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  • !!!!!!!Talk!and!Poster!Abstracts!!!!!!!!!
  • !!!!!!!!!!!!!Contents!!!!!Abstract!of!Talks!! ! ! ! ! ! ! 2!Abstract!of!Posters! ! ! ! ! ! ! 20!! 1!
  • !! ! ! ! ! ! ! Abstract!of!Talks!!! 2!
  • !!A study of mixed species foraging in reef fish off the Islands ofLakshadweep, IndiaAnne Heloise TheoC/o Dr. Kartik Shanker, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute ofScience, C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore.Email: anneheloise.theo@gmail.comConservation Purpose: The interactions between species within a coral reefshape the health and resilience of the ecosystem; the fish community beingthe most dominant form on the reefs plays a vital role in the organization ofthe ecosystem. An in depth understanding of these interactions will lead to abetter understanding of the system and hence guide mitigation efforts in theevent of large scale damage.Research Methods: Data was collected on the species composition andabundance of each species within the sites by means of timed underwaterrandom walks. Data was also collected on benthic variables such as substratetype, coral cover and structural complexity for each site.Important Results: A preliminary assessment of the data suggests that thisbehaviour is fairly widespread in the fish species observed in the islands.Over 15 species of fish have been seen to form groups fairly regularly, whilemany others participate in groups opportunistically and a few appear in thesegroups rarely. More groups were observed in shallow waters but groups inthe deep showed higher stability.! 3!
  • !!Impact of an exotic invasive piscine species on the shoalingdecisions of a freshwater fish, the Climbing PerchBinoy V. VRajesh Kasturirangan and Anindya Sinha, National Institute of AdvancedStudies, Indian Institute of Science Campus, Bangalore - 560 012.Email: vvbinoy@gmail.comConservation Purpose: Invasive exotic fishes are a major threat toindigenous aquatic diversity; many Indian aquatic resources are todaythreatened by an exotic piscine species, the tilapia Oreochromismossambicus. We have analysed the impact of prolonged exposure to tilapiaon the shoaling decisions of a native freshwater fish, the climbing perch(Anabas testudineus).Research Methods: Our study followed the ‘titration method’ using a binarychoice apparatus to quantify the shoaling preference of individual climbingperch in response to the presence of tilapia. Monospecific shoals of climbingperch and of tilapia as well as mixed-species shoals, composed of varyingnumbers of individuals of both species, were used as the stimuli.Important results: The climbing perch, with a natural preference forconspecific shoals of over those of a heterospecific, the tilapia, failed toreach a shoaling decision when a shoal of predominantly tilapia contained atleast one conspecific. Prolonged interactions between the two species alsoled to the acquisition of familiarity-dependent preference for tilapia by theclimbing perch; the species lost its species-specific shoaling tendency andpreferred to join a shoal of familiar tilapia individuals than one of unfamiliarconspecifics.! 4!
  • !!Demographic responses of understorey birds to logging-inducedhabitat degradationUmesh SrinivasanNational Centre for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of FundamentalResearch, GKVK Campus, Bellary Road, Bangalore- 560 065.Email: umesh.srinivasan@gmail.comConservation Purpose: Studies on the impacts of habitat modification havelargely examined community-level and species abundance changes inresponse to habitat change, providing no information on population viabilityin modified habitats. We examine the impacts of habitat degradation on thesurvival and population growth rates of bird species, and the effect of life-history traits such as body mass on these processes.Research Methods: We use a plot-based sampling design, with eightsampling plots distributed across a gradient of habitat degradation in theEaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary in the Eastern Himalaya of Arunachal Pradesh.We use mist netting and bird ringing following the robust design under themark-recapture framework to estimate population parameters such assurvival probability and population growth rates.Important Results: From three sessions of mist netting (April 2011,September 2011 and April 2012; 72 days of netting), we have ringed over2000 individuals belonging to 60 understorey species. Our results suggestthat demographic parameters of some species decline with habitatdegradation, and that variation among species in this decline can be partlyexplained by body size.! 5!
  • !!Conservation restores natal dispersal behaviour and populationlinkage in a large carnivoreJulien FattebertP.O. Box 610, Hluhluwe 3960, KZN South Africa.Email: jufattebert@yahoo.frConservation Purpose: Natal dispersal is an essential behaviour that enablespopulation connectivity and metapopulation dynamics. Followingconservation interventions on a persecuted leopard (Panthera pardus)population we investigated whether natal dispersal behaviour of subadultincreased, both in terms of rate and distance travelled, with increasingpopulation density and stabilization of the land tenure dynamics.Research Methods: Over a 10-year period, we captured and collared 54leopards, including 41 subadults. We tracked subadults through variousphases of their natal dispersal using VHF or GPS telemetry. We assessedpopulation density using photographic capture-recapture. We analysed howdifferences in population density, sex, age and the presence of a newprogeny affect the timing, duration and distance of dispersal.Important Results: All females were philopatric. Prior to conservation,83.3% males initiated dispersal, but all died due to persecution. During therecovery phase, 33.3% males dispersed. After the population stabilized,71.4% males dispersed. Long distance dispersal has been documented in 4individuals, including the longest dispersal event recorded for the species sofar, over 350 km across 3 countries.! 6!
  • !!Impacts of hunting on hornbills and thereby on seed dispersaland regeneration of their food plants in North-East IndiaRohit NaniwadekarNature Conservation Foundation, 3076/5, IV Cross, Gokulam Park, Mysore,Karnataka, India.Email: rohit@ncf-india.orgConservation Purpose: My study aims to understand impacts of hunting onfrugivores and consequently on seed dispersal and thereby on plantregeneration. The specific questions of my study are to understand impactsof hunting on 1) hornbill abundances, 2) scatter-dispersal of large seedspredominantly dispersed by hornbills and 3) regeneration of these large-seeded hornbill-dispersed plants in north-east India.Research Methods: We monitored 8 and 4 trails each in a non-hunted site(Namdapha National Park) and a hunted site (Miao Reserve Forest) for threemonths. Primary dispersers of large-seeded (> 5cm) plant species wereidentified with fruit tree watches. 200 (1m x 1m) plots along each trail weremonitored for scatter dispersal of seeds. 0.45 ha belt transects were used torecord saplings along each trail.Important Results: Analysis is still in progress. However, preliminaryanalysis indicates that across hunted and non-hunted sites, there weredifferences in hornbill abundances and dispersed seed arrival. There werespecies-specific differences in densities and proportions across seedlings andsaplings between hunted and non-hunted sites.! 7!
  • !!Crop depredation by wild herbivores at the western boundary ofTadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve: Patterns and economicsAbhijeet BayaniBiology Lab, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, 3rd floor,Central Tower, Sai-Trinity Building,Near Garware Circle, Sus Road,Pashan, Pune-411021.Email: abhijeetbayani@gmail.comConservation Purpose: What is the production cost of agriculture inresponse to crop depredation with respect to efforts put in agriculture so asto suggest the plausible mitigation measure to be applied for achievinghigher yield and reducing human-wildlife conflict?Research Methods: 1) Questionnaire surveys. 2) ad lib sampling forestimation of crop preferences by animals. 3) Estimation of per day damageprobabilities on crop-fields while going away from forest cover (3 belttransects 10 km long each) and while crop-fields are surrounded by forests.4) Theoretical (mathematical) model for production costImportant Results: 1) Wild Pigs, Nilgai, Chital, Sambar, Hare are the majorcrop-raiders. 2) Chital and Sambar do not raid crops beyond 3 Km. 3)Probability of damage decreases while going away from forest cover. 4)Probability damage on any random field surrounded by forests is higher thanany field closest to forest cover. 5) Optimization model for production cost.If the production cost reduces and the damage caused by herbivores remainssame, it may result into loss in wildlife through increased human-wildlifeconflict. Increased guarding efforts may frustrate farmers and thus fencingwill increase and fencing the crop-fields may involve a cost of over-exploitation of near-by forest cover and thus reduction of forest cover, morecrop-depredation.! 8!
  • !!Recognition of key nesting habitats and identification of threatsfor conservation of turtles in East coast of Sri LankaGajaba EllepolaNo 486, Balagolla, Kengalla, Kandy, Sri LankaEmail: gajaba3@gmail.comConservation Purpose: East coast rookeries are newly identified turtlenesting areas that facilitate five threatened turtle species where no previousstudies have been conducted. This study aims to find out whether East coastrookeries provide significant nesting sites for migratory turtles and tohighlight the need for conservation of breeding habitats.Research Methods: A pilot study was done in a 4km stretch of beach fromHelawa-Komari (HK) to identify the key nesting areas of turtles. Dailymonitoring of the beach was done during the nesting periods. Threats facedby turtles, predator attacks to nests and effects of anthropogenic activities toturtles were identified. Clutch parameters and hatching success wasmeasured during the nesting season for two years.Important Results: Five turtle species nest within the area and they lay eggseven during the daytime. Green turtle is the most frequent visitor. Hatchingsuccess and number of females coming ashore for nesting is decreasing.Main threats to turtle nests in the area are predatory attacks by Wild boar(Sus scrofa) inhabiting the nearby forests, development programsundergoing in the area and illegal egg poaching.! 9!
  • !!Range shifts in elephant driven by new habitat and humandisturbancesJeanetta SelierNo 1 Villa Valencia 28 Truman Road Padfield Park Durban 3610 KwaZulu-Natal South AfricaEmail: tuli.elephants@gmail.comConservation Purpose: We know that how elephants move through time andspace is central to understanding their biodiversity consequences. It is onlyrecently, however that we started looking at how different managementstrategies influence the way elephants utilize their landscape. In this talk weaddress how the availability of new habitats and human disturbancesinfluence elephant distribution and movements.Research Methods: Data from 6 total aerial surveys of the elephantpopulation over a 10-year period and movement data from 5 breeding herdsover a 4 year period within the Greater Mapungubwe TransfrontierConservation Area (GMTFCA) were used. Annual home ranges weredetermined using the k-LoCoH method. Overlap of home ranges wasdetermined using the AdeHabitat package in R.Important Results: Annual home ranges showed a high degree of fidelity toa particular area in different years. However, as new range became availablelarge shifts in the overall distribution of the population occurred, reducingdensities in the previous range. Hunting pressure caused movement out ofhunting regions, increasing densities in areas with no or limited hunting.! 10!
  • !!Assessing the importance of corridors in Kaziranga- KarbiAnglong Landscape, Assam, IndiaAlolika SinhaAaranyak, 50 Evergreen, Samanway Path, Beltola Survey, Guwahati-781028, Assam, IndiaEmail: alolika@aaranyak.orgConservation Purpose: 1. First study on the usage of corridors by theanimals in Kaziranga-karbi Anglong landscape. 2.Findings revealed theimportance of the habitat connectivity and hence conservation on landscapelevel. 3.Threats enlisted. 4.Findings will aid the decision makers in draftingconservation strategy for an important area like Kaziranga.Research Methods: In all the three corridors, track plots of 1 sq. were laidand monitored for seven days in every alternate month. Data was collectedfor each day and the plots were remade. Besides, camera traps were alsoemployed. A Passive Tracking Index (PTI) for the animal presence and itsvariance was calculated in accordance to the general index developed byEngeman et al. (1998; 2000).Important Results: 1. Corridors act as a passage between two metapopulation of Tigers in Kaziranga and Karbi Anglong. 2. Temporalmovement pattern of different animals was recorded.! 11!
  • !!Exploring the phenomenon of geographical clustering andcollaboration in the biodiversity and conservation sectorVena Kapoor16, Hazelwood Close, Cambridge CB34SN, United KingdomEmail: vena.kapoor@gmail.comConservation Purpose: I explore the phenomenon of geographical clusteringamong biodiversity conservation organisations and institutions worldwideand analyse reasons for clustering. I study three clusters where organisationsuse physical proximity to collaborate to improve conservation impact. Usingthis data, I analyse the requirements for successful collaboration and thebenefits and challenges of such clustering.Research Methods: Cluster theory from business and economic geographyliterature was modified for the conservation sector. Publicly available datawas used to analyse where and why conservation clusters occur worldwide.Qualitative analysis was conducted on data from interviews with keyindividuals from constituent organisations of three collaborative clusters andresults discussed in relation to cluster theory.Important Results: My results show that a pre-existing social network, arepresentative governance mechanism, and a separate fundraising strategyare some of the characteristics imperative for a collaborative cluster. Ipropose best practices for collaboration between conservation organisationswith similar goals to overcome inherent challenges such as conflicting brandidentities and niche overlap.! 12!
  • !!How perceptions influence the sustainability of fisheries in India- case studies from Tamil Nadu and MaharashtraDivya Karnad2 Tarapore Avenue, Harrington Road, Chetpet, Chennai- 600031Email: divya.karnad@rutgers.eduConservation Purpose: This project compares the perceptions of fishingcommunities, from two regions, about the state of the marine ecosystem andfisheries sustainability. By examining current fishing practices includingattitudes towards conservation and the use of sustainable technology, thisproject identifies the threads that link these communities to ecosystemlongevity.Research Methods: We spoke to fishermen within the framework of semi-structured questionnaire surveys that were designed to obtain pertinentinformation while maintaining the anonymity of the individuals involved.We sought both quantitative and qualitative responses, which were coded,and analyzed for patterns using Classification Trees.Important Results: We analyzed responses from 342 fishermen in TamilNadu and Maharashtra. Most respondents perceived catch declines over thelast 10-15 years. There was also high spatial overlap between users ofdifferent fishing gear. Most respondents did not recognize "bycatch" as avalid category and claimed to use all that they catch. Greater fishing effortmade people more willing to be sustainable.! 13!
  • !!How much research is required before giving an alarm bell forconservation?Muralidharan ManoharakrishnanFlat No 8, Dwarakamai Residency, # 2278, 24th Cross, Sahakarnagar CBlock, Bangalore 560 092Email: muralim86@gmail.comConservation Purpose: Taking the example of our program on the oliveridley population at Orissa, we look at how short duration studies at timesprovide misleading results. When dealing with long-lived species like turtlesit is necessary to consider a broader perspective of the specie’s relationshipwith its habitat and long term monitoring results for providing reliablemanagement decisions.Research Methods: We have been monitoring several ecological andgeomorphological parameters of the turtle population on the Orissa coastcovering aspects of its breeding behaviour and success, habitat quality andits spatial utilization, population genetics, etc over a period of a decade usinga variety of techniques and methods.Important Results: When the results of short duration study were looked at,it shows a pattern which could be mistaken for a spuriouslyalarming/positive trend in the turtle population. Only when data from alonger time scale was taken into consideration were we able to see thepatterns, which were more reliable.! 14!
  • !!Measuring the effectiveness of Marine No-take reserves inprotecting fish populationsSapna JayaramanF-21, Wildlife Lab, National Centre for Biological Sciences, GKVKCampus, Bellary Road, Bangalore – 560065Email: sapna.jayaraman@gmail.comConservation Purpose: Marine protected areas play a very important role byrestricting access to a part of the reef thus protecting the fish stocks inside.These protected fish stocks can potentially serve as a source populationhelping replenish fished populations in unprotected areas of the reef. Thisstudy examines the effectiveness of one such marine protected area in theAndaman Islands.Research Methods: Interviews with fishermen and key informants wereconducted to obtain information on important target species and the internaland external drivers of their trade. In-water fish surveys were used to assessthe effectiveness of the protected area in conserving populations of resourcespecies. An experimental fishing approach was used to estimate catch perunit effort inside and outside the PA.Important Results: Although these results are preliminary, the evidencepoints to there being varying levels of effectiveness within the PA. Areasunder direct observation from the forest outpost may be more effective thanareas farther away. Moreover, during monsoon months, fishing is restrictedto areas on the periphery or possibly inside the park as these are the onlysheltered areas during these months.! 15!
  • !!Comparing Species composition of amphibians in the naturaland human-dominated landscapes in Southern Western GhatsSneha Dharwadkar8-104, Parishram Park, near ITI, Gorwa, Vadodara-390016, GujaratEmail: sneha.dharwadkar@gmail.comConservation Purpose: Shencotah pass of the southern Western Ghats, oncewith contiguous forests, is threatened with severe forest fragmentation andalteration. This has been considered as major reason for amphibianpopulation declines. To determine the effects of the landuse patterns on theamphibian populations in the Ambanaad Estate area of the Shencottah gap ofthe Western Ghats, the present study was carried outResearch Methods: 150x5m belt transects were used to sample amphibians.The objective of the design was to have 30 transects per each land-use type.The land-use types surveyed were: Forest as reference, Tea and Rubberplantations. The analysis was done using the program PRESENCE 3.1 forthe species richness and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity was to calculate thespecies composition.Important Results: 27 species of amphibians were recorded, out of which 22were from forests, 19 from rubber and 11 from tea plantations. When theSpecies composition was compared to the overall landscape, most of thesamples were dissimilar to the reference plot, including forest samples. Thisindicates that even the forest sites sampled were very far away from theoverall landscape and that are the disturbed sites.! 16!
  • !!Assessing geographical distribution patterns of anurans of theWestern GhatsRoshmi Rekha SarmaB-28, Apoorva Apartments Plot no. 14, Sector 5, Dwarka, New Delhi-110075Email: eng.roshmi@gmail.comConservation Purpose: Ever since Ranjit Daniels paper on geographicdistribution patterns of amphibians of the Western Ghats, more than 50species has been described and many new localities has been identified andseveral species have split and lumped. Given this, there is a need to relook atthe geographic distribution patterns of anurans of the Western Ghats, Indiaand compare with other taxa in the region.Research Methods: Around 1300 data points on the distribution of anuransin the Western Ghats (WG) were obtained from various published sources,websites, social network sites and personal observations. Analysis wasperformed to assess latitudinal and altitudinal distribution patterns.Correlation was done to assess the relationship between anurans distributionwith that of other groups in the Western Ghats.Important Results: Latitudinal band 10 and 11 degree N in SouthernWestern Ghats has high species richness and endemism compared to Centraland North WG. Along altitudinal gradient, low-mid altitude(800-1000m asl)has highest species richness. Number of threatened anurans follows the samepattern as above. Mean body size increases with latitude & decreases withincrease in altitude.! 17!
  • !!Effect of structure on juvenile fish populations in tide dominatedmangrove forests. A case study from South Andaman.Bhanu SridharanF-21, National Centre for Biological Sciences, GKVK Campus, Hebbal,Bangalore-560065Email: bhanu.sridharan@gmail.comConservation Purpose: Mangroves are considered vital habitats for juvenilefish, because of their complex roots structures. Few studies look at effect ofchanging tides on this system. With this context this study asks if: 1)Complex root structures are key determinant of juvenile fish abundances andcomposition in a mangrove forest? 2) Other factors affect habitat use ofjuvenile fishes in mangrove forests?Research Methods: To determine fish abundance I used a nested samplingapproach that consisted of 50x50m grids consisting of five circular stakenets (7m diameter) to trap fish during high tides. Composition details werecompiled using databases like fishbase. Structural complexity was measuredusing 1X1m photo quadrats. Field experiments were conducted tounderstand predator-prey relationships.Important Results: 1 In tide dominated mangroves, the juvenile fishabundance was determined primarily not by structure but by risk ofstranding. Fish abundances and composition were determined primarily bydistance to the main water body that fish returned to in low tides. Speciescomposition changed with level of structural complexity. Presence of severalreef and pelagic species shows habitat connectivity.! 18!
  • !!Faunal diversity of the Pantabangan-Carranglan Watershed,Nueva Ecija, Luzon Island, PhilippinesDanah Marie PurificacionUnit 207, #73 R. Alvero St., Loyola Heights, Quezon City, Philippines 1101Email: purificaciondmp@gmail.comConservation Purpose: The Pantabangan-Carranglan Watershed is found inNueva Ecija, Luzon Island, Philippines. Despite its protected area status, it iscontinuously being subjected to unregulated anthropogenic activities leadingto forest fragmentation. The study was undertaken to determine the faunalassemblage of remaining secondary forest fragments and degraded forestwithin the watershed.Research Methods: Sampling was done at different elevations covering avariety of habitats using standard wildlife assessment and inventorytechniques such as mist netting, line transects and trapping using snap traps,time-constrained searches, opportunistic sampling and interviews with localcommunity members. Adequacy of sampling was measured by plottingcaptures against number of traps, nets and time.Important Results: A total of 112 vertebrates was documented in secondaryforest fragments and degraded forests in the watershed. Despite high levelsof disturbance in the sampling areas, endemicity was high, with 51% of allspecies encountered as endemic to the Philippines. Non-native rodents werenot successful in invading the native forest since the native faunalassemblage was diverse and appeared to be intact.!!! 19!
  • !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Abstract!of!Posters!! 20!
  • !!A multi-scale approach at assessing space-use patterns of theAsiatic Wild Dog in a tropical forest landscapeArjun Srivathsa#304-D Debonair Residency Rama Rao Layout Kathriguppa Banashankari3rd stage Bangalore 560 085Email: arjuns@ncbs.res.inConservation Purpose: Prey availability and habitat features are crucial indetermining distributions of social carnivores. We know little about theecological requirements of one such carnivore, the Asiatic Wild Dog orDhole Cuon alpinus. Unverified population estimates suggest thatapproximately 2500 individuals are found globally and mainly occur inprotected areas.Research Methods: We develop and apply innovative non-invasivesampling techniques to simultaneously assess dhole habitat use andoccurrence at multiple spatial scales. We combine information on dholeoccurrence from field-based observations of indirect signs (tracks and scats),and interviews of local residents using a Bayesian hierarchical model.Important Results: We invested a walk effort of 900km along road-routesand over 800 interviews in and around Bandipura National Park. We alsoassess what factors predicted dhole habitat use and occurrence, specificallyexamining the influence of protection efforts, land-cover type, distribution ofprey species, occurrence of co-predators and anthropogenic disturbance.! 21!
  • !!Last Tigers of Namdapha National Park, Arunachal PradeshDipankar Lahkar67, Surjanagar, Satgaon, Guwahati P.O-Udayan Vihar, Dist-Kamrup, AssamPin-781171Email: dipankar.lahkar@gmail.comConservation Purpose: The NTR has been identified globally as a highpriority landscape for tiger conservation. It was a challenged for us to knowthe status of tiger and leopard in the Namdapha since there was nophotographic evidence of both the species since it has been declared as atiger reserve.Research Methods: The study focused on an area of 300 km2, roughlyencompassing the moist evergreen habitat within the NTR up to 1500 m.Following previous guidelines for survey design (Karanth and Nichols,1998; Karanth et al., 2002; Karanth and Nichols, 2002) we imposed auniform grid (2x2 Km2) on a map of the area. 83 camera traps weresystematically distributed within the study area by super imposing a 2x2Km2.Important Results: From the approximately 2200 trap night data, a total of33 mammalian species (including 7 carnivores, 7 ungulates, 2 bears and 3primates) were recorded, of which 13 spp. are categorized as Endangered orVulnerable on the IUCN Red List. Six species of cats were captured duringthe study period. Tiger, leopard and wild elephants were captured on cameratraps for the first time in the history of NTR.! 22!
  • !!Spatial and temporal abundance and spawning seasonality ofshrimps off the West Coast of Sri LankaDileepa de CroosDepartment of Aquaculture and fisheries Wayamba University of Sri LankaMakandura Gonawilla (60170) Sri LankaEmail: dileepa_dc@yahoo.comConservation Purpose: High fishing pressure & anthropogenic activitiesmount pressures on the shrimp population in west coast of Sri Lanka.Reduction of commercial catch rates tends fishers to use more fishingefforts. Lack of knowledge on the availability & abundance of different lifestages in the lagoon & their spawning seasonality hampers seasonal &temporal banning for fishing and also set limitations on catches.Research Methods: Developed a sampling scenario using random effectmodels. The magnetite, variation special and temporal distribution of shrimpspecies and their compositions were evaluated together with their selectivityfor different fishing methods use in the lagoon. Further, the sex ratios, sexualmaturity, fecundity, spawning seasonality and length at 50% maturity ofavailable species were estimated.Important Results: 13 shrimps differed in diversity, species and sizecompositions & spatio-temporal dynamics along lagoon & coast indicatingtheir migratory pathway. The clustering of species was based on habitat andoccurrence rather than the selectivity of fishing methods. The GonadoSomatic Index, & impregnated females found throughout year indicateprolonged spawning seasons reaching peaks in Aug, Jan & March.! 23!
  • !!Conservation of Forests and wildlife through Community basedeco- tourism in South Garo Hills, MeghalayaYaranajit DekaSamrakshan Charitable Trust Bolsalgre, Baghmara P.O. Baghmara Dist:South Garo Hills Meghalaya-794102Email: yaranajit.samrakshan@gmail.comConservation Purpose: The remnant community forests of the BalpakramBaghmara Landscape are threatened by various forest destructive livelihoodactivities like illegal coal mining, illegal logging and monocultureplantations. Currently, Community-based Eco Tourism has tremendouspotential to generate revenue linked to the survival of forests and wildlife, inorder to meet the communitys cash income requirements.Research Methods:-Assessment of feasibility of Eco Tourism using techniques like PRAs.-Identification of flagship species like Birds and Butterflies, through detailedecological research and designing tours packages around them.-Community centric planning and implementation of eco-tourism activities.-Capacity building of stakeholders and developing equity sharingmechanisms to ensure long-term viability.Important Results:-Detailed inventory of birds, butterflies and herpetofauna in the landscape,revealed 320 butterfly, 292 bird and 67 herpetofauna species.-Established community based eco camp in 2 Ecologically vital sitesthreatened by coal mining.-Formation of community based Eco-Tourism institutions and transparentequity sharing mechanisms.-Generation of revenue of Rs.6 lakhs in a year of operation.! 24!
  • !!Threats to the understory vegetation in a Mauritian lowlandforest: the impact of invasive alien plantsFabiola MontyJai Narain Roy Street, Mahebourg MauritiusEmail: fab.monty@gmail.comConservation Purpose: Some alien plants pose serious threats to the nativeflora of oceanic islands. Severe decline of understory vegetation has beenreported in Mauritian lowland forests that are invaded. So here we arelooking at the role of alien plants in causing this decline and importance ofcurrent conservation management in stemming this decline.Research Methods: We sampled plots for native seedlings and monitoredthe reproductive output of 20-40 individuals each of 6 selected nativespecies from the understory forest stratum through direct count/estimation ofthe number of buds, flowers and fruits produced in both managed forest(where alien plants have been removed) and adjacent non-managed forestfor comparison.Important Results: Production of flower buds, flowers and fruits wasmarkedly enhanced in the managed area for most of the understory plantswith greater improvement noted for the smaller species. This corroborateswith a greater diversity and density of native seedlings in managed forest.Density and basal area of alien plants also correlated negatively with densityand basal area of native trees.! 25!
  • !!Recent status of Softshell Turtle species in Karnataka andAndhra Pradesh-preliminary observationsShashwat Sirsi706, I floor, 16th A Main, 39 Cross, Jayanagar 4 T Block, Bengaluru-560041Email: shashwatsirsi@gmail.comConservation Purpose: Large Trionychids of peninsular India havepresumably been rendered in danger of extinction due to intensiveexploitation and large scale habitat change. There is a deficiency of dataregarding recent species distribution, ecology and exploitation, which isrequisite to a species recovery stratagem. This talk would presentpreliminary results from surveys conducted toward understanding the same.Research Methods: Survey sites were primarily chosen based on priorspecies distribution records. Satellite images were used to discern probabledeep pools and thus suitable sampling localities. Baited hoop traps and setnets were used at such sites with an approximately equal sampling effortinvested across sites. Secondary information was obtained from localcommunities through visual aids and questionnaires.Important Results: The occurrence of Pelochelys cantorii was observed at 3sites on the River Netravati. The occurrence of Chitra indica was confirmedthrough the observation of 2 specimens in the River Krishna andTungabhadra. Commercial exploitation of the cartilaginous calipee of N.leithii by Bangladeshi expatriates and concurrent species depletion acrossmajor rivers in north Karnataka was also reported.! 26!
  • !!Avian diversity along an elevational gradients in Sub-SaharanAfricaEric Djomo NanaDepartment of Ecology, Vinicna 1594/7 Charles University in Prague 12800Czech RepublicEmail: Purpose: What is the pattern of avian species richness alongthe elevational gradient of Mount Cameroon and how is it related tofunctional traits on the background of environmental conditions? DoesRapoport’s rule apply to the birds of Mount Cameroon? Understanding theunderlying mechanisms is critically important for conservation efforts onMount Cameroon, a biodiversity hotspot.Research Methods: We use open width point counts, checklists and mistnetting to determine species richness and abundance among members oflocal assemblages and along elevations. We also use this data to establish thelevel of ecological specialization and selection pressure on the life historytraits of birds.Important Results: Our preliminary results suggest that avian speciesrichness declines with increasing elevation with a mid elevational peak. Alsothat vegetation is more heterogenous at mid elevation and that the level ofecological specialization is lowest for low and mid altitude birds butselection pressure is highest at these elevations. So far, there is no evidenceto support Rapoport’s rule.! 27!
  • !!Monitoring anuran assemblages in forest landscape mosaics inthe Western Ghats- a novel approachSeshadri K.S#328, 10th cross, M.S.R.Nagar, bangalore 560054Email: seshadri.ali@gmail.comConservation Purpose: Amphibians are threatened by habitat loss, fungalinfections and global climate change. The impacts of habitat modification onanuran assemblages were documented using novel combination ofautomated sound recorders field surveys. An automated data acquisition andanalysis protocol for long term monitoring of anuran assemblages has beendeveloped and can potentially be replicated in the W.GhatsResearch Methods: Automated sound records and environmental dataloggers were deployed in forest canopy and on ground before and after rainyseason. Recordings of 1 min. were obtained every 29 min. for 24 hr.Recordings were listened manually and species listed and later annotatedand analyzed using software. Visual encounter surveys were carried out forpreliminary assessments and species identification.Important Results: Vocalization patterns of study species partitionedseasonally as well as temporally within a 24h period. Arboreal species andstream dwelling species showed variations in breeding seasons. Vocalizationintensity increased in relation to moisture availability. Substrate depth,temperature and moisture were the important parameters explainingvariation across habitats.! 28!
  • !!Effects of environmental factors on tree seedling recruitment in ahumid South African savannaSnehalatha VadigiSchool of Life Sciences Room 105, John Bews building Block B 1 CarbisRd, Agricultural Campus University of KwaZulu-Natal PietermaritzburgSouth AfricaEmail: Purpose: Savannas are a part of major biomes of the world,occupying about 20% of global land cover and 40% of Africa. Tree invasionin savannas is a serious problem reducing herbivore palatable grass, which islargely affecting rural livelihoods. However, importance of trees in carbonstorage and human economy cannot be overlooked. Hence tree-grass balancechiefly maintained by tree recruitment is crucial.Research Methods: We studied various environmental factors affectingseedling survival and growth of savanna tree species. We conducted anexperiment to assess the effects of fire and nutrient gradient on four AfricanAcacia spp under greenhouse conditions. In a field-based experiment wealso studied two level factor effects of water, shade, nutrients and grasscompetition on eight savanna tree species.Important Results: Grass competition by far had the highest negative impacton seedling establishment. In general, it has been observed that shade underlarge trees in savannas provide grass free and nutrient rich conditionsconducive for seedling establishment, but we found that shade has a negativeinfluence on seedling growth. Fire, nutrients and regular watering positivelyinfluenced seedling growth rate.! 29!
  • !!Do windbreaks in tea-dominated landscapes of the WesternGhats sustain avian diversity?Anand Mohan19-A, Sayali Garden, New DP Road, Aundh, Pune- 411007Email: anandmohan492@gmail.comConservation Purpose: Windbreaks refer to linear planting of trees or stripsof remnant vegetation whose primary function is to protect plantations fromwind-damage. They often form networks of forest habitats that may improveconnectivity and biodiversity conservation, but little is known. Using birds,we examine the role of windbreaks composed of native vegetation ascorridors in a tea-dominated landscape.Research Methods: Location: Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve,Western Ghats, India. Using 40 vegetation plots, 20 each in primary forestsand windbreaks, we assessed the differences in habitat structure. Weestimated bird species richness and abundance from 51 systematic pointcounts in each habitat type. We employed NMDS for community analyses.We used MPD and MNTD metrics to assess their functional structure.Important Results: There was a large overlap in habitat-structure betweenprimary forest and windbreaks. Bird abundance and richness were notsignificantly different between habitat types. Communities exhibited a highdegree of similarity, and quantitative analysis of relative habitat specificityof birds did not reveal any significant differences either. Functional structurein habitat types was relatively uniform.! 30!
  • !!Biodiversity data sharing: digitizing and making camera-trapdata available to aid conservationMousumi GhoshWildlife Institute of India, PO Box # 18, Chandrabani, Dehradun-248001,UttarakhandEmail: mousumi1812@gmail.comConservation Purpose: Large volumes of camera-trap images are held invarious institutions or with individuals. In order to enable free sharing,access and dissemination of such data to be used in policy and knowledge-based decision-making, there is a great need for a standardized metadataregime while adequately crediting contributing data owners.Research Methods: To demonstrate the standardization of the metadataregime, camera-trap images of tigers collected from Rajaji National Parkwere used. The images were geotagged to enable display on GIS domain.We based the data capture on the Audubon Core metadata standard in theform of an MS Excel-based template, developed by GBIF and TDWG jointtask group.Important Results: 375 camera-trap images of tigers from Rajaji NationalPark across eight years were geotagged and entered into the Audubon Coretemplate. A 22-letter unique ‘identifier’ was constructed for eachphotograph. Eight new terms have been added to the Audubon Core terms toinclude information on trap location and individual identification. All theimages and metadata will be published via a web portal.! 31!
  • !!Anthropogenic effects on the health and stress of the Honduranspiny-tailed iguana (Ctenosaura melanosterna)Guillaume DemareFlat 5 27 William Road NW1 3EY London UKEmail: Purpose: A rising concern that accompanies the increasingneed to protect biodiversity on the long-term is the poorly investigatedindirect effect of human activities, such as nature-based tourism, thatpotentially jeopardise the persistence of animal populations alreadythreatened by direct anthropogenic pressure. Here, I explore the effects ofhuman disturbance on an endangered species of iguana.Research Methods: The health of spiny-tailed iguanas was assessed basedon body condition, haematocrit level and external parasite load. The effect ofanthropogenic disturbance was determined by comparing the health ofindividuals frequently interacting with humans with that of individualsthriving in a natural environment. In addition, data on stress hormones(glucocorticoid steroid) were collected.Important Results: Human disturbance does not appear to affect the healthcondition of iguanas. Complementary results suggest that individuals aremaintaining good health conditions through a behavioral adjustment thatallow them to invest less time and energy in predator avoidance (a processknown as acclimation).! 32!
  • !!Coping with human elephant conflicts in coffee agro-forestrylandscapes in Kodagu, Western Ghats, IndiaPayal BalCentre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, INDIAEmail: bal.payal@gmail.comConservation Purpose: The study addresses the conservation problem ofelephant human-elephant conflict (HEC) in Virajpet district in Kodagu.Building on previous studies in the area, we wanted to assess spatial andtemporal trends of conflict, analyse local stakeholders perceptions andidentify factors driving elephants into the estates and document elephantconsumption of ripe coffee berries.Research Methods: We collected records of crop damage by elephants fromthe Karnataka Forest Department. The occurrences were mapped. Weconducted semi-structured interviews in the area to elicit local perceptionson HEC We collected data on habitat variables (eg. Canopy cover, fruittrees, etc) from 20 estates. We recorded the location of 209 dung piles andcounted coffee seeds in each.Important Results: The intensity of HEC increased over 1996-2007,exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlationbetween physical features of estates and elephant visits suggest elephantsmove along corridors between eastern and western forests foragingopportunistically. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectivelyincluded ripe coffee berries in their diet (first report).! 33!
  • !!Ecological monitoring and biodiversity assessment of sand duneecosystems in Visakhapatnam coastal areas, Andhra PradeshAparna SurampudiC/O S. HEMALATHA door no. 53-18-68/2, near sivalayam, maddilapalem,Visakhapatnam-530013, Andhra Pradesh.Email: aparna.au_es@yahoo.comConservation Purpose: a) To study the distribution and types of sand dunesin Visakhapatnam coastal region. b) To evaluate sand dune geomorphologyand assessment of species diversity of flora and fauna. c) To enumeratethreatened fauna and their ecological interactions with coastal sand dunes. d)To prepare the site wise specific conservation and management plans forprotection of sand dunes. e) Restoration and degradedResearch Methods: 1) Survey of sand dunes 2) geomorphological characters3) grain analysis 4) seasonal changes in dynamics of sand dunes. 5)Ecological status 6) documentation 7) flora and faunal survey 8) impacts ofsand dunes. 9) Conservation of sand dunesImportant Results:-Comparison of the biodiversity of two progarding fore dunes in order toidentify any variations in dune vegetation succession evolving under similarclimatic conditions.-The historical changes in the morphology of the dunes through GIS analysis-Influence of dune morphology and environmental variables on thebiodiversity.-Distribution of sand dunes in Visakhapatnam coastal region.! 34!
  • !!Distribution and ecology of Asian wild buffalo Bubalus arneeKerr, 1792 in IndiaMayur BawriEmail: mayur_bawri@yahoo.comConservation Purpose: Once widely distributed in its former range, wildbuffalo is one of the worst affected in the recent times. In Kaziranga, whichharbors more than 80% of its population annual monitoring of wild buffalopopulation is required as there are evidences that populations of othersympatric wild herbivores (rhino, swamp deer, hog deer) in KNP are also onconstant increase during last two decades and there is an apprehension thatthese species may compete for resources.Research Methods: Line Transect method is used for populationdemography, Herd-identification: Buffaloes were identified bycharacteristics of their horns such shape & size, ears such cuts, holes.(Douglas Hamilton, 1972). A scan sampling method was employed to theplant species being eaten by each visible member in a herd recorded at 5-minute intervals (Altman, 1974).Important Results: 175 herds were identified. Average herd size is 12individuals. sex biased habitat selection is observed with representation ofmale (woodland>short grassland>tall grassland>wetland>swamp) thanfemale (swamp>wetland>short grassland>tall grassland>woodland). Weidentified 120 species of food plants consumed by wild buffalo belonging to30 families.! 35!
  • !!Nectar resource use by butterflies across forests, fragments,parks and urban spaces in tropical SingaporeAnuj Jain#16-258D, South Tower, Graduate Residences, University Town, NationalUniversity of Singapore, Singapore - 138601.Email: anuj0001@gmail.comConservation Purpose: Feeding ecology of South East Asian butterflies ispoorly studied despite that nectar quality is known to affect fecundity andlongevity. This talk addresses how nectar use varies across different land usetypes and specifically whether non-native weedy plants serve as animportant perennial nectar resource for tropical forest butterfly species.Research Methods: Butterfly species and abundance and plant species usedas nectar resource by butterflies were recorded across 63 sites in Singapore -forest reserves, fragments, parks and urban areas. Data was collected usingPollard walks. Photographic records from volunteers supplemented this aspart of citizen science program. Majority of observations were made over 16months from Jan 2011 to Apr 2012.Important Results: 155 butterfly species were observed feeding on over 100species of flowering plants. Habitat specialization of butterflies wascorrelated with their nectaring specialization. Forest and urban adaptorbutterflies both used native and non-native plants as nectar resource. Therewas support for the hypothesis that forest restricted butterflies use non-native plants as a year round nectar resource.! 36!
  • !!Monitoring & evaluating land use/land cover - A participatoryapproachNita Shashidharan203,Avon Plaza II, Thakur Complex, Kandivali (East),Mumbai 400101.Email: neeta_shashi@yahoo.comConservation Purpose: This project examines the use of open sourcesoftware as tools that could aid public participation in solving real worldproblems like natural resource management.Research Methods: The Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai was thestudy site for this study. The research method involved 1) Literature Surveyfor designing a model for community and NGOs application using GoogleEarth, GPS and QGIS. 2) Using simple and open source based methodologyfor land use/land cover change detection obtained from GLOBE (GlobalLearning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) program.Important Results: 1) A model for the general public highlighting basicways the public can play a part in tackling land use issues. 2) Applying theGLOBE methodology change detection was documented for the SanjayGandhi National Park, Mumbai between 2000 and 2010 and highlights theneed for more concentration on protection of the fringe areas.! 37!
  • !!Traditional use of Ethnomedicobotanical plants by Koch-Rajbongshi community in Home Garden of Bongaigaon District,AssamDeepankar BarmanDepartment of Ecology and Environmental Science, Assam University,SilcharEmail: jayanta.aus@gmail.comConservation Purpose: The home garden management is a traditionalpractice of Koch-Rajbonshi community in Assam, where they grow differentplant species. Besides the planted species, there are naturally grown plantspecies. The present study documents those plant species and investigatehow the communities conserves and use traditionally them for their healthcare.Research Methods: I interviewed traditional medicine practitioners(Kabiraj) and other old people belonging to Koch-Rajbongshi communityabout the use of plants extracted from their home garden of 25 villages inBongaigaon district, Assam during 2011-2012. Identification of the plantswas done by collecting live specimen and matching local names with thescientific name.Important Results: 96 species of plants belonging to 52 families wereidentified used to cure 31 kinds of ailments. Out of these 30 species areplanted, 34 naturally grown and 32 were both naturally grown and planted.Leaves and herbs were used significantly more. Medicinal plants weremostly used to cure dysentery followed by urinary and menstruationproblem.! 38!
  • !!Integrated Conservation and Development Projects (ICDP) in theTaita Hills, KenyaRadhika TimbadiaShate Hilltop House P.O. Box 1116 Wundanyi Postal Code: 80304 KenyaEmail: radhika.timbadia@gmail.comConservation Purpose: Institutions trying to protect biodiversity spendmillions of dollars on initiatives but rarely define or measure success andthus do not know whether these initiatives have been effective. The studydocuments selected nature-based enterprises and investigates whether beinginvolved in a nature-based enterprise changes people’s attitude toconservation when compared with a group not involved.Research Methods: Survey questionnaire measuring conservationbehaviour, attitude, attitude towards officials, perceived behaviour efficacy,attitude to local forests and perception of linkage. Socio-economic anddemographic questions were included to compare with the control group andmeasure propensity scores. Open-ended questions to learn about the processinvolved, history and sustainability of the activity.Important Results: The study is under way. It is expected to finish in June.! 39!
  • !!Population structure and microhabitat preference of theHimalayan Yew (Taxus wallichiana.zucc) in UttarkashiRhea GangulyAJ- 185, Sector 2, Saltlake City, Kolkata - 700091 West BengalEmail: rheagang@gmail.comConservation Purpose: The talk aims to address conservation issues whendealing with a data deficient species (Taxus wallichiana) of commercialimportance. Lack of literature on population structure, microhabitat of thespecies makes it difficult for conservationists and managers to monitor thestatus and health of the species in the wild. Patchy occurrence, poorregeneration & commercial value make the species vulnerable.Research Methods: Field Methods 1. Stratified sampling 2. AdaptiveSampling on linear transects 3. Circular plots for vegetation and habitatparameters along linear transects Analytical Methods: 1. Maxent 2. Binomiallogistic regression models 3. Generalized linear models 4. G test 5. Chi2 test6. Softwares R and SPSS.Important Results: 1. Predictive distribution map based on bioclimaticvariable values for all site locations 2. Bias in sex ratio towards femaleindividuals 3. Variation in sex ratio across habitat types 4. Variation in ageclass distribution across forest types and disturbance gradients 5. Terrainfactors like slope and litter depth important for determining the presence ofthe species.! 40!
  • !!Carbon storage by mangrove trees and roots in Muara AngkeNature Reserve, Jakarta, IndonesiaNovi Andika PutriJl. Ancol Selatan, RT. 13/07 No. 36, Sunter Agung, Tanjung Priok, JakartaUtara, IndonesiaEmail: noviandikaputri@yahoo.comConservation Purpose: Jakarta produces high level of carbon dioxide due tofossil fuel combustion and industrial activities. Mangrove forest of MuaraAngke is the only natural ecosystem left in Jakarta, which can play animportant role as a carbon sink to reduce the concentration of atmosphericcarbon dioxide. This research is conducted to estimate carbon storage intrees and roots of mangrove forest in Muara Angke.Research Methods: Carbon stock data were taken from 15 plots with size of20 m × 40 m. In each plot, we measured diameter at breast height (DBH)and counted number of species and individual. Allometric equation(Komiyama et al., 2005) was used to estimate trees and roots biomass.Carbon organic was converted using 50% conversion factor, which isconsidered as 50% of the total biomass.Important Results: There were three species found in Muara Angkemangrove forest: Avicennia marina, Rhizopora mucronata and Sonneratiacausealis. Total biomass and carbon stock of mangrove trees was 21.26Mg/ha and 10.63 Mg/ha, while biomass and carbon stock of roots was 11.47Mg/ha and 5.74 Mg/ha. A. marina had the highest potential to store carboncompared to other species, due to its higher density and DBH size.! 41!
  • !!Comparative use of bird foraging guild composition as a novelindicator of habitat qualityThilina De Silva42/11, Sooriyagoda Road, Uda Eriyagama, Peradeniya (20400), Sri Lanka.Email: nethmin999@gmail.comConservation Purpose: There is high need of an easy to implement,timesaving, cost effective method to assess the best approaches to ecologicalconservation. The study focuses on: whether bird foraging guilds (BFG)serve as better indicators in environmental assessments than theconventional species diversity measurements? Can BFG aid in prioritizinghabitats for conservation and determining best restoration strategies.Research Methods: Line transects, point counts and mist nets were used inbird sampling. Sites were chosen representing a gradient of habitatdisturbance, which were compared with pristine natural forest conditionusing guild compositions to device the Bird Guild Index (BGI) that rangedfrom 0 to 141.4. Correlations between BGI and vegetation parameters,species richness and habitat disturbance levels were analysed.Important Results: BGI values ranged from 82.3 to 19.7. BGI values hadclear correlation with vegetation parameters (esp. of a regenerating forestregarding six years of regeneration) and level of disturbance. As the habitatquality improved and disturbance levels decreased, BGI moved from higherto lower values. Guilds consisting of arboreal insectivores and frugivoreswere most sensitive to habitat degradation.! 42!
  • !!Foraging association of pig tailed macaque with Drongo inHollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Jorhat, Assam, IndiaSamrat SenguptaC/O Sarthak Sengupta, Department of Anthropology Dibrugarh, UniversityDibrugarh, Assam. PIN- 786004Email: samrat_sengupta1@yahoo.comConservation Purpose: Viability of single species can be understood only inthe context of ecological interactions with the other species and theenvironment. Study of species interactions gives clues in analysis ofcommunity dynamics, multispecies habitat conservation plans a. To studythe specificity of Primate-Bird association in Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary. b.To study the location of the drongos following the primate.Research Methods: Scan and focal observations were the two main sourcesof data. Data were collected over a period of 6 months (Sep-Feb 2012), onthe presence or absence of bird species that associated with primates alongwith other parameters like foraging height of the birds around primates,distance from the troop as well as the strata used by them. The two werejudged to be in association if they are seen together.Important Results: Pig tailed macaque associated the most frequently withbirds among all the other primates. The drongos were found to be the mostconsistent and frequent attendant of the pig tailed macaque, of which thebronze drongo was the most frequent visitor. The drongos were mostlypresent below the plane of pig tailed macaque foraging height at a distanceof average 6-8 m in most of the instances.! 43!
  • !!Losses of intertidal flats in East Asia: quantifying threats andassessing lossesNicholas MurrayCentre for Applied Environmental Decision Analysis ARC Centre forExcellence in Environmental Decisions School of Biological SciencesUniversity of Queensland St Lucia, Brisbane Queensland, Australia 4072Email: Purpose: The coastal wetlands of East Asia are rapidlydisappearing. A recent remote sensing study showed losses of intertidal flatsare occurring at rates greater than or equal to losses of nearby tropical forestsand coral reefs. Massive losses of this habitat type indicate a majorconservation crisis and efforts to quantify and characterize losses are neededto develop effective conservation strategies.Research Methods: We analysed a remote sensing dataset of the spatialdistribution of all remaining intertidal flats in China, North Korea and SouthKorea and, by investigating all patches of habitat that have been lost since1975, determined the primary threats to this ecosystem. We used expertknowledge, ground-truthing and high-resolution global land cover datasetsto quantify the key drivers of tidal flat loss.Important Results: The remote sensing data showed that more than 18% oftidal flats have disappeared in East Asia since 1985. Land reclamation forurban, industrial and aquaculture development were the chief causes ofintertidal flat loss. Losses in China were mostly attributable to portdevelopments, mining and aquaculture, whereas losses in South Korea wereprimarily for urban and agricultural land.! 44!
  • !!Mikania micrantha: A threat to community forestSurendra BamInternational Student hostel, North campus, Room no.ES4, AndhraUniversity, Visakhapatnam, Andhra pradeshEmail: surendra_bam777@yahoo.comConservation Purpose: Nepal has made very limited comprehensive studiesand research for assessing the impacts of IAS. It may help to provide a well-defined description, abundance and categorization of non-native plants thatare invading protected area of Nepal. Especially this study will be importantfor the conservation of endangered species like one horned Rhino, Tiger,elephant etc. that have been badly affected.Research Methods: Data collection: Primary data (Key informants, survey,Direct observation), Secondary data. Line plot sampling design andImportant Value Index (IVI) was measured by Formula given by Zobel etal., 1987; The dominance diversity curve and invasiveness rank formdeveloped by Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation Divisionof Natural Heritage in June 2001 and adopted by IUCN/Nepal.Important Results: The dominant species is Mikania micrantha with the IVI69.68. The codominant is Alternanthera sessilis with IVI 44.44 and the leastdominating species is Coccinea grandis in Community forestry. Magnitudeof species ranking showed Mikania micrantha having the significant impacton the native plants species and has more coverage of ground and canopycausing huge impact and loss of habitats.! 45!
  • !!Studies on ecology of Spiny-Tailed lizard Saara hardwickii(Gray, 1827) in Thar desert of Rajasthan, IndiaKalpana DasCenter for ecological Sciences, Indian institute of Science, Bangalore-560012Email: kkalpanaa1988@gmail.comConservation Purpose: The Indian spiny-tailed lizard Saara hardwickii(Gray, 1827) is the only herbivorous reptile species in India and currentlydistributed largely in small fragmented populations in the dry areas ofnorthwest India i.e. Thar Desert of Rajasthan and Gujarat. The present studyfocused on the ecological studies on this lizard, which will act as gap fillingfor conservation of these vulnerable lizards.Research Methods: 1.Quadrat sampling method that was time-constrained.During the study, each day was divided into twelve one hour time classes(from 0600 hrs to 1800 hrs) and sampling was done in two such time classesper day, one in the morning shift and one in the afternoon shift. 2. Directobservation was taken on 1) Population analysis 2)food and feeding3)Microhabitat use 4) Adult, sub-adult and juvenile groups.Important Results: 1.The study revealed that the area is one of thepreferable habitats for the species. Population analysis showed the relativeabundance of the sub-adults was higher, followed by juveniles and adultsduring the period. 2.The study revealed two important ecological findingsabout this lizards- complete sealing of burrow by these lizards during rain,which differed from partial sealing in normal days.! 46!
  • !!Co-occurrence patterns among rocky inter-tidal gastropodcommunity along west coast of IndiaMahi PuriS-515 Greater Kailash-2 New Delhi-110048 IndiaEmail: mahi.puri@gmail.comConservation Purpose: The current study addresses the generality of co-occurrence patterns at a broader spatial scale, covering over 1000 km, withthe following questions: 1. Is the overall pattern of species associationrandom or deterministic? 2. What is the relative proportion of positive andnegative interactions? 3. What is the co-occurrence pattern amongcongeneric species of gastropods?Research Methods: Sampling was carried out on sites identified along theshore, representative of intertidal fauna. A 0.5 sqm quadrat was placed atmid-high tide level to establish gastropod species presence and a nestedquadrat (0.25 sqm) was used for estimating percentage cover of algae andsessile organisms. Co-occurrence was quantified using the checkerboardindex and pairwise association strengths were calculated.Important Results: Analysis is ongoing and the final results are awaited.! 47!
  • !!Predicting areas of human-wildlife conflict using a MaximumEntropy approach in the Rajaji National Park, IndiaTrishant SimlaiDurrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, School of Anthropology andConservation, University of Kent Canterbury United Kingdom CT27NZEmail: trishantsimlai@gmail.comConservation Purpose: The use of spatially explicit models to predict andforecast human-wildlife conflict has not yet been extensively explored. Inthis study I use a maximum entropy approach to identify areas that aresusceptible to human-wildlife conflict inside Rajaji National Park, India.Research Methods: 1. Field-surveys to collect presence locations of largemammals and anthropogenic activities. 2. A geographic information systemwas used to prepare environmental predictor variables 3. Spatial distributionmodeling to predict current species distributions for large mammals andareas of anthropogenic disturbance 4. Spatial overlay of the speciesdistribution and anthropogenic disturbance models.Important Results: All models performed well with mean AUC value=0.827 (p < 0.005). Nearly 66% of the study area was at considerable risk ofconflict, of which 16.63% had the highest risk. 60.85% of the area waspredicted to be the mean percentage of large mammal habitat use whileGujjars and other local communities used 77.40% and 44.59% respectively.! 48!
  • !!Trends in uncontrolled & destructive fishing efforts on Portunuspelagicus resources off the coast of Northern Sri LankaSivanthan SathiavakeesparanRajasthan, Sithankerny. Jaffna Sri LankaEmail: sivanth.1201@yahoo.comConservation Purpose: In a post-war context the open access nature hastriggered drastic expansion of fishing activities and use of some destructivefishing methods off the waters of Jaffna in northern SL. In export orientedlive-crab fishery, which becoming popular in Jaffna, use Wool type gillnetsand illegal Monofilament gillnets. But most of these crab catches arerejected by exporters due to high level of damages.Research Methods: Portunus pelagicus catches of illegal Monofilamentgillnet and non-illegal Wool type gillnet were compared in Catch per UnitEffort (under 4 weight categories & bycatch), length-frequency distributions,level of damages & occurrence of undersize (<50g) individuals in catchesoff Jaffna. Further, fishery catch & effort statistics obtained fromDepartment of Fisheries from 2007-2011 were compared.Important Results: Significantly increased catches observed after civil war.Higher catch rates of large (>250g) P. pelagicus were reported inMonofilament nets than Wool nets. But ~60% of captured crabs weredamaged at both type of gillnets & levels of damages were in similar range(P>o.o5). 40% of small crabs (<50g) resulted from Monofilament nets &both gears resulted higher level of immature individuals < L50.! 49!
  • !!Macro algae zonation patterns and dynamics of annualfluctuations in populations of sea urchins in two rocky shores ofSri LankaGayani ThilakarathnaRathna Sevana, Hirigolla, Kobeigane, Sri LankaEmail: nilupikat@yahoo.comConservation Purpose: Key stone species such as sea urchins play a majorrole in rocky shores as grazers. Macroalgae habitats with sea urchinsexperience severe disturbances due to pollution and coastal area reclamation.These directly affect the zonation pattern of macroalgae and the sea urchinpopulations. Thus, there is an immediate need of base line data on algae-urchin interactions, algae composition and spatio-temporal variations forfuture conservation efforts.Research Methods: Two main sites were selected. (protected, highlydisturbed-Hikkaduwa /unprotected less disturbed- Ahangama). Threehabitats (near shore, intermediate and splash) selected in each site. Linetransect method and quadrate (50X50cm) sampling method used to measuremacrolagae composition and cover. Sea urchin density of each habitatmeasured using belt transect method. Data were analyzed using multivariatetechniques.Important Results: Data analysis of flora confirmed the distinctiveness ofthree habitats in relation to floral cover mainly due to differences in thedispersion of Hypnea sp. and Gracilaria sp. in Hikkaduwa and due to Padinasp., Ulva sp. and Jania sp. in Ahangama. Stomopneustes variolaris wasdominant in both sites. Hikkaduwa had a higher urchin density compared toAhangama. The highest mean density was recorded in splash zone and nearshore habitat in Hikkaduwa and Ahangama respectively.! 50!
  • !!Ecology and feeding behaviour of Sloth bear (Melursus ursinus)in Parambikulam Tiger Reserve, KeralaSajeer K. V.Centre for Wildlife Studies, College of forestry, Kerala AgriculturalUniversity, Vellanikkara Pin 680656 Thrissur, KeralaEmail: sajforestry06@gmail.comConservation Purpose: The Sloth bear’s range has shrunk in recent timesdue to poaching and the populations have become fragmented, threateningits overall survival.Research Methods: Camera trap method using grid cell survey. Linetransect for direct and indirect evidence. Day transect for indirect & directevidences: Information on composition and seasonal variation in bear dietcan be collected either through foraging observations or indirectly throughscat analysis.Important Results: The feeding ecology of sloth bears was studied byanalyzing 132 scats; 6 species of plants, termites, ants, and bees, as well asunidentified animal matter were found in bear scats. Frequency ofoccurrence of insects was high during dry season (76%), whereas Cassia andZizipus species were more common (68%) during summer season. Thehabitat preference of the sloth bear was also studied by using camera trapdata and other indirect evidences and it was found that sloth bear prefermostly dry deciduous followed by moist deciduous forest during summerseason and it was evident from the presence of sacts in these areas. They areactive during night since the camera trap data shows their activity in nightcompared to daytime.! 51!
  • !!Conservation implication of the property rights institutions in theprotected areas of OdishaBrajaraja MishraCentre for Economic and Social Studies Nizamiah Observatory CampusBegumpet Hyderabad-16 Andhra PradeshEmail: mishrabrajaraja@gmail.comConservation Purpose: The main aim of this study is to analyse how far theproperty rights institutions with respect to the Forest Rights Act, 2006 isable to change people’s attitude towards ecosystem conservation.Research Methods: Case Study Method was adopted for this particularstudy. About 221 sample households from 10 villages living inside theLakhari Valley Wildlife Sanctuary, Odisha were selected through the clustersampling method. Attitudinal Survey at the household level was conductedand chi-square tests and t-tests were applied to test any significant differencebetween the categorical variables.Important Results: Even though people are fully aware of the significanceof the ecosystem conservation and not involved in any destructive harvestingpractices, primary importance to livelihood activities and non-responsivebehaviour to various government policy regimes no way reflects theirpositive attitudes towards ecosystem conservation.! 52!
  • !!Assessment of spatio-temporal changes and prioritization ofexisting tiger corridors in Central IndiaPranita Sambhus#416, 12th cross, Jakkur Layout, Yalahanka Post, Bangalore – 560064Email: sambhus.pranita@gmail.comConservation Purpose: Panthera tigris, umbrella species that has faced92.9% range collapse in 150 years, now merely survives in about 150fragments. Furthermore, these isolated populations are vulnerable toextinction. Habitat connected through corridors is a prime necessity forsustaining tiger metapopulations. Our study analyses spatio-temporalchanges and future sustainability of tiger corridors.Research Methods: We considered 2 tiger metapopulations in Central Indiaa) Pench-Kanha-Achanakmar b) Satpura-Melghat. We first designed thespecies distribution model, using which we modelled corridors within thepopulations. These corridors were studied for spatial changes in last 20 yearsand assuming these changes to proceed in same direction. We predicted thesustainability of corridors for upcoming decade.Important Results: Major determinants of tiger distribution are; patches ofundisturbed forest, prey abundance, and level of human disturbance. From1990 to 2007, landscapes have sustained 67% of dense forest cover whileopen forest has shown maximum changes 15% got converted to agricultureand 20% to other human activities. Our prediction shows alarming landchange in future too.! 53!
  • !!Impact of traditional forest management system of Monpaindigenous community on tree structure, regeneration andcomposition in Western Arunachal PradeshJaya UpadhyayWWF-India Western Arunachal Landscape Programme Parvati Nagar,Tezpur, Assam, 784001Email: jaya632008@yahoo.comConservation Purpose: The pressure of forest resource utilization on theforest tree species and the impact of traditional management system in thearea. In the present study comparison of structure, species composition andregeneration of tree species growing in the managed Oak forest with theforest area from where the villagers collect forest resources and undisturbednatural forest areas has been carried out.Research Methods: Intensive survey of the area by laying random plots. Thearea includes managed oak forest, disturbed forest area for firewood andother purpose and natural undisturbed area.Important Results: From the study number of tree species in the managedOak forest, the where villagers mainly allow Oak tree to grow, is only 7compared to 62 numbers of trees in the forest area from where villagerscollect various forest resources of their daily use. Number of tree species inthe undisturbed forest area nearby the village has been found to be 36. Statusof regeneration of tree species in managed oak forest has been also found tobe very low compared to disturbed and undisturbed forest mainly becausethe villagers manipulate the growth and survival of tree species in managedoak forest and allow mainly oak seedlings required for replacing old deadoak tree to grow in these forest areas.! 54!
  • !!Monitoring of a GPS collared tigress outside TATR,MaharashtraNavya R8/364, cooperative colony valparai 642127 Tamil NaduEmail: Purpose: Human- wildlife conflict. Most research work isconfined to within protected areas, but recently studies do report thepresence of large cats residing outside PA, in human use landscape, howeververy little is known about them. It is important to understand the ecology ofthe animals in such landscape where the threat to their conservation andimpact of their presence on human is much severe.Research Methods: Tracking using GPS-GSM collar. The GPS locationswere downloaded from NINA website and the actual locations were reachedand looked for signs left behind by the tigress like scat, scrape, hairs, kills.Important Results: Total 1761 GPS locations, 838 daytime,923 nighttimelocations. Minimum distance travelled-454.65km. 99.74km during day and354.98km during night. used both forested and nonforested areas likeagricultural fields, lake reed beds, grassland in agriculture fields. Kills- 6wild pig, 2 goat, 1 langur, 2 unidentified. In one occasion she was 80 mtsfrom a road where 3 women, bullock carts passed by.! 55!
  • !!Impact of high vehicular traffic on the activity pattern of largecarnivores in Manas National Park, AssamPallabi ChakrabortyC/o. WWF-India, North Bank Landscape Conservation Programme, ParvatiNagar Tezpur-784001 AssamEmail: pallabi.shillong@gmail.comConservation Purpose: Manas National Park (470 sq. km.), is a worldHeritage Site, in western Assam. It is a tourist hotspot, with high touristinflux and traffic movement in the area. We thus carried out a preliminarystudy examining the impact of high vehicular traffic on the activity patternof four major carnivores (Tigers, Leopards, Clouded Leopards and Dholes).Research Methods: Camera traps were systematically distributed within thestudy area by superimposing a 2*2 sq. km. grid and deploying at least onedouble sided camera unit. Encounter rates of animals and vehicles werecalculated from each trapping sites and were correlated to asses the impactof vehicular traffic on wildlife activity pattern.Important Results: 1. Movement of the carnivores was significantly lesserduring the heavy traffic movement period than at late nights. 2. The activitypattern was influenced by anthropogenic disturbance, like increased trafficmovement.! 56!
  • !!Current status of the genus Sitana Cuvier, 1829 (Reptilia:Agamidae) with taxonomic reevaluationsA. A. Thasun AmarasingheJl. Kuricang 18 Gd.9 No.47 Bintaro Jaya Sektor 3A Ciputat 15412,Tangerang INDONESIAEmail: thasun.tanahtimur@gmail.comConservation Purpose: Until 1998 genus Sitana considered as monotypiceven additional species & sub species had been described: S. minor Gunther,1864; S. decanensis Jerdon, 1870 & S. p. mucronata Deraniyagala, 1957. Allthese names synonymised under S. ponticeriana cuvier, 1829. Are all thesesynonyms valid? Is only one species distributed in India & Sri Lanka? Howtaxonomic changes affects to its conservation status.Research Methods: All available types of Indian Sitana were examined atMNHN (holotype of S. ponticeriana), BMNH (holotype of S. minor) & ZSI(holotype of S. decanensis). Also all the Sitana collections at ZSI(Chennai/Kolkata), BNHS, NMSL & WHT were examined. allmeasurements were taken to the nearest 0.1 mm with digital calipers. All theavailable specimens compared critically along with the locality data.Important Results: Reassess the current taxonomic status of genus Sitana:redescribe S. decanensis Jerdon, 1870 as a valid species; S. minorGünther, 1864 is a synonym; S. p. mucronata Deraniyagala, 1957 wasmislead data provided & erroneous identification; critical comparison ofremaining Sitana from India and Sri Lanka with possibilities of additionalnew species.! 57!
  • !!Natural population and conservation status of Nothapodytesnimmoniana (Narakya )across the northern Western Ghats ofIndiaRenuka WaghDepartment of Biodiversity, MESs Abasaheb Garware College, KarveRoad, Pune -411004, Maharashtra, IndiaEmail: rwagh_2008@yahoo.comConservation Purpose: How is the population of species affected by bioticand abiotic variables? What are the parameters affecting camptothecin(CPT)accumulation in the bark of Nothapodytes nimmoniana.Research Methods: Randomly 30 individuals were sampled from eachlocality. Growth parameters like GBH and height measurements and recordsof phenophases were maintained for each individual. A strip of bark wasremoved for quantification of camptothecin using HPLC analysis.Important Results: Thematic maps such as Niche modeling and predictionhave been prepared. Decrease in average GBH was observed as one movesfrom south towards north. Identification of plus individuals with respect tocamptothecin content has been done for few localities.! 58!
  • !!Population, reproductive ecology and harvest regime of SaracaasocaMonali MhaskarDepartment of Biodiversity, Abasaheb Garware College, Karve Road, Pune411004, Maharashtra, IndiaEmail: monali.mhaskar@gmail.comConservation Purpose: 1) Is there any ecological constrains limitingpopulation build up of Saraca asoca in its natural habitats? 2) What will bethe sustainable harvest approach for the species?Research Methods: Transect of 100mX5m laid in each locality forpopulation study with enumeration of GBH measurement, height estimationand regeneration pattern. Five inflorescence per individuals and 10individuals per population were sampled for various breeding parameters.Referring to various GBH classes, bark differing in dimension and total areaharvested for estimation of yields and bark regeneration pattern.Important Results: Demography at diverse protection levels shows effect ofdisturbance on recruitment pattern the species. Populations occupied inevergreen/ semi evergreen forest found associated with sacred places. Inspite of mass flowering heavy predation and infestation affects the seed set.There was no pattern observed in regeneration of bark for differentdimension of strip removed.! 59!
  • !!Urban biodiversity: Reptilian fauna within the GauhatiUniversity Campus, Guwahati, AssamMazedul IslamDepartment of Zoology Gauhati University Guwahati-14 Assam, IndiaEmail: assamherpetofauna@gmail.comConservation Purpose: What are the main threats for the survival of reptilespecies within the Gauhati University campus?Research Methods: For diversity study active search method and VisualEncounter Survey (Campbell and Christman 1982; Corn and Bury, 1990).Microhabitat destruction study as per Matthew et al., 1995.Important Results: The study shows that large growing species (e. g.,Python bivittatus, Ptyas mucosa) are threatened from persecution and foresthabitat shrinkage however population of habitat specific species (Nilssoniahurum and Enhydris enhydris) are at extinction crisis owing to rapidreclamation of wetland areas.! 60!
  • !!A Study on Etheno-veterinary plants belonging to familyFabaceae in Western Ghats parts of Dakshina Kannada districtViveka. M.R.1st M.Sc. Department of Applied Botany Mangalore University, MangalaGangothri Konaje-574199 KarnatakaEmail: vivekmr4@gmail.comConservation Purpose: Dakshina Kannada has a rich tradition of plant useby various groups of people. Also there are traditional practitioners ofEthno-veterinary plants for various kinds of aliments. With the changing lifestyle pattern there is need to conserve these Etheno-veterinary plants. Alsoto create awareness among the public regarding the conservation &utilization of these plants.Research Methods: For this traditional practitioners were interviewed andinformation were gathered. Data such as parts used, season in which theplant parts collected, method of preparation of medicine, dosage etc.collected. A detailed questionnaire was prepared for this purpose.Important Results: Total number of plants of Fabaceae used in Ethno-veterinary medicinal practice-15. The plant parts used in the Ethno-veterinary medicine are leaves, stem, bark,s eed, latex etc. Leaves areextensively used in the medicine while the latex used very rarely.! 61!
  • !!Biogeographical aspects of Hypericum sinaicum in south Sinai,EgyptKarim Omar39- Elgameia Elzreia St., Meniet Elsibaa, Benha, Kalyobya, Egypt.Email: kariem_npe@yahoo.comConservation Purpose: Clearly identify conservation priorities and suggestappropriate strategies for H. sinaicum conservation. Detect the potentialrange for distribution of H. sinaicum among different environmentalvariables in order to use it as first step for conservation by rehabilitation orrestoration. Define the geographical and ecological status of H. sinaicum andcharacterize this range by its size, shape.Research Methods: Four methods were used to clearly identify habitatpreference for H. sinaicum illustrated as followed: 1-Phytosociologicalstudies: Transect/quadrant method 2-Morphological characteristics (Planttraits). 3-Soil Analysis ( Physical and chemical properties) 4-Eco-geographical analysis (Geographical (Topography), Ecological (Habitatpreference, demography) and Climatic attributes analysis).Important Results: Hypericum sinaicum recorded as dominant species inonly 9 sites from 237 with 3.8%. A bout 50% of H. sinaicum individuals’concentrated between elevations 1800-2000m, also located at North East(44%). Most found in Cliffs and Gorges 27.2% for both. 29 ecologicalvariables (edaphic, climatic and topographic) were results from study andwill used in rehabilitation process for this species.! 62!
  • !!Assessing the conservation reality of the Arabian LeopardPanthera pardus nimr in Eastern YemenMalini Pittet03/C Willows Court Parkwood University of Kent CT2 7UT Canterbury,EnglandEmail: malini.pittet@gmail.comConservation Purpose: The Arabian leopard is classified as ‘CriticallyEndangered’ on the IUCN Red List 2006 and listed in Appendix I of CITES.The Arabian Leopard is Yemens national animal since 2008. Thecombination of a lack of data and multiple threats contributes toinappropriate protection of the Arabian leopard in Yemen. Today isolatedpopulations occur in the mountainous regions of Saudi Arabia, Oman,Yemen and the United Arab Emirates. A preliminary analysis was conductedin the Hawf Protected Area to determine if the Arabian Leopard stilldominates the landscape.Research Methods: A camera-trap study, at the initiative of the Foundationfor the Protection of the Arabian Leopard in Yemen (FPALY), to assess thestatus of the Arabian leopard in the Hawf Protected Area was carried outover a period of 58 days in 2010. Line transects as well and informalinterviews with local herders in the area were carried out during the surveyperiod.Important Results: The camera-trap survey yielded 351 useful picturesobtained in 58 trap-nights. Of these, 321 were pictures of mammals and 30of birds. The traps recorded 10 mammal species and 8 bird species. A maincomponent of this project is dedicated to training local scientists with theeventual goal of carrying out a long term monitoring of Arabian Leopards inYemen.! 63!
  • !!Conservation of Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens) in WesternArunachal Pradesh- experience from the fieldRajarshi ChakrabortyWWF-India Western Arunachal Programme, Parvati Nagar, Tezpur-784001,Assam, IndiaEmail: rajarshicha@gmail.comConservation Purpose: Arunachal Pradesh probably houses the largestextent of red panda habitat in India including vital temperate ecosystems.Red Pandas are endangered due to a multitude of human induced factors andthere exists no baseline data on their status in the state. The present workfocused at gathering baseline data from five areas and designingconservation strategies with community participation.Research Methods: Questionnaire survey (To identify potential habitats)Field survey to generate baseline data regarding presence-absence of redpandas and habitat composition Community consultation and stakeholdermeetings to design effective conservation strategies.Important Results: Baseline data regarding presence absence of red pandasand habitat status from five sites in 2 Community Conserved Areas and oneProtected Area in Western Arunachal Pradesh Information on probablethreats and habitat requirement in the focal areas. Community awarenessgeneration and active participation in conservation planning.! 64!
  • !!Of endangered inhabitants of an endemic Habitat -Life of Plantson a Lateritic Plateau of Central Western GhatsGurumurthi HedgeP.G. Department of Studies in Botany, Karnataka University Dharwad-580007, Karnataka-INDIA.Email: gurooji290384@gmail.comConservation Purpose: Lateritic plateaus, the characteristic ecological nicheof coastal belt appears to be one of the richest areas of endemic herbaceousspecies in India. Plateaus serve as a delicate habitat for the endemic andendangered plant community; and ironically plateaus themselves are underthreat today due to many pressures, which in turn affect adversely on plantcommunities.Research Methods: Extensive survey in a Lateritic plateau of CentralWestern Ghats of Karnataka has resulted in the documentation of local flora.The data is then processed and sorted to know the percentage of endemicsand threatened taxa. Distribution pattern of these plants have been studiedalong with their phenology. Threats faced by these plant communities havebeen enlisted to address the conservation.Important Results: The work resulted in recording about 212 species ofAngiosperms from Plateaus, out of which, 57 taxa (26%)are endemics. and25 RET taxa (12%) fall under one or the other categories of IUCN. Inaddition to their distribution pattern, their phenology is also been studied.Further, the local threats to this endangered habitat were enlisted, so as tocheck the further pressure on plant communities.! 65!
  • !!Carbon stock estimation of Pinus roxburghii and Quercusleucotricophora in two Van Panchayat forests, Uttarakhand,IndiaAjay MalethaOld Hostel, Wildlife Institute of India, Post Box# 18, Chandrabani, DehraDun, Uttarakhand- 248 001.Email: maletha.jay@gmail.comConservation Purpose: Climate change is an intense global environmentalchallenge. However this can be controlled by carbon sequestration andforests play significant role in this. Based on management regimes, forestscan be both sinks and sources of carbon. We present carbon relatedparameters in 2 community forests of 2 different vegetation types fromUttarakhand, India and discuss their potential in carbon stocking.Research Methods: Carbon stock was estimated by sample plot (2,000 m2)method. Standing volume of the tree was calculated using species-specificequations. This was converted to standing biomass by multiplying with thewood density of individual tree. Carbon stock as biomass was deduced usinga conversion factor (0.5) representing the average carbon content in biomass.Important Results: Carbon stocks (ton/hectare) between two forests weresignificantly different [Banj oak, 50 (SE 4); chir pine, 87 (SE 17).Undisturbed Chir pine forest was found to sequestrate more carbon from theatmosphere in comparison to disturbed Banj oak forest. Compared to otherstudies on carbon stock carried out in India (n = 13), the current studyreports a higher carbon stock estimate.! 66!
  • !!Allelopathic effect of Chromolaena odorata on gram seeds andsoil mycofloraGeeta ThangjamC/O Hillol Jyoti Singha Department of Ecology and Environmental ScienceAssam University, Silchar Silchar, 788011Email: Purpose: Invasive species is a major threat of biodiversitydegradation. There is wide scope of production of herbicide, insectide andfungicides from the allelopathic plant parts (leaf, stem, root), which can helpto reduce the use of inorganic pesticides in agroecosystem. Thus the mainaim is to study allepathic effects on ecosystem.Research Methods: Aqueous extracts of fresh leaves, stem and roots wereprepared. Gram seeds were soaked in the extracts. The effect of the extractswas observed on the seed germination on radicle growth and plummuleelongation. For observing soil mycoflora, Chromolaena odorata werecollected, chopped and mixed with the soil samples from tea agroecosystem.Soil dilution method was used to identify the mycoflora.Important Results: The extracts (leaf, stem and root) have inhibitory effecton the germination and growth of radicle and plummule of gram seeds. Forsoil mycoflora, the leaf, stem and root of Chromolaena odorata added as soilamended has increased the fungal population in the soil when compared tocontrol.! 67!
  • !!Effect of fishing on the assemblage structure of fishes in thetropical hill streams of Pakke Tiger ReserveVishnupriya SankararamanF-21, NCBS, GKVK Campus, Bellary Road, Bangalore- 560065Email: vishnupriya10@gmail.comConservation Purpose: Freshwater systems globally are under extremestress due to several anthropogenic factors, threatening many aquaticspecies. Although, over-harvesting for food is one of the main factors, itseffects are poorly documented. This study focuses on determining the effectof fishing on the hill stream fish assemblages in Pakke Tiger Reserve,Arunachal Pradesh.Research Methods: Segments from 21 streams within and outside the parkwere surveyed to measure richness, abundance and size class of fish. Habitatcovariates including substrate, stream and bank characteristics werequantified. We conducted social interviews of fishermen as well as keyinformants such as village elders and Forest Department staff to assessimpact of present and past fishing.Important Results: Here, we present results on patterns of richness,abundance and size classes within and outside the protected area. Effect ofecological and anthropogenic predictors on fish assemblages is determined.Streams that have had a history of poison fishing are also assessed for degreeof recovery based on their current management practices.! 68!
  • !!The role of figs and other heterospecific fruiting trees in creatingheterogeneity in seed dispersal in Namdapha TRAshwin Viswanathan10, 6th A Cross, Ramaswamy Palya Vignana Nagar Estn, Marathalli PostBangalore 560037Email: ashwinv2005@gmail.comConservation Purpose: My study was about the role of figs and otherheterospecific fruiting trees in attracting animal dispersed seeds. Is seedarrival in the landscape surrounding a fruiting tree determined by distancefrom the tree alone or is dispersal heterogeneous? Can this heterogeneity beexplained? I will also discuss the concept of disperser redundancy. How willthe loss of large dispersers affect a tree?Research Methods: The study was modeled on a single species of tree,Prunus zeylanicus. Tree watches were conducted. Seed arrival wasdetermined using 1m x 1m plots. These plots were made under and nearconspecific and heterospecific fruiting trees, and under emergents, so as toproportionally sample 6% of the area. Seeds were placed in the sametreatments mirroring natural densities to assess removal rates.Important Results: My results indicate that seed dispersal by animals isindeed heterogeneous and this heterogeneity can be explained by thepresence of heterospecific fruiting trees at local peaks in arrival. Disperserredundancy seems to be an oversimplified concept. While Prunus willcertainly persist in the absence of large dispersers, the size of dispersedseeds and arrival patterns will significantly change.! 69!
  • !!Tracing the geographic origin of traded body parts of Leopardsusing genetic methodsVanjulavalli SridharNational Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS), Tata Institute forFundamental Research (TIFR), GKVK Campus, Bangalore 560 065, INDIAEmail: vanju313@gmail.comConservation Purpose: There is a recent increase in numbers of leopardpoaching, their parts being sold in guise of tiger body parts. Long termstudies have identified trade routes and trade hot-spots, but the origin of thepoached animals remain unknown. This study aims to address that very issueso as to better understand poaching hot-spots, if any, reasons behind themand to ultimately help target protection effortsResearch Methods: Confiscated body parts of leopards were sampled fromthe forest department. After DNA extraction, 14 microsatellite loci wereanalyzed to obtain reliable genotypes, to be followed by assignment testsusing software program SCAT. Re-analysis of leopard genotypes in Indiawith increased numbers of samples is also underway so as to improve theaccuracy of assignment.Important Results: Work is still underway and analysis will be completed inJune.! 70!
  • !!Understanding the meaning of Carnivore Extinction forcommunities with "Human Wildlife Conflict"Neha Sinha270 Tagore Park Model Town 1 New Delhi- 110009Email: nehabnhs@gmail.comConservation Purpose: My research looks at the meaning tiger extinctionholds for forest-dwelling communities (both forest-dependent and partially-forest dependent communities) experiencing regular cattle depredation inSariska tiger reserve, where tigers went locally extinct in 2004 and were re-introduced in 2008. I investigated the meaning of tiger extinction forvillagers; and if the tiger was a conflict animal.Research Methods: I used an open-ended questionnaire to interview 96villagers. I stratified 8 villages based on accessibility to exit points, forestdependence, and remoteness and relocation history. Questions wereperfected after a reconnaissance survey. 23 questions were asked on attitudestowards tiger, governance and sense of place. CATPCA, cross tabulations,and Fischers Tests was used to analyse answers.Important Results: 1.Fully forest-dependent villages demonstrated a fear oftiger extinction. 2. 42% respondents, notably those from the fully-forestdependent villages, stated tiger caused most problems, but was theirfavourite animal. 3. Results demonstrate far-flung villages did not viewexperiences as conflict while better-connected villages had greater diversityof (and more negative) responses towards tiger.! 71!
  • !!Investigating the key determinants of Predator-Human-Conflictin & around Gir National Park and Sanctuary, western IndiaNazneen ZehraDepartment of wildlife sciences, AMU AligarhEmail: catwildlifer80@gmail.comConservation Purpose: LPHC is a global problem stressing to conservationconcern, particularly when it involves threatened species. To identifyaccurate conflict causes is fundamental to developing effective mitigationstrategies. Present study investigated key conflict driving forces, particularlyaround Gir NP&S which is an area of global importance being a sole abodeof A. Lion and healthy population of leopard.Research Methods: Data was collected on conflict cases reported to forestdepartment (2000-2011) by locals regarding large predator-humanencounters and incidents of livestock depredation throughout the studyperiod. Since initiation of the leopard project (2009), all incident sites weremonitored consistently to get information on incidents along with victim’sinterviews about presence of LP in their surroundings.Important Results: The key conflict driving forces which affected theseverity of the conflict includes sudden PH encounters in agro-farmsparticularly migratory labourers, invasion in houses and change in land use& cropping pattern. Another major CDF was identified in form of livestockdepredation resulted in heavy economic loss to locals and single biggestburden on forest department for compensation.! 72!
  • !!Distribution and habitat use of red panda in NepalKamal KandelGPO Box 26288, Kathmandu, NepalEmail: kandel.kamal82@gmail.comConservation Purpose: The talk firstly addresses the potential distributionniche of red panda in Nepal Himalaya. Secondly, it also focuses on micro-level habitat used by red panda in eastern Nepal with some conservationthreats identified.Research Methods: The main research methods used are 1. Literaturereview and compilation of red panda presence only data 2.Use of RandomForest Ensembles based on open access data 3.Systematic quadrate samplingfor habitat analysis 4.Field assessment and focal group discussion foridentifying threats.Important Results: The most important finding that is the potentialdistribution mapping of red panda with probability of occurrence.Distribution probability is higher in eastern Nepal and goes on decreasingtoward the west as mugu in the western Nepal is considered the westernmostlimit of the distribution of red panda. Out of 17 habitat variables assessed, 6of them were found important and differed significantly.! 73!
  • !!Mixed species bird flocks (MSBF), as target units for effectiveavifaunal conservation in human-altered landscapesSumudu Fernando"Asiri", Kudagama, Dombemada, Rambukkana, Sri LankaEmail: sumudu27@gmail.comConservation Purpose: MSBFs are often found in human altered landscapesbut tend to diminish with increasing disturbances. The conservation value ishigh as some threatened bird species also participate in these flocks, whichare highly vulnerable to anthropogenic effects. But our understanding on thestructure and function of these MSBFs is poor since studies on such arealmost nonexistent.Research Methods: Study area was thoroughly searched for MSBFs from0630 to 1030 hr on each sampling day. Once come across, the flocks werefollowed systematically; their location and species composition wererecorded at 10 min intervals. Any bird staying in the flock for more than 10min was considered a flock member. Path and home range of flocks weremapped using GPS points. Data were statistically analyzed.Important Results: 78 bird species were recorded inside MSBFs in humanaltered landscapes in Naula-Sri Lanka, where semi-evergreen forest is thenatural vegetation type. 15 near threatened, one vulnerable and 10 endemicspecies participated in these flocks. Yellow-billed Babbler (Turdoidesaffinis) was the common nuclear species. Flock territories ranged from 8-13ha often bordered by human alterations; e.g. roads.! 74!
  • !!Toxicity of some selected heavy metals in freshwater fish Anabastestudineus (Bloch)Rita ChakpramDepartment of Ecology and Environmental Sciences Assam University,Silchar- 788011 Assam, IndiaEmail: reetch1028@gmail.comConservation Purpose: Fish kill or injury due to metal contamination isconsidered the primary cause of reducing fish populations and other animalsincluding humans through the food chain. It is therefore of great significanceto evaluate pollution effects on fish for both environmental protection andsocio-economic reasons. This research work will be of greater help inmonitoring effects of heavy metals in fishes.Research Methods: Toxicity tests were conducted according to standardtoxicity testing protocol (Buikema et al,1982).LC50 values for fish speciesat different hours of exposure were estimated by log-probitanalysis(Finney,1971).Metal concentration in fish tissues was estimated byatomic absorption spectrophotometer using standardmethodology(Gupta,1998).Gill morphology was studied using scanningelectron microscope.Important Results: Copper is found more toxic than Cadmium to A.testudineus. The major effects on the gill comprised fusion of adjacentprimary lamellae, especially at the tips. There was remarkable disruption ofgill epithelium in fish exposed to Cd and excretion of large amount of mucuson the lamellar surface in fish exposed to Cu. Cd label was highest in liverand the lowest in skin after 5 weeks of exposure to Cd.! 75!
  • !!Dust accumulation and its effect on the number of stomata andchlorophyll content in leaves of urban forest tree speciesAni MulyaniJl. Kesederhanaan no.30 B rt 03/08 Kelurahan Keagungan Kec. TamansariJakarta Barat 11130Email: animulyani09@yahoo.comConservation Purpose: Dust particles influence air quality and can causehealth problems to human. Air pollution caused by dust particles can bereduced by the presence of trees. Trees in urban forest can serve as air filterand neutralize particulate matter that pollutes air in urban ecosystem. Thisresearch was conducted to find tree species that have the highest potential inreducing dust particle in urban ecosystem.Research Methods: Swietenia macrophylla, Lagerstroemia speciosa andTectona grandis were selected for the study. We used cluster design tosample dust particles. From each species, we randomly selected tenindividuals and collected three leaves from each individual. Samples wereweighted to calculate the amount of dust. We counted number of stomataand estimated leaf pigment content using spectrophotometer.Important Results: T. grandis had the potential as bioremediation agent forimproving air quality in the study area. It has the highest capacity toadsorbed dust particles compared to other study species. The observed trendof dust accumulation was in the order of T. grandis > L. speciosa > S.macrophylla. We also found changes in number stomata and levels ofpigment content in all tree species compared to control.! 76!
  • !!A review on studies on butterfly fauna in IndiaRohini C.K.Pararikalam House, Eranhikkode Post, Edavanna, Malappuram, Kerala676541Email: rohini768@gmail.comConservation Purpose: The present study is to present an overview ofstudies on butterflies from different regions of India; it aims at identifyingknowledge gaps and suggests areas of research priorities in butterfly relatedstudies.Research Methods: Studies on butterflies were collected from differentsources, by data mining. The study area, year and kinds of studies wereanalyzed.Important Results: Of the total studies analyzed here, more than 70% werecarried out between 2000 - 2012. More studies (45%) were found to beconcentrated around southern India, especially the Western Ghats with 79studies, followed by North and West India with 31 Studies respectively.North east reported with 19 studies, followed by East India with 12 and fourfrom Central India. As far as study area is concerned, maximum studies areperformed in protected areas and forest regions with 59 investigations,whereas few studies are noted which are done in agro ecosystems, villageareas and wetlands. Diversity studies and ecological studies on butterflieswere more in number whereas few studies were noted that deals withtaxonomy and rediscovery of butterfly species.! 77!
  • !!Comparative study on pesticide residues in an agro-ecosystemadopting organic and chemical paddy farming in KeralaGanesan KittusamyPhD Scholar, Division of Ecotoxicology, SACON, Anaikatty Po.,Coimbatore 641108Email: ganeshk1985@gmail.comConservation Purpose: KSBB has taken up a project on restoration of thebiodiversity of an agro-ecosystem by totally avoiding chemical inputs.SACON is monitoring the ecosystem to document the residue levels ofpersistent chemical contaminants in sediment, select biota & agriculturalproduces (rice and fodder), cow-milk and select species of resident birds (onopportunistic basis) between organic and chemical farming.Research Methods: Questionnaire survey was conducted among farmers todocument pesticide usage, cropping pattern etc. Birds surveyed by totalcount method. Arthropods communities (insects and spiders) abundance andtheir changing pattern in paddy habitat were studied by sweep net and visualsearch methods respectively. Season wise samples were processed andanalyzed for organochlorine pesticide residues.Important Results: Significant variation in the total number of insects,spiders and birds were noted among different growth stages of paddy,seasons and sites. Between the farms, organic farms attracted morearthropods diversity and birds than chemical farms. Varying levels ofisomers of HCH and metabolites of DDT and cyclodiene insecticides(Endosulfan, Heptachlor and Dieldrin) were detected.! 78!
  • !!Conservation of globally threatened birds through communityinvolvement on Sonadia IslandMd. FoysalHouse No.11, Road 4, Banani Dohs, Dhaka 1206, BangladeshEmail: foysal1985@gmail.comConservation Purpose: The study primarily address conservation of globallythreatened birds through hunting mitigation by proving alternative livelihoodto local bird hunters by involving Village Conservation Groups (VCGs). Italso emphasis on how micro credit programme without interest reduces birdhunting and hunters become the protectors.Research Methods: Shorebird hunting surveys was conducted betweenJanuary 2011 and December 2011 in five villages on Sonadia Island. A totalof 25 hunters were identified and alternative livelihood options such as boat,watermelon seeds, fishing nets etc were provided. The alternatives wereidentified based on hunters interest and their yearly income through birdhunting. They will return the fund with no interest.Important Results: I found that the alternative income generation throughmicro credit programme without interest work well to mitigate immediateloss of species by hunting. However, it is important to involve othercommunity members in the process to monitor activities of the hunter aftergiven support. This model can be applied for other natural resourceharvesters living in and around protected areas.! 79!
  • !!Genomic diversity of endangered Siri breed of cattle of EasternHimalayasPriyanka Sarkarc/o: Sri Gautam Sarkar Ward No:7, Bhakaribhita PO,Dist:- Bongaigaon PIN:783380, Assam, IndiaEmail: genome14@gmail.comConservation Purpose: My study addresses the policy for conservation ofSiri breed cattle, which is at the door to extinct its purity or wild geneticmakeup.Research Methods: The Siri (Bos indicus) breed is an endangered cattlespecies. Therefore, information about the genetic status of the Siripopulation is necessary to develop strategies for conservation and effectivelong-term treatment for management of this endemic breed. In the presentapproach, we developed mitochondrial COI gene and d-loop as molecularmarker to characterize the species and to identify the breed.Important Results: Phylogenic analysis with COI barcode and d-looprevealed a distinct genetic difference between B. taurus (Korean, JapaneseBlack, Holstein, and Fleckvieh breeds) and B. indicus (Nellore andZwergzebu breeds). The present study is the first attempt to develop COIbarcode (Acc. No: JN417002) and d-loop sequence (Acc. No: JN417003) ofthe last Himalayan breed of B. indicus. Both the K2P distance andphylogenic analysis revealed a conflicting position of Siri, which need amore detailed analysis considering large-scale data sets.! 80!
  • !!Propagation of pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata) population by Sea-ranching at Gulf of Kachchh-a conservation aspectMayurdan Gadhvi3/3 Ramehwar Nagar, Near Asha apartment, Jamnagar-361008.Email: mayur.gadhvi111@gmail.comConservation Purpose: Southern part of gulf of Kachchh contains highlyproductive coral reef area. These reefs are not continuous but Separated bysandy patches, mudflats and mangrove forests. A typical bed consists of ahard bottom of coral and rocky frame work, with an admixture of mud andsand. The important fauna of these beds are octopus, chanks, Pinna sp.,globe fishes, mullets, rock perches, crabs, anemones, sea fans, sea lilies, tubedwelling polychaete, brittle stars and sponges, while Sargassum and Ulva etcform the common flora. Among them one important Species is Pearl oyster(Pinctada fucata). Pearl Fisheries at Sikka, Gulf of Kachchh, was widelypopular at past and the quality of pearl from this area had very good quality,Data suggested that from 1913 to 1967 pearl fisheries was held at regularinterval and in every fishery programme 10000 to 30000 pearl oyster hasbeen fished. Cultured pearl was practiced at FRS, Sikka still 1984. But sincelast two decade of Pearl oyster population is highly declined due toindustrialization, mining activity, illegal fishing and effect of climate changeand need some serious attempt to conserve them in natural bed.Research Methods: Collection of oysters from intertidal area throughtracking / handpicking. Maintenance of brood stock in cages under the raftconditioning of oysters in laboratory before breeding. To conduct breedingexperiments by various stimulation techniques. Live feed culture.Important Results: Since last three year we are succeed two produce croresof larvae and lakhs of spat of pearl oyster. During 2009-10 we were succeedto produce 10000000 larvae and 200000 spat, During 2010-11 we weresucceed to produce 10000000larvae and 150000 spat. During 2011-12 wewere succeed to produce 8000000 larvae and 200000 spat. For the sea-ranching of pearl oyster in the Gulf of Kachchh we have selected the site, thegoose island And Sikka offshore initially for its accessibility and easymonitoring. The size of the spat ranged from 3 mm to 6 mm with an averagelength of 4 mm. We regularly visit the site where pearl oyster is sea ranchedand during our last visit at Goose Island we have observed good amount ofPearl oyster having age of 1 and 2 year. After the success of two year, Lastyear during 2011-12 in collaboration with Forest Department, Marine! 81!
  • !!national park, sea ranched 1,50,000 pearl oyster at Various island of Marinenational park, Jamnagar.! 82!
  • !!Human-tiger conflict and ranging pattern of tigers in mangroveforests of Sundarban Tiger Reserve, IndiaDipanjan NahaOLD Hostel, Wildlife Institute Of India, Chandrabani, Dehradun,Uttarakhand, India Pin-248001Email: Purpose: My study is based on movement pattern, homeranges and human-tiger conflict in Sundarbans of India. Ranging pattern ofthis predator provides an insight into their ecology, which will help inmitigating human-tiger conflict, both in terms of human mortality, tigerstraying and livestock depredation in Indian Sundarbans.Research Methods: We captured four tigers and attached satellite collars in2010. With high quality short interval gps fixes we computed home rangesand studied activity pattern. We collected secondary data from forestdepartment and came up with vital trends in human-tiger conflict since thelast 10 years.Important Results: Mean home range of (n=4), radio-collared tiger using100% MCP method was 140.2 Km² (SE ±34.4) whereas for 95% Fixedkernel it was 115.88 Km² (SE ±23.4) (n = 3) respectively. Tiger crossedon an average nine channels travelling 4.62 kms per day.! 83!
  • !!Effect of land use changes on biodiversity conservation inBangladesh forest ecosystemsMohammad Belal UddinDepartment of Forestry and Environmental Science Shahjalal University ofScience and Technology Sylhet-3114, BangladeshEmail: belal405@yahoo.comConservation Purpose: The biodiversity in the tropics is mainly threatenedby land use changes. This is especially true for Bangladesh with one of thehighest population density in the world. Nevertheless, especially natural andsemi-natural ecosystems still host a high number of species. I test thehypothesis that species distribution and abundance patterns of plant speciesvary with respect to the land use.Research Methods: I conducted the study in protected areas of Bangladeshapplying systematic sampling procedure on plant species diversity indifferent land uses. I used GIS technologies to distribute and locate thesampling plots throughout the study areas based on land uses and land coverclasses. I used multivariate statistics to the gathered data to find out themajor drivers of biodiversity loss.Important Results: A strong correlation of biodiversity patterns with landuses was observed. Distribution and abundance patterns of plant species varywith land uses. The DCA analysis reveals a similarity gradient from naturalforest to human induced land uses; probably following land use intensity.The highest species diversity occurs in the natural forests and decreases inhuman induced land uses.! 84!
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