Sources of Adolescent stress or Adolescent Stressors are again varied – but if we try to organize them in groups – I hope this is a good workable plan – although I am a very poor organizer – but I do not know how I could do it nicely - I feel all of us should have a very clear understanding of these stressors, as only then we can eliminate them from our dear adolescents. - Let us see them one by one - PSYCHIATRY DEPARTMENT BVCON PUNE
As If a boy has gone for a outing with her GF and they met an accident, and girl has broken her leg, now the boy has to inform her parents, his own parents, deal with the police, deal with the local public etc… just imagine the amount of nervousness – specially if his/her parents are like me – who have very fixed ideas about children and talk very little, similarly how impatient a girl or a boy is before his first dating. And if on the first date the girl asks for a dinner in a five star hotel, that too in a taxi to Dr Bansal’s son who hardly has 100 bucks in his pocket – think about his self image – it will certainly go down (does it mean I should keep 1000 in his pocket so that he can entertain many GFs not only one !) This decreased low self image coupled with nervousness and impatient behavior will lead to frustrations and this can be manifested either by depression when after returning he will not talk to any one – will sit very quite – looking in sky – or to the vacant wall – as if he is trying to count brush marks on the wall. Or he will start reacting violently – throwing objects and taking even the trivial remarks as very serious assaults on his personality. PSYCHIATRY DEPARTMENT BVCON PUNE
Stress is a term we use to describe an imbalance between the demands of life and that person’s ability to meet those demands. Stress, like anything else, can follow typical developmental stages. Children usually pick up on our moods quickly. They are usually the first to know something is not right. Then they begin to worry and assume that the thing wrong is their fault. PSYCHIATRY DEPARTMENT BVCON PUNE
Talk about the difference between feelings and emotions. Anger versus Fear
90% of our behavior is unconscious. What if…my child doesn’t clean his room, he’ll be messy for life.
D.H. Meichenbaum, “Cognitive Modification of Test Anxious College Students”, Journel of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol.39, 1972, pp 370-378
PSYCHIATRY DEPARTMENT BVCON PUNE
STRESSMANAGEMENT Presented by:- Mr. Suresh Kumar Sharma RN, MSN(PSYCHIATRY)
What do you understand byStress?• The way our body and •mind react to life changes
HELP ME! WHAT IS STRESS ?Stress is the reaction people have toexcessive pressures or other types ofdemand placed upon them. It arises whenthey worry that they can’t cope.
I HATE YOU WHAT IS STRESS ?Stress is the “wear and tear” our minds andbodies experience as we attempt to copewith our continually changing environment
DEFINITIO N An adaptive response to an internal & external situation that results in physical, psychological and behavioural deviations Adaptation – a coping up mechanism S=P>RStress occurs when the pressure is greater than the resource
Adolescents and stress ? Teens are under more stress Since adolescence is a period of significant changes physical, emotional, social, and academic changes many than at any other time of life.
Where does stress come from ? Stress can come from Inside - – INTERNAL STRESSOR:- – Body image – Not happy with the way you look – self-conscious feel everyone is staring at you Stress can come from Outside EXTERNAL STRESSOR:- i.e. surroundings, environment – Family …….. – School …. – Friends /Peers … – Society …. – Others ……
Stresses physical – Prolonged school hours – Over-packed class rooms – Transport – Pollution air, noise – Overcrowding road – Poor ventilation – Bad furniture
Stresses psychological – Bullies, – Changing schools, – Conflicts with teacher, – Forced competitiveness, – Falling grades, – Have to present in class – Learning disorders, – Special recognition
Stress psychosocial Relationships Peers – – You want to spend time with peers but without parental supervision – Their opinions more important than that of parents Conflicts with parents, friends Media internet Secret lives ……
How do we react to stress? Reaction – FFF (Fight – Flight – Freeze)ULTIMATELY how each person reacts will decide how STRESS will affect YOUThis means that whether we get “stressed out or not” depends mainly on US
HEALTHY RESPONSE TO STRESS1. LAS 2. GAS LOCAL ADAPTION SYNDROME(LAS)-Eg. Wound healing, blood clotting, accommodation of eye to light Characteristic of stress response- Localised Adaptive - stimulation of stressor is necessary. Natural & protective- catecholamine HR & BP
Characteristic of stress responseIN LAS- LIMITS IN ABILITY TO COMPENSATE MAGNITUDE & DURATION IS GREAT THAT HOMEOSTATIC MECHANISM FOR ADJUSTMENT FAIL, LEADING TO DEATH. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES. RESPONSE IS SHORT TERM. RESTORATIVE
Signs and Symptoms of Stress Physical Poor appetite or overeating Feeing tired and fatigued Various aches and pains ---headache body ache muscle pain Nausea & abdominal Pain Sleep problems Falling sick very often e.g. fever cough cold diarrhea ( because of lowering of immunity due to stress)
Mental Feeling low Nervousness and Anxiety Excessive Anger Depression Being easily upset Poor self confidence Low self esteem Lack of Concentration Poor performance in studies
Is STRESS good or bad for us ? Some amount of stress is essential for us to excel in life. This is good stress or “EUSTRESS” Butwhen stress is too much then it reduces performance. This is bad stress or “DISTRESS “
The Stress Model TheStress Model helps us understand differently the behavior . The Stress Model states: – All behavior arises from a state of stress. – In between the stress and behavior is the presence of an emotion. – The emotion is either love or fear. – It is through the expression, processing, and understanding of the emotion that we can calm the stress and diminish the behavior.
Stress We must first be aware of our own stress before we can begin to address the stress in others. Let’s dissect these situations. What stresses do you face each day? – Work related? Home related? System related?
Stress Thinkabout the situations that prompted you to come here today… – What is it about this particular situation that is so stressful? – Where in your life has this situation occurred before?
STIMULUS-BASED MODEL:-(Holmes and Rahes model-1960) Stress:- a stimulus , a life event, or a set of circumstances that arouses physiologic & psychological reactions that may increase the individual’s vulnerability to illness.
SRRS(SOCIAL READJUSTMENTSRATING SCALE) 43 life changes or events. Both positive & negative in nature. Considered stressful. Identify the Effect of stressor in person’s life. If stressor is more in short period(1-2yr) then more likely physical illnesses, mental disorders or other stress response will follow.
SRRS MEASURING SRRS SCORE STRESS HIGH SRRS SCORE STRESS LOW But results are depends on mediating factor – Eg. Coping strategies, – Role of stressor, perception of individual etc.
RESPONSE-BASED MODEL(SELYES STRESS RESPONSE) HANS SELYE, 1945 PHYSIOLOGIC EVENTS AS GAS
TRANSACTION-BASED MODEL(LOZARAS, 1966) Cognitive, affective & adaptive(coping) response that arise from person-environment tractions. Environment & person is not separable. Environment changes person responds with coping response. Different individual show different reaction to response. Eg. Illness respone one denial, another anxiety, still another depression
Applying The Stress Model Absolutely, the first step when we are triggered in our stress is to ACKNOWLEDGE our stress!BREATHE! Stress causes us to: – React from the past – Obsess about the future – Take us out of the present
Applying the Stress Model Acceptance – we must develop an accepting relationship with individual. We must also teach the parents about acceptance and model this for them. Understanding – this is really seen in our perception of the child’s behavior. If we see anger, we do not truly understand this child. What is your child trying to communicate through their behavior?
Applying the Stress Model Empathy – Defined as the ability to experience and identify with the emotional state of another person. Empathy and reflecting feelings does not mean we have to agree. It means that we get what is going on. Patience – We ourselves must be emotionally regulated in order to exercise patience.
Applying the Stress Model Trust – Our children trusting us may be more important than our trust in our children. Love – Takes effort, love is in the action of doing all the things above. – This is the opposite of fear. We must know love in order to teach and model love. This is what we want to replace fear.
Applying the Stress Model Training – “form habits, thoughts, or behaviors by discipline and instruction” Affection – physical contact can be calming Structure – chaotic vs. organized- home vs. school? Expectations – be clear and communicate them, clarify that the child understands
Applying the Stress Model Time-In – “I see that you are in need of something, come and sit beside me until you feel better.” When we think a child is acting out to get attention, it is because a child needs attention. Mentoring – connect this child to another adult outside the parent/child relationship. Awareness – Early identification of stress Containment – keep the child in a space of more direct proximity to the teacher than what may be needed for other students.
Applying the Stress Model Team – the power and importance of a team working with this youth is vital. Reduced Peer Interaction – match the developmental needs of the youth.
Applying The Stress Model Reacting versus responding – Flexibility versus Rigidity – Windows of Tolerance Trauma – Our relationship blueprints are affected by the trauma we experience.
Summary Understanding our own stress before we engage with a child is sure to help reduce the child’s stress. A child’s behavior is a way of communicating that he/she is stressed and needs regulation. Adults are responsible for teaching and modeling regulation. Understanding the stress underlying the behavior assists us in helping a child change his/her behavior.
Is STRESS good or bad forus ? All stresses can be GOODSo all efforts should be to convert allstresses into EUSTRESS –This can beachieved by stress management techniques
STRESS IN ADOLESCENTSADOLESCENT FRIENDLY SCHOOL INITIATIVE AND ITS MANAGEMENT
STRESS MANAGEMENTMANAGE AT ALL THE THREE LEVEL – PSYCHOLOGICAL LEVEL: MEDITATION, REASSESSING OUR THOUGHTS & FEELINGS – PHYSICAL LEVEL: EXERCISES, YOGA, PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES – BEHAVIOURAL LEVEL: RESPONDING WITH EQUANIMITY AND CALMNESSIF the distress crosses the threshold level medical problems like Depression, Anxiety disorders, Hypertension etc. sets in. seek medical help from a qualified medical practitioner
SUGGESTED COPINGSTRATEGIES Take life the way it comes Stop blaming others Develop your own inherent potential Live in the present & Work for the future Maintain harmonious relation with others Learn to be happy & cheerful
SUGGESTED COPINGSTRATEGIES Respond to situations with equanimity, detachment, courage, determination Avoid negative emotional reactions like anger, grumbling, worrying and apprehensions. Create a supportive climate Redesign and enrich the job content* Reduce conflict & clarify roles Seek professional counseling
Meichenbaum’s approach tostress management1. Teaching individuals that negative self- evaluation increase stress2. Monitoring one’s own self-defeating strategies – teaching new cognitive strategies3. Teaching new skills like relaxation4. Providing real life homework assignment that become increasingly difficult to carry out
CONCLUSION Stress is manageable -It needs efforts Engage truthful thinking Modulate your behavioral pattern Lead a well balanced life of satisfaction. Assert control on self in terms of thinking & actionADAPTABILITY IS THE “MOTHER KEY” TO CONVERT DISTRESS TO EUSTRESS
Stress Management Tips Making little changes in your life can really add up to a big feeling of relief. Learn to recognize when you are feeling stressed and simple ways you can relax. Take a break. Have a cold drink, get some fresh air, or close your eyes for a minute to refocus. Stay positive to help friends and family cope with stress. Let others know youre feeling overwhelmed and tell them how they can help. Allow yourself to simply say "no" to friends and family when you know you cannot meet their demands without becoming overwhelmed.
Stress Management Tips Be prepared for unexpected problems such as traffic, a lost pet or a family emergency. Prioritize. Take control of your "to do" list by deciding whats really most important on your list. Write down feelings of sadness, frustration or anger to get a clearer perspective of your emotions. Enjoy lifes simple pleasures like colorful flowers, dancing, music, and social outings, etc.
Stress Management Plan Exercise regularly. Have healthy eating habits never skip breakfast Reduce sedentary activities like TV Video games etc. Eat healthy nutritious food. Avoid Junk food . Avoid excess caffeine intake eg tea coffee chocolates and cola drinks Do NOT TAKE QUICK FIX REMEDIES like alcohol tobacco and drugs‘as they have long term and very harmful effects on your body and mind ‘’.
Stress Management Plan Practice time management Learn relaxation exercises. Rehearse and practice situations. Learn practical coping skills. Decrease negative self talk. Learn to feel good with a workable result – Don’t be a perfectionist. Build a network of friends.
METHODS OF ACHIEVINGRELAXATION:-1. Deep-breathing exercises:- Oxygen inserted so tension released.(sobel & ornstein,1996) Reducing anxiety, depression, irritability, muscular tension and fatigue. It can be done at anywhere and at any time. 3 0r 4 time a day or whenever feels tenseness.
ABC STRATEGY A = AWARENESS What causes you stress? How do you react?
ABC STRATEGY B = BALANCE There is a fine line between positive / negative stress How much can you cope with before it becomes negative ?
ABC STRATEGY C = CONTROL What can you do to help yourself combat the negative effects of stress ?
Stress Management Techniques Change your thinking Change your behaviour Change your lifestyle
Change your Thinking Re-framing Positive thinking
RE-FRAMING Re-framing is a technique to change the way you look at things in order to feel better about them. There are many ways to interpret the same situation so pick the one you like. Re- framing does not change the external reality, but helps you view things in a different light and less stressfully.
Positive Thinking Forget powerlessness, dejection, failure Stress leaves us vulnerable to negative suggestion so focus on positives; Focus on your strengths Learn from the stress you are under Look for opportunities Seek out the positive - make a change.
Change your Behaviour Be assertive Get organised Ventilation Humour Diversion and distraction
Be Assertive Assertiveness helps to manage stressful situations, help to reduce their frequency.Lack of assertiveness often shows low self - esteem and low self - confidence. The key to assertiveness is verbal and non - verbal communication. Extending our range of communication skills will improve our assertiveness.
Equality and Basic Rights1) The right to express my feelings2) The right to express opinions / beliefs3) The right to say ‘Yes/No’ for yourself4) Right to change your mind5) Right to say ‘I don’t understand’6) Right to be yourself, not acting for the benefit of others
7) The right to decline responsibility for other people’s problems8) The right to make reasonable requests of others9) The right to set my own priorities10) The right to be listened to, and taken seriously
Being Assertive Being assertive involves standing up for your personal rights and expressing your thoughts, feelings and beliefs directly, honestly and spontaneously in ways that don’t infringe the rights of others.
Assertive People Respect themselves and others Take responsibility for actions and choices Ask openly for what they want Disappointed if ‘want’ denied Self - confidence remains intact Not reliant on the approval of others
Assertive Skills Establish good eye contact / don’t stare Stand or sit comfortably - don’t fidget Talk in a firm, steady voice Use body language ‘I think’ / ‘I feel’ ‘What do you think?’ ‘How do you feel ?’ Concise and to the point
Benefits Higher self-esteem Less self-conscious Less anxious Manage stress more successfully Appreciate yourself and others more easily Feeling of self-control
Get OrganisedPoor organisation is one of the most common causes of stress.Prioritising objectives, duties and activities makes them manageable and achievable.Don’t overload your mind.Organisation will help avoid personal and professional chaos.
Time Management Make a list What MUST be done What SHOULD be done What would you LIKE to do Cut out time wasting Learn to drop unimportant activities Say no or delegate
Plan your day Set achievable goals Don’t waste time making excuses for not doing something
Ventilation ‘A problem shared is a problem halved’ Develop a support network through friends or colleagues to talk with. It’s not always events that are stressful but how we perceive them. Writing a diary or notes may help release feelings but do not re-read what has been written.
Humour Good stress - reducer Applies at home and work Relieves muscular tension Improves breathing Pumps endorphins into the bloodstream - the body’s natural painkillers
Diversion and Distraction Take time out Get away from things that bother you Doesn’t solve the problem Reduce stress level Calm down Think logically
Diet Healthyeating habits Caffeine (Stimulant) Salt
Smoking and Alcohol Moderate your consumption
Exercise Uses up excess energy released by the ‘Fight or Flight’ reaction. Improves blood circulation Lowers blood pressure Clears the mind of worrying thoughts Improves self image Makes you feel better about yourself Increases social contact
Sleep Good stress reducer Difficult to cope when tired Wake refreshed after night’s sleep Plenty of daytime energy
Leisure Interest Gives you a ‘break’ from stresses Provides outlet for relief Provides social contact
Stress Management Plan:How to seek help to destressTalk and confide to a person whom you trust : friend, parent, teacher, relative, etc. If you feel that you are not able to cope with your distress do not hesitate to go to your - school counselor /family doctor/ adolescent pediatrician
How do you recognize that youneed professional help ? Deteriorating school performance Inability to sleep or excessive sleep Losing or gaining weight Feeling low or tired all the time Mood swings : crying, getting angry Not wanting to talk to anybody
The only difference between adiamond and a lump of coal is that thediamond had a little more pressure put on it. – ANONYMOUS
KEY POINTS STRESS is very common Use stress in a positive way – Limit NOT eliminate stress. – Use it to improve your performance. Learn Coping Skills
Research on stress:-Problem statement:- “ A STUDY ON STRESS MANAGEMENT OF WORKING WOMEN IN COIMBATORE DISTRICT”DR. M. DHANABHAKYAM*; V. ANITHA***Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce,Bharathiar University, Coimbatore - 46.**Ph.D Fulltime Scholar, Department of Commerce,Bharathiar University, Coimbatore - 46.
Objective:-(i) To study the kind and level of stress faced by working women in the study area.(ii) To identify the sources of stress of working women.(iii) To identify the impact of stress of working women.(iv) To identify the physical reactions faced by the working women due to high level of stress.
•RESEARCH DESIGN descriptive research design. data collection from the primary sources.sampling techniques :-Non -probability convenient .sample :-300 working womenPopulation:- among the working women of Coimbatore District.
Tools for Data analysis:- (a) Percentage Analysis:- (b) Henry Garrett Ranking:- (c) Two way table ANOVA:-
CONCLUSION:- Finally this study concluded that the information technology supported and fast growing work environment, stress is an inevitable one. Working women population has also in the growth stage. Working women face stress in managing their personal life with work life.
PROBLEM STATEMENT:- Stress management: a randomized study of cognitive behavioural therapy and yoga. Granath J, Ingvarsson S, von Thiele U, Lundberg U.Source Department of Psychology and Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. In this study, a stress management program based on cognitive behavioural therapy principles was compared with a Kundalini yoga program.
Sample & sampling tecnique:- 26 women and 7 men from a large Swedish company were divided randomly into 2 groups for each of the different forms of intervention. a total of 4 groups. . The groups were instructed by trained group leaders and 10 sessions were held with each of groups, over a period of 4 months.
FINDINGS Psychological:- self-rated stress and stress behaviour, anger, exhaustion, quality of life. Physiological:- blood pressure, heart rate, urinary catecholamine, salivary cortisol. measurements obtained before and after treatment showed significant improvements on most of the variables in both groups as well as medium-to-high effect sizes.
Conclusion:- However, no significant difference was found between the 2 programs. The results indicate that both cognitive behaviour therapy and yoga are promising stress management techniques.