Frog anatomy


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Frog anatomy

  1. 1. trunk Head Eye Tail ? Neck ?
  2. 2. Nictitating membrane image from: Studyimages /frog/frogdissectlist.html
  3. 3. <ul><li>Forelimbs and Hind limbs help in swimming, walking, leaping and burrowing </li></ul><ul><li>Hind limbs ends in five digits and they are larger and muscular than fore limbs that end in four digits. </li></ul><ul><li>Feet have webbed digit that help in swimming. </li></ul><ul><li>Male frogs can be distinguished by the presence of sound producing vocal sacs and also a copulatory pad on the first digit of the fore limbs which are absent in female frogs </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>NO CLAWS </li></ul>image from: Studyimages /frog/frogdissectlist.html
  5. 6. <ul><li>Auricle (atrium) </li></ul><ul><li>Ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>Conus arteriosus </li></ul><ul><li>Lung </li></ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Gall bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Large intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Spleen </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Fat bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenal gland </li></ul><ul><li>testis </li></ul>40 38 44 46 51 49 47 52 55 56 39 42 43 50
  6. 7. <ul><li>Pericardial membrane around heart </li></ul><ul><li>Mesentery holds intestines together </li></ul>image from: Studyimages /frog/frogdissectlist.html
  7. 9. Digestive system <ul><li>Alimentary canal and dig. Glands </li></ul><ul><li>Alimentary canal short– carnivorous </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth,Oesophagus, Intestine, Rectum, Cloacal, Aperture, Buccal cavity, Pharynx, Stomach. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Diagrammatic Representation of Internal Organs of frog showing complete digestive system
  9. 11. <ul><li>Mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Buccal Cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Oesophagus </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Rectum </li></ul><ul><li>Cloacal Aperture </li></ul>
  10. 12. image from: Studyimages /frog/frogdissectlist.html GLOTTIS Opening to respiratory GULLET Opening to digestive
  11. 13. <ul><li>STOMACH: </li></ul><ul><li>LIVER: </li></ul><ul><li>GALL BLADDER </li></ul>Make acid (HCl) and digestive enzymes Start digestion (grind up food ) Make bile(bile emulsifies fat) Store glycogen Store vitamins Process toxins (including nitrogen waste) for kidneys Store bile
  12. 14. PANCREAS
  13. 15. Pancreas (enlarged)
  14. 16. <ul><li>PANCREAS :- produces pancreatic juice </li></ul>Makes TRYPSIN , INSULIN, GLUCAGON TRYPSIN - breaks down proteins INSULIN - tells cells to store glucose from bloodstream as glycogen GLUCAGON - tells cells to release stored glucose to blood stream
  15. 17. SPLEEN <ul><li>Produces and stores new RBC’s and processes old worn out ones </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>SMALL INTESTINE </li></ul><ul><li>DUODENUM -first part of intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Receives trypsin and bile; finishes digestion </li></ul><ul><li>ILEUM </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbs nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>VILLI & MICROVILLI </li></ul><ul><li>Increase surface area </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>LARGE INTESTINE </li></ul><ul><li>Removes water from digestive waste; </li></ul><ul><li>concentrates feces </li></ul><ul><li>Undigested waste move into rectum and pass out through cloaca </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>BREATHING THROUGH SKIN is called CUTANEOUS RESPIRATION </li></ul>Respiratory System Acquatic Respiratory organ (Diffusion)
  19. 21. LUNGS:- Pulmonary Respiration GAS EXCHANGE http:// On Land Buccal cavity skin and Lungs –Respiratory organs
  20. 22. Larvae breathe with GILLS
  21. 23. Circulatory System Well developed closed type It includes heart, blood vessels and blood Heart :- Muscular, three chambered covered by pericardium
  22. 24. HEART <ul><li>3 chambered heart </li></ul><ul><li>Right atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Left atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>Sinus Venosus </li></ul><ul><li>joins to right atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Ventricles opens to conus arteriosus </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>Images from: </li></ul>ADULT FROG: 3 chamber heart 2 loop system
  24. 26. Sinus venosus RIGHTAtrium Vent ricle Con us arter iosus      Lungs Body organs LEFT Atrium          FROG CIRCULATION
  25. 27. Portal Circulatory System <ul><li>Hepatic portal system - Special venous connection between liver and intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Renal portal system - Between kidney and lower parts of the body </li></ul>
  26. 28. MOST vertebrates have nuclei in their RBC’s MAMMALS DON’T Frog blood composed of Plama, RBC, WBC and plateletts
  27. 29. Sinus venosus RIGHTAtrium Vent ricle Con us arter iosus      Lungs Body organs LEFT Atrium          FROG CIRCULATION
  28. 30. 10 Body Systems : <ul><li>___________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Get rid of nitrogen waste made by cells </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen waste has different chemical forms: </li></ul><ul><li>___________ __________ _____________ </li></ul><ul><li>MOST TOXIC made from LEAST TOXIC ammonia by needs the least liver water to dilute </li></ul><ul><li>FISH HUMANS BIRDS, REPTILES </li></ul><ul><li> AMPHIBIANS </li></ul>EXCRETORY AMMONIA UREA URIC ACID
  29. 31. Image from: KIDNEYS- Remove nitrogen waste from blood and dilute it with water to make urine; osmoregulation
  30. 32. URINARY BLADDER STORES URINE MADE BY KIDNEYS LARVAE (Tadpoles) Excrete AMMONIA like fish Adult frogs excrete UREA to conserve water
  31. 33. CLOACA <ul><li>DIGESTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>EXCRETORY </li></ul><ul><li>REPRODUCTIVE </li></ul>