Presentation Outline:1. Energy and its Linkages2. Sources of Energy in Nepal3. Sources of Biomass Energy4. Application of biomass energy technology5. Some facts about biomass energy promotion inNepal6. Benefits of biomass energy7. Conclusions8. Recommendations
1.Energy and its LinkagesEnergy is essential for development and per capita energy consumption is often seen as an indicator of economic status and well being.Nepal’s per capita energy consumption at 15GJ is one of the lowest in the world and more than 90 percent of the energy is consumed in the residential sector, indicating the low use of the energy economic development related activities.Besides being indicator for economic development, household energy also has multiple linkages with important social issues poverty, gender, environment and health.
FIGURE 1: Multiple Negative impacts of InefficientHousehold Energy Use
2. Sources of Energy in NepalIt is estimated that 50 percent of the world’s populations are still at the bottom of this energy ladder as they use solid biomass fuels such as fuel wood, dung and agriculture residues.The situation is worse in Nepal as 85 percent of Nepal’s population depend on the solid fuels for cooking.Of the total energy consumed in Nepal, it is estimated that about 75percent comes from fuelwood and about 9.5percent comes from agricultural residues and dung, while only about 2 percent come electricity and renewable energy sources.
FIGURE 2.1: Energy Ladder X Electricity LPG, natural gas Kerosene, coal Charcoal Wood Animal dung, agro & forest residues Ywhere, x=Increasing cleanliness, convenience and cost of fuel Y= Improving socioeconomic condition
FIGURE 2.2: Pie chart showing sources of energy in Nepal 1.47 0.48 3.53 3.75 5.74 Fuel wood Petroleum 9.24 Animal waste Agricultural Residue Coal Electricity Renewables 75.79 Source: Economic Survey 2006-07 (values given in %)
3. Sources of Biomass EnergyBiomass energy is defined as energy from plant and animal origins such as woody biomass (stems, branches, and twigs), non-woody biomass (stalks, leaves, grass), agriculture residue (rice husk, straw), oil seeds, industrial residue (molasses) and animal and human faces. The main sources of biomass energy that are currently in use in Nepal are fuelwood, cattle dung and agricultural residues.Other potential biomass energy sources in Nepal are: - oil bearing plants such as Nageshwor or Mesua ferrea (77% oil), and Sajiwan or Jatropha curcass (45-56% oil) which can be used to produce biodiesel. - resin from pine trees, which can be used to produce bio- hydrocarbon. - molasses from sugar industry that can be used to produce ethanol. - organic waste that can be used to produce briquettes or biogas.
FIGURE 3.1: Sources of biomass energy Sources of Biomass Energy Energy Crops Agro & Forest Residues Industrial By-products Organic Waste Harvesting, Collection, etc. Preparation Transportations Storage Thermo-Chemical Conversion Physical Conversion Bio-Chemical Conversion Alcohol An-aerobic Pyrolysis Gasification Pressing Expelling fermentations digestion Charcoal Producer Gas Briquette Liquid biofuel Ethanol Biogas COMBUSTION HEATPOWER
4. Application of biomass energytechnologyThe following processes can be used to process biomass resources into different forms:Thermo- chemical conversion- In this process, biomass is burned in the absence of oxygen (pyrolysis) to from char or partially burned in a gasifier to produce a combustible gas. Bio-chemical conversion- This process includes digestion of biomass in aerobic conditions to produces biogas in aerobic or fermentation to produce ethanol. Physical conversion- By applying physical pressure, biomass may be densified, as in the case of briquettes, or expelled to extract oil from plants. The extracted oil may be treated to remove heavy particles.
5. Some facts about biomass energy promotion in Nepal•Direct use biomass in various types of improved cook stoves(ICS) and processing of biomass in household biogas plant hasbeen found to be very promising technologies and have beenpromoted extensively by various organizations, includingAEPC/ESAP.• ICS and Biogas were introduced in Nepal in the 1950s andcurrently there is well established system for promoting thesetechnologies through the coordinated effort of government,local bodies, NGOs, private sector and community groups.•Currently more than 200,000 households have installed ICS andmore than 160,000 households have installed biogas plants inNepal.
6. Benefits of biomass energy•Reduction in deforestation•Reduction in indoor air pollution and hence smoke-related diseases•Reduction in women’s drudgery and cooking time•Improved sanitation from better management ofanimal dung and human faeces•Improvement in soil fertility because of the use ofslurry from biogas plant as biofertilizer
Benefits contd….•Reduced dependence on chemical fertilizer•Reduction in green gas emissions•Contributions to local economy, throughbetter utilization of local resources•Preventions of fire hazards•Cleaner kitchen environment
7. Conclusions:• Because biomass continues to be the mainsource of energy in Nepal and use of biomass isoften associated with major environmentalproblems such as deforestation and indoor airpollution, there is urgent need to introduce andpopularize technologies that will make use ofthese of the energy resources more efficient,convenient, and cost effective and environmentfriendly. This requires further research anddevelopment as well as promotional activities.
Conclusion Contd….•Consider these numbers: one Nepalesemodel reduces CO2 by 4.7 tons per yearand the trade-in for 1 ton is up to $10.• Using the stated fact that Nepal hasnow commissioned their 100,000th biogasplant they would have made as much as$4,700,000 per year from the trading ofreduced CO2.
8. Recommendations:•Nepal is faced with a double-edged sword whendealing with the issue of energy. The amount of fuelwood is diminishing while the demand for moreenergy is increasing. Eventually, there will be a timewhen Nepal’s resources are gone. Alternate methodsof deriving fuel and energy will be necessary in thenear future. Biogas is one of the more efficient waysof supplying energy resources to Nepal.• Biomass systems release next to nothing as far ascarbon dioxide and the Kyoto Protocol would make itpossible for Nepal to trade CO2 emissions tocountries that release too much of it.
Recommendations Contd…The Kyoto Protocol is an issue that is still beingdebated. In order for this to go into effect, the nationsthat account for more than 55% of the emissions haveto be approved. As the situation now stands, theUnited States is at a stand still and is not concerningthemselves with the subject. Therefore, Nepal mustplace their hope in other countries that have highemission rates such and Russia and Japan. Thesecountries are not in any hurry to approve the KyotoProtocol, but it seems that they are more ready toapprove than the US.