Cerebellum by suresh aadi8888
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Cerebellum by suresh aadi8888

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detailed description about cerebellum

detailed description about cerebellum

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  • 1. CEREBELLUMPresented by:-Mr. Suresh Kumar SharmaRN, ACCN, MSN(PSYCHIATRY)BY1
  • 2. DIVISIONS OF THE BRAINForebrain Midbrain HindbrainCerebrumThalamusHypothalamusCerebral peduncleTectumBrainstemCerebellumPonsMedulla OblongataSagittal View of the Brain3
  • 3. FUNCTIONAL REGIONS OFTHE BRAINThe Cerebrum The Cerebellum The Brain Stem4
  • 4. ANATOMY OF THE CEREBRUMCerebralHemispheres(View from Above)LeftRight5
  • 5. FUNCTIONS OF THE CEREBRUMFrontal lobe:•Voluntary movement•Higher intellectual functionsTemporal lobe:•Speech & Sound•Complex visual perceptionsOccipital lobe:•VisionParietal lobe:•Sensory processes•Attention•Language6
  • 6. CONTRALATERAL FUNCTIONOF THE CEREBRUM7
  • 7. ANATOMY OF THE CEREBELLUM1. Left Cerebellar Hemisphere2. Right Cerebellar Hemisphere3. Vermis213Spinal cord8
  • 8. CEREBELLAR FUNCTIONS9
  • 9. ANATOMY OF THE BRAINSTEM10
  • 10. FUNCTION OF THE BRAINSTEMMidbrain:•Visual & auditory processing and reflexes•Fine-tuning of voluntary movementsPons:•Relay station for cerebellum•Control of sub-conscious movementMedulla Oblongata:•Control of cardiovascular functions•Control of respiration•Control of gastrointestinal functions11
  • 11. CEREBELLUMCEREBELLUM12
  • 12. GROSS ANATOMY OF CEREBELLUMGROSS ANATOMY OF CEREBELLUMLocation: The term cerebellum is from“Latin meaning” the little brain. part of the hindbrain situated inthe posterior cranial fossa. behind the Pons and medullaoblongata, separated from twostructures by the cavity of fourthventricle. It is covered by tentoriumcerebelli and is connected tobrain stem by three cerebellarpeduncles. In adults the weight ratiobetween cerebellum andcerebrum is 1:10,Infants 1:2013
  • 13. Consists of two laterally, largehemisphere which are united bymidline vermis.Cerebellar surface is divided bynumerous curve transversefissures giving it a laminatedappearanceOne conspicious fissure“horizontal fissure" extends arounddorsolateral border of eachhemisphere from middleCerebellar peduncle to vallecula,separating superior and inferiorsurfaceHorizontalfissureVermisHemisphereSuperior surfaceAnatomy of cerebellum......contd.14
  • 14. The deepest fissure in thevermis is primary fissure,which curves ventrolaterallyin the superior surface of thecerebellum to meethorizontal fissure.Primary fissure divides thecerebellum into anterior andposterior lobe.Primary fissureAnterior lobePosterior lobePrimary fissureExternal surface of cerebellum15
  • 15. Horizontal fissurevermisPrimary fissureAnteriorlobePosteriorlobeHemisphereExternal surface of cerebellum16
  • 16. Fourth ventricleArbor vitae cerebelliArbor vitae•In Latin “ tree of life” it isthe white matter of thecerebellum.•It is so called because ofthe tree like appearance.•It brings sensory andmotor sensation toand from cerebellum.17
  • 17. VermisHemisphereParts of the cerebellum18
  • 18. LOBES OFCEREBELLUMDivisions of lobesAnatomicalFlocculonodular lobeAnterior lobePosterior lobeAnterior lobePosterior lobeFlocculonodular lobeInferior surfaceSuperior surfaceAnterior lobePosterior lobe19
  • 19. Functional(Evolutionary) Paleocerebellum Neocerebellum ArchicerebellumDivision of lobes…..contd.20
  • 20. Archi-cerebellumposterior lobe(Vestibular part)•It isformed of the flocculo-nodularlobe + associated Fastigialnuclei, lying on inf. Surface infront of postero-lateral fissure.•Embryo logically, it is theoldest part of cerebellum.•It receives afferent Fibres.From vestibular apparatus ofinternal ear Via vestibulo-cerebellar tracts.•It is concerned withequilibriumNeocerebellumArchicerebellumPaleocerebellum21
  • 21. Paleo-cerebellum (spinalpart) •it isformed of midline vermis +surrounding paravermis +globose & emboliform nuclei.•It receives afferentproprioceptive impulses fromMs.& tendons Viaspinocerebellar tracts (dorsal& ventral) mainly.•it sends efferent to rednucleus of midbrain.•it is concerned with muscletone & posture.Paleocerebellum22
  • 22. Neo-cerebellum(cerebralpart)•It is the remaining largestpart of cerebellum.•It includes the most 2-cerebellar hemispheres +dendate nuclei.•It receives afferent impulsesfrom the cerebral cortex +Pons Via cerebroponto-cerebellar pathway.•it sends efferent to Ventrolateral nucleus of thalamus.•it controls voluntarymovements (muscleNeocerebellum23
  • 23. ArchicerebellumNodulusArchicerebellumflocculusPalaeocerebellumNeocerebellumSpinocerebellumPontocerebellumVestibulocerebelluSummary of classification24Classification byClassification byphylogeneticphylogeneticOntogenic developmentOntogenic development• ArchicerebellumArchicerebellum• PaleocerebllumPaleocerebllum• NeocerebellumNeocerebellumClassification by AfferentClassification by AfferentConnectionConnection• VestibulocerebellumVestibulocerebellum•SpinocerebellumSpinocerebellum•Ponto cerebellumPonto cerebellumClassification by EfferentClassification by EfferentConnectionConnection•VermisVermis•Paravermis RegionParavermis Region•Cerebellar HemisphereCerebellar Hemisphere
  • 24. 25
  • 25. 26
  • 26. INTERNAL STRUCTURE:-INTERNAL STRUCTURE:- Cerebellum consists ofouter layer of grey matterknown as cortex andinner layer of white matterknown as medulla. The medullary core iscomposed of incomingand outgoing fibresprojecting to and from theCerebellar cortex. Medullary core alsocontain the nucleuses ofthe cerebellum which arefour in number.27
  • 27. CortexMedullaStructure of cerebellum28
  • 28. Structure of Cerebellar……contd.Cerebellar Cortex:-Cerebellar Cortex:-Molecular LayerMolecular LayerPurkinje Cell LayerPurkinje Cell LayerGranular LayerGranular LayerCorpus Medullare (Medullary Center)Corpus Medullare (Medullary Center)Deep Cerebellar Nuclei:-Deep Cerebellar Nuclei:-Fastigial NucleiFastigial NucleiNucleus InterpositusNucleus InterpositusEmboliform NucleusEmboliform NucleusGlobose NucleusGlobose NucleusDentate NucleusDentate Nucleus29
  • 29. Dentate nucleusEmboliform nucleusGlobose nucleusFastigial nucleusNucleus InterpositusDeep nucleuses of cerebellum30
  • 30. White matter of the cerebellum Consists of three types of nerve fibres in thewhite matterA.Axons of purkinje cellsThe only axons to leave Cerebellar cortex to endin deepCerebellar nuclei specially dendate nucleus.B.Mossy fibresThey end in the granular layer.C.Climbing fibresThey end in the molecular layer 31
  • 31. The internal circuity of cerebellum:- Dont leave the cerebellum, interconnectdifferent regions of cerebellum. Some connect the same side. Some connect the two Cerebellar hemisphereThe Cerebellar efferent via middle Cerebellarpeduncle(MCP) and inferior Cerebellar peduncle(ICP)The Cerebellar afferent via superior Cerebellarpeduncle(SCP) and from Fastigial from inferiorCerebellar peduncle(ICP)White matter of cerebellum32
  • 32. The cerebellum is connected toBrain stem by three pedunclesMidbrainMiddle Cerebellar pedunclePonsInferior Cerebellar peduncleMedulla oblongata33Superior Cerebellar peduncle
  • 33. Peduncles of the cerebellum34
  • 34. res entering and leaving through Cerebellar pedunc1.Superior cerebellar peduncleA.Fibres entering the cerebellum1. Ventral spino-cerebellar tract2. Rostral spino-cerebellar tract3. Tecto-cerebellar fibres4. Rubro-cerebellar fibres5. Trigemino-cerebellar fibres6. Hypothalamo-cerebellar fibres7. Coerulo-cerebellar fibresB.Fibres leaving the cerebellum1. Cerebello-rubral fibres2. Cerebello-thalamic fibres3. Cerebello-reticular fibres4. Cerebello-olivary fibres5. Cerebello-nuclear fibres6. Some fibres to hypothalamusand thalamusSuperior cerebellar peduncl35
  • 35. 2.Middle cerebellar pedunclePontocerebellar fibres3.inferior cerebellar peduncleA.Fibres entering cerebellum1. Posterior spino cerebellar tract2. Cuneo-cerebellar tract3. Olivo-cerebellar fibres4. Reticulo-cerebellar fibres5. Vestibulo-cerebellar fibres6. Anterior external arcuate fibres7. Fibres of striae medullaries8. Trigemino-cerebellar fibresB.Fibres Leaving the cerebellum1. Cerebello-olivary fibres2. Cerebello-vestibular fibres3. Cerebello spinal and cerebello reticularfibresMiddle cerebellar peduncleInferior cerebellar peduncle36
  • 36. CT SCAN OF BRAIN WITH CEREBELLUM37
  • 37. MRI OF BRAIN WITH CEREBELLUM38
  • 38. Blood supply to brainArch of aorta1. Brachiocephalic trunki. right common carotid artery2. Left common carotid artery3. Left subclavian arteryright common carotid artery1. External carotid artery2. Internal carotid artery39
  • 39. Blood supply to brainAnterior cerebral arteries –2Internal carotid arteries –2Anterior communicating artery-1Posterior communicating artery-1Posterior cerebral arteries -2Basilar artery-240Circulus arterious(circle of Willis)
  • 40. circle of Willis41
  • 41. Blood supply to cerebellum• Superior surface of cerebellum – superiorCerebellar branches of basilar artery(SCA)• Inferior surface– Anterior part -(AICA)• Anterior inferior Cerebellarbranches of basilar artery– Posterior part- (PICA)• Posterior inferior Cerebellar• branches of basilar artery42
  • 42. Functionsofcerebellum43
  • 43. 44Maintenance of EquilibriumMaintenance of Equilibrium- balance, posture, eye movement- balance, posture, eye movement
  • 44. 45Motor Leaning – Motor SkillsMotor Leaning – Motor Skills
  • 45.  Coordination of half-automatic movementCoordination of half-automatic movementof walking and posture maintenanceof walking and posture maintenance- posture -gait- posture -gait46
  • 46. Adjustment of Muscle ToneAdjustment of Muscle Tone,47
  • 47.  Cognitive FunctionCognitive Function48
  • 48. CEREBELLAR FUNCTION TEST• FINGER TO FINGER FINGER TO NOSETEST TEST49
  • 49. CEREBELLAR FUNCTION TEST• ROMBERG TEST TANDOM TEST50
  • 50. Ataxia:Ataxia: incoordination of movementincoordination of movement- decomposition of movement- decomposition of movement- dysmetria, past-pointing- dysmetria, past-pointing- dysdiadochokinesia- dysdiadochokinesia- rebound phenomenon of Holmes- rebound phenomenon of Holmes- gait ataxia, truncal ataxia, titubation- gait ataxia, truncal ataxia, titubationIntention TremorIntention TremorHypotonia,Hypotonia, NystagmusNystagmusArchicerebellar Lesion:Archicerebellar Lesion: medulloblastomamedulloblastomaPaleocerebellar LesionPaleocerebellar Lesion: gait disturbance: gait disturbanceNeocerebellar LesionNeocerebellar Lesion: hypotonia, ataxia, tremor: hypotonia, ataxia, tremorSyndromeS51
  • 51. CerebellarCerebellarAtaxiaAtaxiaAtaxic gait and position:Ataxic gait and position:Left cerebellar tumorLeft cerebellar tumora. Sways to the right ina. Sways to the right instanding positionstanding positionb. Steady on theb. Steady on theright legright legc. Unsteady on thec. Unsteady on theleft legleft legd. ataxic gaitd. ataxic gait52
  • 52. CerebellarCerebellarMedulloblastomaMedulloblastomaCerebellar tumors onCerebellar tumors onvermisvermis- Truncal Ataxia- Truncal Ataxia- Frequent Falling- Frequent FallingThe child in this picture:The child in this picture:-- would not try to standwould not try to standunsupportedunsupported- would not let go of the- would not let go of thebed railbed railif she was stood on theif she was stood on thefloor.floor. 53
  • 53. .54
  • 54. NOW TIME FORASSIGNMENT55WRITE DOWN DIFFERENT DISEASESRELATED TO THE CEREBELLUMFUNCTION LOST???????