. Gandhi while the plight of blacks. "His negative views in theserving in the Johannesburg jail were reserved for hardenedAmbulance Corpsduring the Second African prisoners rather than AfricansBoer War (1899) generally."
Gandhis first major achievements came in 1918 with the Champaran and Kheda agitations of Bihar and Gujarat. The Champaran agitation pitted the local peasantry against their largely British landlords whoGandhi in 1918, at the time were backed by the localof the Kheda and administration.Champaran Satyagrahas
Mahatma Gandhi spinning yarn, in late 1920With Congress now behind him in 1920,Gandhi had the base to employ non-cooperation, non-violence and peacefulresistance as his "weapons" in the struggleagainst the British Raj.
Under his leadership, the Sabarmati Ashram,Congress was reorganised with Gandhis home in Gujarata new constitution, with thegoal of Swaraj. Membership inthe party was opened to anyoneprepared to pay a token fee. Ahierarchy of committees was setup to improve discipline,transforming the party from anelite organisation to one of massnational appeal. Gandhiexpanded his non-violenceplatform to includethe swadeshi policy—theboycott of foreign-made goods,especially British goods.
Salt Satyagraha (Salt March)Gandhi stayed out of active politics and, as such,the limelight for most of the 1920s. He focusedinstead on resolving the wedge between theSwaraj Party and the Indian National Congress,and expanding initiatives against untouchability,alcoholism, ignorance and poverty. He returnedto the fore in 1928. In the preceding year, theBritish government had appointed a newconstitutional reform commission under Sir JohnSimon, which did not include any Indian as itsmember. The result was a boycott of thecommission by Indian political parties.
World War II and Quit India Gandhi and Nehru in 1942Gandhi initially favoured offering"non-violent moral support" to theBritish effort when World War II brokeout in 1939, but the Congressionalleaders were offended by theunilateral inclusion of India in the warwithout consultation of the peoplesrepresentatives. All Congressmenresigned from office. After longdeliberations, Gandhi declared thatIndia could not be party to a warostensibly being fought for democraticfreedom while that freedom wasdenied to India itself. Gandhi and Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Bombay, 1944
Partition and independence, 1947As a rule, Gandhi was opposed to the concept of partition as itcontradicted his vision of religious unity.Concerning the partition ofIndia to create Pakistan, while the Indian National Congress and Gandhicalled for the British to quit India, the Muslim League passed aresolution for them to divide and quit, in 1943. Gandhi suggested anagreement which required the Congress and Muslim League tocooperate and attain independence under a provisional government,thereafter, the question of partition could be resolved by a plebiscite inthe districts with a Muslim majority.When Jinnahcalled for DirectAction, on 16 August 1946, Gandhi was infuriated and visited the mostriot prone areas to stop the massacres, personally. He made strongefforts to unite the Indian Hindus, Muslims and Christians and struggledfor the emancipation of the "untouchables" in Hindu society.On the 14and 15 August 1947 the Indian Independence Act was invoked. In borderareas some 10—12 million people moved from one side to another andupwards of a half million were killed in communal riots pitting Hindus,Muslims and Sikhs.
Assassination of Mohandas Karamchand GandhiOn 30 January 1948, Gandhi was shot while he was walking to aplatform from which he was to address a prayer meeting. Theassassin, Nathuram Godse, was a Hindu nationalist with links to theextremist Hindu Mahasabha, who held Gandhi responsible forweakening India by insisting upon a payment to Pakistan.Godse andhis co-conspirator Narayan Apte, were later tried and convicted; theywere executed on 15 November 1949. Gandhis memorial at Rajghat,New Delhi, bears the epigraph "Hē Ram”
“Before you do anything, stop and recall the face of the poorest most helpless destitute person you have seen and ask yourself, “Is what I am about to do going to help him?”“We must become the change we want to see in the world.” “There are times when you have to obey a call which is the highest of all, i.e. the voice of conscience even though such obedience may cost many a bitter tear, and even more, separation from friends, from family, from the state, to which you may belong, from all that you have held as dear as life itself. For this obedience is the law of our being. ”Thankyou to see my presentation