Frog anatomy

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Frog anatomy

  1. 1. trunk Head Eye Tail ? Neck ?
  2. 2. Nictitating membrane image from: http://www.spc.cc.tx.us/biology/jmckinney/ Studyimages /frog/frogdissectlist.html
  3. 3. <ul><li>Forelimbs and Hind limbs help in swimming, walking, leaping and burrowing </li></ul><ul><li>Hind limbs ends in five digits and they are larger and muscular than fore limbs that end in four digits. </li></ul><ul><li>Feet have webbed digit that help in swimming. </li></ul><ul><li>Male frogs can be distinguished by the presence of sound producing vocal sacs and also a copulatory pad on the first digit of the fore limbs which are absent in female frogs </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>NO CLAWS </li></ul>image from: http://www.spc.cc.tx.us/biology/jmckinney/ Studyimages /frog/frogdissectlist.html
  5. 6. <ul><li>Auricle (atrium) </li></ul><ul><li>Ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>Conus arteriosus </li></ul><ul><li>Lung </li></ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Gall bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Large intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Spleen </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Fat bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenal gland </li></ul><ul><li>testis </li></ul>40 38 44 46 51 49 47 52 55 56 39 42 43 50
  6. 7. <ul><li>Pericardial membrane around heart </li></ul><ul><li>Mesentery holds intestines together </li></ul>image from: http://www.spc.cc.tx.us/biology/jmckinney/ Studyimages /frog/frogdissectlist.html
  7. 9. Digestive system <ul><li>Alimentary canal and dig. Glands </li></ul><ul><li>Alimentary canal short– carnivorous </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth,Oesophagus, Intestine, Rectum, Cloacal, Aperture, Buccal cavity, Pharynx, Stomach. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Diagrammatic Representation of Internal Organs of frog showing complete digestive system
  9. 11. <ul><li>Mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Buccal Cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Oesophagus </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Rectum </li></ul><ul><li>Cloacal Aperture </li></ul>
  10. 12. image from: http://www.spc.cc.tx.us/biology/jmckinney/ Studyimages /frog/frogdissectlist.html GLOTTIS Opening to respiratory GULLET Opening to digestive
  11. 13. <ul><li>STOMACH: </li></ul><ul><li>LIVER: </li></ul><ul><li>GALL BLADDER </li></ul>Make acid (HCl) and digestive enzymes Start digestion (grind up food ) Make bile(bile emulsifies fat) Store glycogen Store vitamins Process toxins (including nitrogen waste) for kidneys Store bile
  12. 14. PANCREAS
  13. 15. Pancreas (enlarged)
  14. 16. <ul><li>PANCREAS :- produces pancreatic juice </li></ul>Makes TRYPSIN , INSULIN, GLUCAGON TRYPSIN - breaks down proteins INSULIN - tells cells to store glucose from bloodstream as glycogen GLUCAGON - tells cells to release stored glucose to blood stream
  15. 17. SPLEEN <ul><li>Produces and stores new RBC’s and processes old worn out ones </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>SMALL INTESTINE </li></ul><ul><li>DUODENUM -first part of intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Receives trypsin and bile; finishes digestion </li></ul><ul><li>ILEUM </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbs nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>VILLI & MICROVILLI </li></ul><ul><li>Increase surface area </li></ul>http://neuromedia.neurobio.ucla.edu/campbell/epithelium/wp_images/107%20villi.jpg
  17. 19. <ul><li>LARGE INTESTINE </li></ul><ul><li>Removes water from digestive waste; </li></ul><ul><li>concentrates feces </li></ul><ul><li>Undigested waste move into rectum and pass out through cloaca </li></ul>http://www.flushing.k12.mi.us/srhigh/tippettl/biology/frog/largeintestine.html
  18. 20. <ul><li>BREATHING THROUGH SKIN is called CUTANEOUS RESPIRATION </li></ul>Respiratory System Acquatic Respiratory organ (Diffusion)
  19. 21. LUNGS:- Pulmonary Respiration GAS EXCHANGE http://www.flushing.k12.mi.us/srhigh/tippettl/biology/frog/index.html http:// www.stclement.pvt.k12.il.us/studentWeb/science98/GarrittPatM/alveoli.gif On Land Buccal cavity skin and Lungs –Respiratory organs
  20. 22. Larvae breathe with GILLS
  21. 23. Circulatory System Well developed closed type It includes heart, blood vessels and blood Heart :- Muscular, three chambered covered by pericardium
  22. 24. HEART <ul><li>3 chambered heart </li></ul><ul><li>Right atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Left atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>Sinus Venosus </li></ul><ul><li>joins to right atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Ventricles opens to conus arteriosus </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>Images from: http://www2.volstate.edu/msd/BIO/1020/Lab7ChordateII.htm </li></ul>ADULT FROG: 3 chamber heart 2 loop system
  24. 26. Sinus venosus RIGHTAtrium Vent ricle Con us arter iosus      Lungs Body organs LEFT Atrium          FROG CIRCULATION
  25. 27. Portal Circulatory System <ul><li>Hepatic portal system - Special venous connection between liver and intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Renal portal system - Between kidney and lower parts of the body </li></ul>
  26. 28. MOST vertebrates have nuclei in their RBC’s MAMMALS DON’T Frog blood composed of Plama, RBC, WBC and plateletts
  27. 29. Sinus venosus RIGHTAtrium Vent ricle Con us arter iosus      Lungs Body organs LEFT Atrium          FROG CIRCULATION
  28. 30. 10 Body Systems : <ul><li>___________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Get rid of nitrogen waste made by cells </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen waste has different chemical forms: </li></ul><ul><li>___________ __________ _____________ </li></ul><ul><li>MOST TOXIC made from LEAST TOXIC ammonia by needs the least liver water to dilute </li></ul><ul><li>FISH HUMANS BIRDS, REPTILES </li></ul><ul><li> AMPHIBIANS </li></ul>EXCRETORY AMMONIA UREA URIC ACID
  29. 31. Image from: http://step.sdsc.edu/projects95/Frog.Dissection/index.html KIDNEYS- Remove nitrogen waste from blood and dilute it with water to make urine; osmoregulation
  30. 32. URINARY BLADDER http://www.manheimcentral.org/~tw005690/Frog/frog.htm STORES URINE MADE BY KIDNEYS LARVAE (Tadpoles) Excrete AMMONIA like fish Adult frogs excrete UREA to conserve water
  31. 33. CLOACA <ul><li>DIGESTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>EXCRETORY </li></ul><ul><li>REPRODUCTIVE </li></ul>

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