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Benthic macroinvertebrates
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  • Classifies macroinvertebrates according to their sensitivity to pollution For example: * Stoneflies require high DO, clear water, rocky cobble substrate to cling onto. So, they are not found in areas of high sedimenation or eutrophication. (Their absence is meaningful—at least tells us which conditions are not present). * Midges & Leeches contain hemoglobin and therefore don’t need as much oxygen in their environment. They prefer soft substrates to burrow into and have a high tolerance to toxins. Therefore, we find them in areas with high sedimentation, eutrophication and poor water quality
  • Foundation concept of IBI Provides reasoning for individual component metrics, most of which have to do with species composition (taxa richness, relative abundance of different taxa)
  • generalized plot of what we would expect to occur—IBI scores decrease with increasing human impact both are comprised of various components—IBI score is includes information about taxa richness and the types of organisms found. Human impact can encompass a wide range of measurements including impervious cover and various types of land use.
  • TMDL—total maximum daily load NPDES—National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System EPA suggests these uses, but can IBI scores withstand scrutiny enough to be implemented in these programs?

Transcript

  • 1. Water Quality Monitoring Using Aquatic Macroinvertebrates Presented by; Surendra Bam
  • 2. Presentation Outline Introduction Benthic Macroinvertebrates Macroinvertebrates as Indicators Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity (I-IBI) Macroinvertebrates Sampling- The Basics Common Macroinvertebrates References
  • 3. IntroductionClean water is essential to life. Adverse changes to the water quality of one stream can impact all the bodies of water downstream – rivers, lakes, or even the ocean. When water quality degrades, changes to plant, invertebrate, and fish communities may occur and affect the entire food chain.
  • 4. • Through water quality monitoring, communities can assess the health of their streams and rivers over time. Once baseline data on the health of a stream is collected, subsequent monitoring can help identify when and where pollution incidents occur.• Water quality can be assessed using chemical sampling or biological sampling.• Biological water quality monitoring involves collecting samples of aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates.
  • 5. Benthic Macroinvertebrates (bottom-dwelling) (animals w/o backbones visible to naked eye) Heptageniidae sp. Hydropsyche sp. Perlodidae sp. (Mayfly larva) (Caddisfly larva) (Stonefly larva)Macroinvertebrates are useful indicators of the health or condition of wetlands and other water bodies. They respond to many kinds of pollution, including chemical pollution and physical disturbance to the landscape around the site, wetland structure, and hydrology. There are several advantages of using macroinvertebrates.Great candidates for biological monitoring…
  • 6. Aquatic macroinvertebrates live in water forat least part of their life cycle.
  • 7. 3 Categories of Stream MacroinvertebratesGroup 1 – pollution sensitive (require higher DO, neutral pH, cold water) Tolerance Index : 1-3 Ex. mayflies, stoneflies, caddisfliesGroup 2 – somewhat pollution tolerant Tolerance Index : 4-7 Ex. scuds, dragonflies, damselfliesGroup 3 – pollution tolerant (can tolerate low oxygen, lower/higher pH, warmer water) Tolerance Index : 8-10 Ex. leeches, aquatic worms, midge larva
  • 8. The Tolerance Index (0 – 10)Classifies macroinvertebrates according to their sensitivity topollution. This is used world-wide as a means of assessingbiological assemblages .0 10most pollution sensitive most pollution tolerante.g. Stoneflies e.g. Midges & Leechesrequire high DO, clear contain hemoglobin, tolerate lower DO,water, rocky cobble prefer soft substrate, less sensitive tosubstrate, not found in toxins, found them in areas with highareas of high sedimentation sedimentation, Eutrophication and pooror Eutrophication. water quality
  • 9. Biological Integrity“the ability to support and maintain a balanced, integrated, and adaptive community of organisms having a species composition, diversity and functional organization comparable to those of natural habitats within a region" ** (Karr,1981)
  • 10. FFG Examples Diet Characteristic sPredators Dragonflies, Other insects Toothy jaws, larger in damselflies, size stonefliesShredders Stoneflies, leaves, woody Streamlined, flat beetles, debris caddisfliesGrazers / Mayflies, Periphyton, Scraping mandibles caddisflies, true diatomsScrapers flies, beetlesGathering Mayflies, settled Filtering hairs, worms, midges, particles, hemoglobinCollectors crayfish bacteriaFiltering Black flies, net- phytoplankton, Some build cases spinning floating particles (caddisflies)Collectors caddisflies, mayfliesFFG – Functional Feeding Group ( Characterizes functional Organization)
  • 11. Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity (B-IBI)• Index based on macroinvertebrates samples that integrates several parameters to produce an overall “health score” for a given water body Result: dose-response curves to human impacte.g. Taxa Generalized Plot of B-IBIrichness, Scores vs. Human Impactrelativeabundance ofcertain taxa,feeding groups er oc SI B I e.g. Pollution, habitat Human Impact degradation, flow alteration
  • 12. EPA’s Suggestions for IBI Use* • Nonpoint Source Pollution Assessment • Watershed Protection • Total Maximum Daily Load (TMLD) Process • Ecological Risk Assessment • Development of Water Quality Criteria and Standards* Barbour et al., 1999
  • 13. Macroinvertebrate Sampling: The Basics• Identify the goal – How will the data be used? – Regulatory purposes – Detect trends – Screening purposes – Educational programs• The goal should guide your sample design and dictate your methods
  • 14. A simple process flow chart for Biomonitoring of water quality
  • 15. Sample collection1 . Qualitative: to find out different taxa, mesh size hand net are used2.Quantitative: to find out number of organisms, abundance, density, frequency etc., Grab sampler and Multi-Habitat Sampler(MHS) areused.
  • 16. • Quantitative by Multi-Habitat Sampling (MHS) approach*, this includes 20 sampling units taken from all habitat types at the sampling site, each with a share of at least 5 % coverage.• A total of 20 samples are taken and a single composite sample is prepare.*A habitat assessment protocol for each site (ASSESS HKH project, 2006).
  • 17. Sample processing and preservation• stirred the sample in water filled bucket and sieve floated animals withnet of mesh size 500 micrometer.• transferred into plastic bottles.• label the bottle with site location and date.• preserve at 4% formalin.
  • 18. Sorting and Identification• After a week of preservation in formaldehyde.• The sample is washed thoroughly by using mesh size of 0.5mm and kept in white enameled tray.• Animals visible with necked eyes were picked and kept in various petridishes depending on various morphological forms.• Finally the animals were identified up to the family level by using the key books.
  • 19. Common Macroinvertebrates Group 1: Pollution sensitive
  • 20. Group 2: Somewhat sensitive
  • 21. Group 3: Pollution tolerant
  • 22. References• www.cpawscalgary.org/education/pdf/p ond-study-lesson-plan.pdf• USDA CSREES New England Water Quality Program• www.epa.gov/indicators/html/benthoscl ean.html
  • 23. Lets get to work!