Microbes in human welfare
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Microbes in human welfare

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based on NCERT Plus two biology text book, chapter 10

based on NCERT Plus two biology text book, chapter 10

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Microbes in human welfare Microbes in human welfare Presentation Transcript

  • MICROBES IN HUMAN WELFARE
    • MICROBES ARE PRESENT EVERYWHERE.
    • IN SOIL, AIR , WATER ETC
    • ALSO IN EXTREME CONDITIONS, EXTREMOPHILES
    • MICROBES ARE GROWN IN MEDIA TO FORM COLONIES, SEEN WITH NAKED EYE.
    • EXAMPLES ARE NUTRIENT AGAR, SABRAUD’S DEXTROSE AGAR ETC.
    • MICROBES CAUSE DISEASES IN HUMANS , ANIMALS, PLANTS ETC.
    • ALL MICROBES ARE NOT HARMFUL
    Introduction
  • MICROBES IN HOUSE HOLD PRODUCTS
    • CURDLING OF MILK
    • Lactic acid bacteria is used
    • Produce acid by fermentation, which convert or coagulate the milk protein casein to paracaseinate.
    View slide
    • Fermentation of dough.
    • Puffed appearance is due to CO2.
    • Alcoholic fermentation takes place.
    • Glucose  Pyruvate
    • Pyruvate  Ethanol + CO2
    • Leuconostoc mesentroids, Streptococcus faecalis, Pediococcus cerevisiae
    FERMENTED FOODS View slide
    • CHEESE
    • Different types are
    • Hard cheese – Swiss Cheese – Lactobacillus + Propionibacterium shermanii
    • Semi hard cheese – Roquefort cheese – Penicillium roquefortii
    • Soft cheese – Camembert cheese – Penicillium camemberti
    • Unripened cheese – LAB
    • Ripened cheese – LAB + other enzymes(Rennet).
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    • Bulgarian Butter Milk – Lactobacillus delbreuckii
    • Yogurt – Sterptococcus thermophilus
    • Acidophilus milk – Lactobacillus acidophilus
    Other Milk Products
  • MICROBES IN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS
    • Fermented beverages
    • Wine, Beer , Whisky, Brandy, Rum.
    • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    • Fermentation of malted fruit juices and cereals into ethanol.
    • Wine and beer are prepared without distillation.
    • Beer – Saccharomyces carlsbergensis
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    • Penicillin – Penicillium notatum, Penicillium chrysogenum.
    • Streptomycin – Streptomyces
    • Kanamycin – Streptomyces kanamysiticus
    • Tetracyclin – Streptomyces
    • Cephalosporin - Acromonium
    Antibiotics, Chemicals & Enzymes
    • Citric Acid – Aspergillus niger
    • Acetic Acid – Acetobacter aceti
    • Butyric Acid – Clostridium butyricum
    • Proteases – Bacillus subtilis or Aspergillus oryzae.
    • Pectinases – Aspergillus niger, Penicillium, Clostridium
    • Streptokinase - Streptococcus
    Antibiotics, Chemicals & Enzymes
  • MICROBES IN SEWAGE TREATMENT
    • The steps involves –
    • Primary treatment/ Preliminary/ Physical
    • Secondary treatment/ Biological
    • Tertiary/ Chemical/ Advanced
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    • Primary Treatment
    • Screening
    • Sedimentation
    • Secondary Treatment
    • Oxidation process carried out by microbes
    • Trickling Filters ( Zooglea ramigera )
    • Rotating biodisc ( beggiatoa, oscillatoria, nocardia )
    • Oxidation ponds
    • Activated Sludge process
    MICROBES IN SEWAGE TREATMENT
    • Tertiary Treatment
    • Removal of synthetic pollutants, toxic materials
    • Activated charcoal
    • Nitrification
    • Disinfection
    MICROBES IN SEWAGE TREATMENT
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  • MICROBES IN BIOGAS PRODUCTION
    • Biogas is a mixture of methane, H2S and CO2
    • Methanobacterium grow on cellulostic material and produce methane.
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  • MICROBES IN BIOCONTROL AGENTS
    • Bacillus thuringenesis, B.sphericus,
    • B.popillae .
    • Produce δ endotoxin crystal
    • It is coded by CRY gene.
    • By recombination BT cotton is
    • prepared.
    • Trichoderma
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    • Baculovirus
    • NPV,GV – Produce polyhedron
    • Commercial production is ElCartin and Biotrol
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  • MICROBES AS BIOFERTLIZERS
    • Bacteria
    • Rhizobium, Azospirillum
    • Phosphate solubilizers
    • Bacillus. Thiobacillus
    • Fungi
    • Mycorrihzae- VAM
    • Cyanobacteria
    • Azolla – Anabaena system
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