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Abap coding standards

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  • 1. Coding Standard – ABAP
  • 2. Coding Standard – ABAP
  • 3. Coding Standard – ABAP TABLE OF CONTENTSEXECUTIVE SUMMARY ....................................................................................................6DOCUMENT OBJECTIVE......................................................................................................................6DOCUMENT SCOPE...........................................................................................................................6TARGET AUDIENCE............................................................................................................................6ACTION & ADHERENCE....................................................................................................................6GENERAL COMMUNICATION .............................................................................................................6THE DEVELOPMENT LIFE-CYCLE.................................................................................7PREPARATION OF A FUNCTIONAL SPECIFICATION .......................................................................................7FUNCTIONAL SPECIFICATION SIGN-OFF...................................................................................................7THE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ...........................................................................................................7 DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAM CODE...............................................................................................7UNIT TESTING & DOCUMENTATION ......................................................................................................8SYSTEM TESTING...............................................................................................................................8USER ACCEPTANCE TESTING................................................................................................................8PROGRAM SIGN-OFF.......................................................................................................................8TYPES OF ABAP PROGRAM.............................................................................................8DATA CONVERSION PROGRAMS...........................................................................................................9BATCH INTERFACES...........................................................................................................................9INBOUND INTERFACES......................................................................................................................9OUTBOUND INTERFACES.................................................................................................................10ALE INTERFACES...........................................................................................................................10REPORTS......................................................................................................................................10BASIC LIST..................................................................................................................................11INTERACTIVE REPORT.....................................................................................................................12 ALV....................................................................................................................................12TRANSACTIONS (DIALOGUE PROGRAMMING)..........................................................................................12USER EXITS..................................................................................................................................13 BADI’S...............................................................................................................................13 SAPSCRIPTS............................................................................................................................13 SMART FORMS........................................................................................................................13FUNCTIONAL SPECIFICATIONS...................................................................................13WHAT IS A FUNCTIONAL SPECIFICATION................................................................................................14WHY WRITE FUNCTIONAL SPECIFICATIONS..............................................................................................14WHAT SHOULD BE IN A FUNCTIONAL SPECIFICATION?................................................................................14THE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION...............................................................................14WHAT IS A TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION?................................................................................................15CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 2 of 66
  • 4. Coding Standard – ABAPWHY WRITE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS?.............................................................................................15WHAT SHOULD BE IN A TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION?..................................................................................15ABAP CODING STANDARDS...........................................................................................15GENERAL PRINCIPLES......................................................................................................................16ERROR HANDLING..........................................................................................................................18GENERAL.....................................................................................................................................18CONVERSIONS & INTERFACES ERROR HANDLING...............................................................................18DIALOG PROGRAMMING..................................................................................................................19GENERAL.....................................................................................................................................19NAMING.......................................................................................................................................19REPORT PROGRAMS........................................................................................................................19PROGRAM STRUCTURE......................................................................................................................20READABILITY.................................................................................................................................20AUTHORIZATIONS & SECURITY............................................................................................................21PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS........................................................................................................21DATABASE SELECTIONS..................................................................................................................21ABAP STATEMENTS.......................................................................................................................24COMPUTE AND MOVE STATEMENT...................................................................................................24COMPARE OPERATORS ..................................................................................................................24AVOID ‘HARD CODING’ ...................................................................................................24CASE VS. IF/ELSE: WHICH TO USE WHEN BOTH WOULD WORK?....................................................25BREAK LEVELS IN LOOP STATEMENTS..............................................................................................26INTERNAL TABLES............................................................................................................................27ABAP LIST VIEWER.......................................................................................................................29ABAP QUERIES...........................................................................................................................30SAPSCRIPT CODING STANDARDS......................................................................................................30STANDARDS FOR ALL ENHANCEMENT USER EXITS......................................................................................31CUSTOM BAPI DEVELOPMENT..........................................................................................................32LOGICAL DATABASES......................................................................................................................33 SELECTION SCREEN PARAMETERS........................................................................................................33PROGRAM DOCUMENTATION......................................................................................33PROGRAM FOLDER OVERVIEW...........................................................................................................33SOURCE CODE DOCUMENTATION.......................................................................................................34ON-LINE HELP..............................................................................................................................35PROGRAM ATTRIBUTES...................................................................................................................35PROGRAM MODIFICATIONS..............................................................................................................35PROGRAM TESTING.........................................................................................................................36TEST CONDITIONS........................................................................................................................36 TEST PLAN................................................................................................................................37TEST DATA..................................................................................................................................37EXPECTED RESULTS.......................................................................................................................37ACTUAL RESULTS.........................................................................................................................37NAMING CONVENTIONS..................................................................................................................37PROGRAM DOCUMENTATION TEMPLATES................................................................................................37PROGRAM HEADER........................................................................................................................38PROGRAM CHANGE........................................................................................................................38INCLUDE PROGRAM HEADER...........................................................................................................39CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 3 of 66
  • 5. Coding Standard – ABAPSUB-ROUTINE/FORM......................................................................................................................39FUNCTION MODULE.......................................................................................................................40FUNCTION MODULE – EXCEPTION HANDLING....................................................................................40APPLICATION OSS NOTES..............................................................................................................41ABAP PROGRAM TEMPLATES............................................................................................................44BASIC REPORT LIST......................................................................................................................44INTERACTIVE ABAP REPORT LIST..................................................................................................46BATCH INPUT PROGRAM.................................................................................................................48PROGRAM PERFORMANCE TUNING TECHNIQUES...............................................50TECHNIQUE 1: USING SELECT STATEMENTS......................................................................................50TECHNIQUE 2: SELECTING ORDERED RECORDS FROM A TABLE...............................................................50 TECHNIQUE 3: READING LARGE INTERNAL TABLES WITHOUT USING BINARY SEARCH............................51TECHNIQUE 4: MOVING DATA FROM INTERNAL TABLE 1 TO INTERNAL TABLE 2....................................51TECHNIQUE 5: APPENDING DATA FROM INTERNAL TABLE 1 TO INTERNAL TABLE 2................................51TECHNIQUE 6: DELETING DATA FROM INTERNAL TABLES....................................................................52ABAP CODE REVIEW CHECKLIST..............................................................................53ABAP OBJECTS..................................................................................................................53INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................53NAMING CONVENTIONS .................................................................................................................54GENERAL CONVENTIONS..................................................................................................................54CLASS CONVENTIONS ....................................................................................................................55FIXED METHOD NAMES ..................................................................................................................55METHOD CONVENTIONS .................................................................................................................56WORK FLOW......................................................................................................................58INTRODUCTION..............................................................................................................................58NAMING CONVENTION...................................................................................................................581.1WORKFLOW TEMPLATES / TASK.................................................................................................581.2BUSINESS OBJECT....................................................................................................................591.3BUSINESS OBJECT – PROGRAM...................................................................................................59PREFERRED APPROACHES / PRACTICES:.................................................................................................60A. WORKFLOW IMPLEMENTING APPROACH:........................................................................................60B. WORKFLOW SCENARIO DEVELOPMENT:.........................................................................................60PERFORMANCE TIPS:........................................................................................................................62ERROR HANDLING:.........................................................................................................................62 CHECKLIST FOR WORKFLOW DEVELOPMENT:..................................................................................63QA SUMMARY ...................................................................................................................63OBJECTIVE...................................................................................................................................63SCOPE........................................................................................................................................63TARGET AUDIENCE..........................................................................................................................63ACTION & ADHERENCE...................................................................................................................63CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 4 of 66
  • 6. Coding Standard – ABAPQA PROCESS OVERVIEW................................................................................................................64CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 5 of 66
  • 7. Coding Standard – ABAPExecutive Summary Document ObjectiveThis document has been prepared to outline the development approach followed by theWipro Technologies ABAP development group. Document ScopeThis is a definition of the base standards relating to applications development work andrecommendations for efficient programming techniques for all custom development workcarried out by the Wipro Technologies ABAP development group. It describes progressionfrom functional specification, through technical specification to code development, withassociated Quality Assurance and documentation. Details of performance improvementmeasures and technical information are also included. Target AudienceThe target audience for this document according to the purpose is as follows: Action & Adherence Project Managers Technical Team leads Technical Team members General Communication All Core & Country Team Leaders & Members (Process & Technical)CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 6 of 66
  • 8. Coding Standard – ABAPThe Development Life-cycle During the life cycle a number of deliverables are expected and checkpoints reached (seediagram below). The ABAP Development Life Cycle ABAP Development Team Formal Functional Sign-off Specification Technical Specification Code and User Unit Test Acceptance Program Testing System Test Preparation of a Functional SpecificationThe Project Implementation team members, located on-site, are responsible for preparingFunctional Specifications. These will describe the development requirement and contain adescription of the functionality of the proposed custom ABAP program. During production ofthese specifications it may be necessary for the business teams to gain input in the form ofFunctional Specification assistance from ABAP team members. Functional Specification Sign-offEach functional specification, once complete, will be subject to review and approval by theABAP team leader. In addition, the ABAP team leader assesses the complexity and cost ofthe proposed development - any changes to the original assessment are subject to writtenapproval of both parties. The Technical SpecificationThe functional requirements will be translated to a technical specification. This will subject tointernal ABAP team quality assurance. Once complete, it will be signed off internally by theABAP development team leader. Any changes between the technical and functionalspecification will be made in writing and subject to the written approval of both parties. Development of Program CodeProgram coding then occurs from the technical specification.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 7 of 66
  • 9. Coding Standard – ABAP Unit Testing & DocumentationOnce complete, the program will be tested by the programmer, who will also produce thefollowing testing documentation:• Unit Test Conditions• Unit Test Plan• Test Data• Actual Results System TestingAt regular intervals (e.g. 2 months) a number of developments are subject to system testing.This will be to verify inter-dependencies between reports. User Acceptance TestingThe ABAP reports will be tested and accepted by reference to whether they conform in allmaterial respects to the Functional Specifications (as signed off by both parties) and inaccordance with the following procedure: • Functional Designer prepares Test Plan. • Client Project Manager nominates suitable User for acceptance testing • User conducts testing as detailed in plan. • Client Project Manager reviews UAT test plan and results to verify validity of results and completeness of testing. Program Sign-OffFollowing a successful User Acceptance Test, the program will then be signed-off by bothparties.After development technical specifications are updated to reflect any programmodifications requested during the life cycle. Approval to implement any modifications notcovered in the original functional specification will be obtained in writing & a copycontained within the program folder.Types of ABAP ProgramThere are a number of different types of ABAP program, as listed below. The type ofprogram to be developed affects which details are required in the functional specification.It is important that the different types of program are understood before detailing therelevant requirements.• Data Conversion• Batch Interface• ALE Interface• Report• Transaction• User Exit• SAPScript (output)• Smart Forms• BADI’sCS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 8 of 66
  • 10. Coding Standard – ABAP Data Conversion ProgramsData conversion programs can be written to upload data from external legacy systems intoSAP. There are a number of standard SAP programs specifically designed to meet thisrequirement. These use one of two methods to upload the data:• Direct Input• Batch InputDirect input programs tend to be around ten times faster than batch input programs.However custom ABAP developments are only supported if they use the batch inputmethod. Batch input programs read a file from either the presentation or application serverand upload it into SAP by simulating the actions of a user stepping through the screens of therelevant transaction. This means that the SAP transaction validates that the data being inputis valid so the custom ABAP program does not have to do this.The Batch input program creates a ‘session’, which can be thought of as a collection ofinformation relating the transaction fields to the data to be uploaded. The database is notupdated until the ‘session’ is processed. This can be done either manually or automatically.If the session should be processed automatically this should be specified. Any invalid recordsencountered by SAP are not uploaded into the database and they result in the session being‘in error’. All valid records will be loaded, the remaining erroneous records will be retainedand this session can be re-processed manually. This allows a user to correct the records on-line. Batch InterfacesInterfaces are used to transfer data between SAP and an external system. There are twotypes of interface:• Inbound - transfers data from the external system to SAP• Outbound - transfers data from SAP to the external systemThe transfer of data is usually facilitated by either reading from or writing to a file on theapplication server that has been created or is subsequently read by the external application. Inbound InterfacesFor an inbound interface (data being put into SAP), the program first reads the data from thesource file, performs any conversions, calculations and formatting that is required for the SAPtransaction. The program can then write the data out either as a set of table entries or to aflat file if the data needs to be stored for audit reasons although if this approach is adoptedarchiving strategies must also be considered. Obviously a flat file carries fewer overheads interms of maintenance, but there are also benefits of interface controls and audit throughintermediate tables that in some instances outweighs this. The program then uses theconverted data and creates a SAP batch input session to load it into SAP via the relevanttransactions (If writing to a table this may be a second program).CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 9 of 66
  • 11. Coding Standard – ABAP First Stage Extract Calculate Convert Format Second Stage Map Load Outbound InterfacesAn outbound interface will typically consist of only one program. This will retrieve the relevantdata from SAP tables and write it to an output file. Conversion and formatting will be carriedout by the destination interface. Again, some use of tables may be adopted to provide arecord of interface operation. ALE InterfacesApplication Link Enabling (ALE) interface will also comprise inbound and outbound types ofinterfaces. ALE is a standard SAP Application component that provides standard settings orthe ability to customize elements to take advantage of the ALE application layer.ALE interfaces fall into the following categories:• Standard Scenarios – where SAP provides standard components i.e. Message Types, IDOCs, Function Modules that can be set-up immediately to enable data transfer• Modified Scenarios – where the standard SAP components are enhanced to either reduce data or extend the data being sent i.e. reduce or extend IDOCs, additional function module changes• Customized Scenarios – new components are added to address interface requirements that cannot be met by modified or standard scenarios i.e. new message types, new IDOCsALE interfaces require a slightly different development approach as the ALE interface requirea combination of:• Client Independent Customization e.g. Message Types• Client Dependent Customization e.g. Output Types• Repository changes e.g. Function Modules ReportsSAP Reports provide a user with a list of data; this can be either displayed on the screen orprinted. Using the following SAP supplied tools can also produce these Reports:• Report Writer• Report Painter• ABAP Query.• ALVCS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 10 of 66
  • 12. Coding Standard – ABAPThese are useful tools suitable for relatively simple reports and can be used as end-user tools.It should be remembered that since these tools are effectively code-generators the codedeveloped might lack clarity and be relatively inefficient.Reports produced using ABAP code can be one of two types:• Basic List• Interactive Report Basic ListThis is a report that produces a basic list of data. The user can enter selection criteria on theselection screen to restrict what data is available on the output report. In addition, a numberof calculations may be performed by the report together with some data grouping andsorting but this is controlled by the program code. Basic List Report Simple list of Data, double-clicking has no effectCS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 11 of 66
  • 13. Coding Standard – ABAP Interactive ReportAn interactive report allows the user more flexibility in what data they wish to retrieve but aremore complex to code and test. The user is given the option to double-click or select linesand see more information. What further information is displayed should be detailed in theFunctional Specification. For instance, a report on Purchases could list a number of purchaseorders. By double clicking on the Purchase order number the user can be taken to the‘Display Purchase Order’ transaction to browse the purchase order. This will allow them toview more information than in the report. Interactive Report User Double-clicks on PO Number, the Purchase Order Overview is displayed. ALV ABAP List Viewer (ALV) is one of the fascinating tools provided by SAP for displaying reports.This tool has the merit of reducing the development time of reports by providing standardinterfaces (Function Modules). These standard interfaces provide GUI and formatting optionsfor the on screen display. Transactions (Dialogue Programming)A transaction is a dialogue program with one or more screens. It changes objects in thedatabase in a consistent manner. Examples of standard SAP transactions include ‘Change aPurchase Order, Create a Material, Enter a G/L Posting’. Custom transactions can bedeveloped to meet functionality not covered by the standard SAP system.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 12 of 66
  • 14. Coding Standard – ABAP User ExitsChanges to SAP supplied code are called a repair to the system and are not supported bySAP. There are however number of places in the standard SAP code where additionalfunctionality can be implemented called ‘User Exits’. These exist in pre-defined places in thestandard SAP code. Specific data is passed into and out of these exits allowing some datamanipulation flexibility. These areas of SAP code are reserved for customer enhancementsand are protected from changes during upgrades. BADI’sBusiness Add-Ins are a new SAP enhancement technique based on ABAP Objects. They canbe inserted into the SAP System to accommodate user requirements too specific to beincluded in the standard delivery. Since specific industries often require special functions, SAPallows you to predefine these points in your software. SapScriptsSAP supplies a number of outputs as standard, e.g. Purchase Order, Invoice, etc. In manycases these meet client business requirements but additional changes are often requested.This can vary from adding company logos to retrieving additional data and changing thelayout. The outputs are produced using the SAP tool SAPScript. Smart FormsThe Smart Forms replace the SAPScript forms.SAP Smart Forms allows you to execute simple modifications to the form and in the form logicby using simple graphical tools; in 90% of all cases, this wont include any programming effort.Thus, a user who is familiar with the tool but has only rudimentary programming knowledgecan configure forms with data from an SAP System for the relevant business processes. Theresult of the form development is a Smart Form. After it is activated, the Smart Form is similarto a callable function module in the SAP System.The logic of the form is mapped entirely in the Smart Form. To print a form, you call it fromwithin an application program, in which you retrieve the application data to be merged intothe form. As data retrieval and form logic are separated, you must only adapt the SmartForm if changes to the form logic are necessary. The application program passes the datavia a function module interface to the Smart Form.Functional SpecificationsFunctional specifications should be prepared and owned by the Project Implementationteam (business process team). Essentially they document why the development is required,CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 13 of 66
  • 15. Coding Standard – ABAPhow the ABAP development will meet the requirement, what user acceptance testingcriteria will be used to verify that the final development meets the business requirements. What is a Functional SpecificationA functional specification should clearly define the functionality of the proposed ABAPprogram. The document should use clear language and not contain ambiguous statementsthat could lead to confusion. The document is a design deliverable and is used internallywithin the ABAP team as a basis to write a technical specification. The technicalspecification should contain no functionality not detailed in the functional specification.Once complete, the functional specification is used as a baseline to estimate the complexityof the proposed ABAP program and the associated development time for planningpurposes.This document forms the link between the functional and ABAP teams but it is important toremember that this document is owned by the functional designer/Business Process Team.The success of the development, however, depends on close co-operation with the ABAPteam. Why write Functional SpecificationsFunctional specifications are written to ensure that all parties (ABAP team/Functional Team)know what is required in the development. This document allows requirements to bereviewed across regional teams before the development is complete. It is also part of theprocess to enable relevant clients to meet validation requirements. In addition, functionalspecifications enable dependencies and inter-relationships between the developments andfunctional areas to be identified and enable evaluation of the risk of development. What should be in a Functional Specification?• A description of the business process. A series of bullet points summarizing the process flow for this requirement.• Assumptions made for this process if any.• Key process steps and descriptions.• What type of program is required?(Example Conversion/SAP Script etc)• Tables from where the data can be fetched• A description of the Selection Screen if applicable.• Validations required at various steps if applicable.The Technical SpecificationThe ABAP team writes technical specifications internally. These document the businessrequirements covered by the functional specification in a more technical detail that can betranslated by a programmer into code. The technical specification also aims to documentthe implemented solution so it can be used for future code maintenance.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 14 of 66
  • 16. Coding Standard – ABAP What is a Technical Specification?A Technical specification should clearly define the functionality of the proposed ABAPprogram in much more detail than the Functional Specification. This document should useclear language and is devoid of ambiguity. The document is a design deliverable and isused internally within the ABAP team as a basis to write ABAP code. The technicalspecification should contain no functionality not detailed in the functional specification.Once complete, the technical specification is used to generate the code easily andseamlessly.This document forms the link between the functional specification and ABAP code itself. It isowned by the ABAP developer and is QA’ed by the ABAP team leader before codingcommences. The technical specifications use logic charts to illustrate the main logical stepsin the code and how data and other ABAP specific constructs need to be manipulated toproduce the required functionality. Why Write Technical Specifications?Technical specifications are written to illustrate and help design the main logical stepsinvolved in meeting the requirements as specified in the functional specifications. Thisdocument allows the developer to visualize and create methods and techniques to manageprocessing efficiently. What should be in a Technical Specification?A technical specification needs to contain:• A description of the Technical Solution highlighting the key design issues. A series of bullet points summarizes the logic chosen for the program and the main technical difficulties.• What assumptions are made in the technical specification and what they entail in technical terms.• Key process steps.• Why a particular function module was chosen.• Why use multiple selects than just one.• Why use a particular kind of logic for the main processing.• What were the major technical problems with the design of the program?• A description of the Selection Screen with a Selection Screen Prototype• All the error messages (ID and Classes) prompted by the validations executed at the selection screen will be detailed.• Detail Logic Diagrams along with notes associated to them. They should include critical decision logic, database selects, complex conversions, calculations, and formatting and output.• Main Processing steps descriptions• Final Processing steps descriptionsABAP Coding StandardsThe standards in this document define a base for applications development and qualitycontrol. They have been defined as a result of past experience on a number of projects.Standards are used to ensure that the same set of rules are applied in program design,CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 15 of 66
  • 17. Coding Standard – ABAPdevelopment and reviews and they are applicable to all programs developed in support ofthe conversion, implementation and maintenance of the SAP R/3 System. General PrinciplesWhen coding a program, the following points should be observed to ensure thatprogramming is consistent in format across the project. This ensures that work can be easilytransferable between programmers• The standard SAP project program template should be used for all programs.• ABAP programs that update master and transactional data MUST ALWAYS use SAP transaction codes (where transaction codes are available) by utilizing standard SAP Function Modules, BDC or ‘call transaction’ utilities. This ensures that logical units of work, rollback, locking operations and edits are performed. SAP tables MUST NEVER be updated directly.• ABAP programs MUST NEVER be used to update configuration tables.• Before starting any development work, make sure that no existing functionality satisfies the same requirements.• If possible, write code that it is re-usable and can be stored in a central library. Function modules are an example of this approach. R/3 provides a large amount of function modules that perform various tasks such as convert currencies, calculate dates, explode BOM’s etc. In most cases, these modules are efficient and can reduce coding time; therefore they should be employed where possible. It is worth taking the time to search the function module library for a function that meets your requirements. Common examples include: ‘CONVERT_TO_LOCAL_CURRENCY’ for any exchange rate based conversion ‘UNIT_CONVERSION_SIMPLE’, ‘UNIT_SUM’ when dealing with Units of Measure RV_DOCUMENT_PRINT_VIEW (Sales Order) to get data from SD documents RV_DELIVERY_PRINT_VIEW (Delivery) RV_BILLING_PRINT_VIEW (Billing)• Keep program lengths to a minimum. Each program should handle a discrete problem.• If there are a large number of data declarations necessary as part of a program, consider separating your declarations into an INCLUDE. The include name should be the same as the program name with the suffix ‘_DATA’• Use subroutines (FORMS) whenever possible to improve readability and logic flow. Consider creating a subroutine whenever a block of code is called from multiple places in a program.• Avoid the COMPUTE function if clearer ADDs, SUBTRACTs, MULTIPLYs, or DIVIDEs can be used.• When assigning internal fields that are to hold values from databases, use the LIKE option to ensure that the variable has identical characteristics. Example: DATA: WS_LIFNR LIKE LFA1-LIFNR.• Use the INCLUDE statement for Data Declarations, PBO Dynpro modules, PAI Dynpro modules, Subroutines, and Individual Event Processing.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 16 of 66
  • 18. Coding Standard – ABAP• Use an underscore (_) to connect multi-word variable names and/or MODULE names.• Use the WRITE command with Currency or Units option when writing prices/values to ensure the data is output with the correct number of decimal places. For example weights should always be output with the UNITS options and prices should always be output with the CURRENCY option. This ensures the program can be used over multiple units of measure and in multiple countries.• All programs should be made as generic as possible and reliance on factors specific to clients business should be avoided since the business processes can change easily.• Programs that set their own GUI status should have menus and screens that are as intuitive as possible.• Push buttons should reflect the menu options. All push button options should be available by menu as well. Push button Print Sort Refresh Display/Change• Explicitly qualify all field specifications. For example, use KA-KTRNA, not KTRNA only.• When using the FILL statement, specify FILL FROM. For example, use FILL workarea FROM KA, instead of just FILL workarea.• When a local variable is declared, it should be initialized in the declaration statement whenever possible.• Numbered text-elements must be used wherever possible to make use of SAP’s multi- language capabilities, to make maintenance easier and reduce the impact of future changes on re-work. Text elements should be created with the actual text string in the text element itself e.g. text-001 should read ‘Testing String’ (001) so that text elements for an ABAP program can be recreated if the program is moved to a different client.• Within the main program code literals (i.e. hard-coded values) should be avoided. If reference needs to be made to a specific value (for example Company Code ‘0001’ or Sales Organisation ‘ABCD’) then this should be defined as a parameter to make the program fully flexible. SD/MM/FI document types in particular should not be hard coded since they are subject to change.• No undocumented features of the ABAP language should be used.• External PERFORMs should NOT be used.• Comments should be simple but clear - adequate for a different programmer to understand the processing quickly. Comments can occupy a whole line in the code when it is prefixed with an “*” character, or part of a line when prefixed with an open quote character (“).• Declare program-specific internal variables to be LIKE data dictionary fields to ensure that physical data attributes are consistent.• Each program elements should adopt the appropriate naming prefix.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 17 of 66
  • 19. Coding Standard – ABAP Internal Tables Transfer record/Work REC_* Area Internal tables: IT_* Copy of database X_* or Y_* or Z_* table Structures Not data dictionary STRUCT_* Types General TY_* Constants General C_* Parameters General P_* Ranges General R_* Checkbox General CB_* Select Options General S_* Variable Local LV_* Global GV_* Counters CNT_* Flags FLG_* Sums SUM_* Work Areas General WA_* Error Handling General• All programs must include proper error handling to avoid undesirable terminations. This means that the system status (SY-SUBRC) must be checked where appropriate after every event in the program that changes it.• If there are more than two possible values for the SY-SUBRC field after a performed event, all expected values should be tested and handled in the program.• Use the CATCH/ENDCATCH statement to trap runtime errors.Error checking requirements depend on the type of program under development. Wherepossible standard SAP errors messages are utilized in developments. Custom error messagesare created where relevant SAP error messages cannot be found. It is the responsibility ofthe functional requestor to define detailed error handling. Error messages used should aimto be as meaningful as possible.Conversions & Interfaces Error HandlingEach of the conversion and interface programs should generate an exception/error reportcontaining detailed record information, corresponding error message(s) and report statistics.In addition to the error report, inbound interface and conversion programs should generateBDC sessions for those transactions, which could not be posted to SAP successfully. TheseCS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 18 of 66
  • 20. Coding Standard – ABAPsessions can then be accessed by an authorized user and be processed manually in theforeground (via transaction SM35) until those error records are posted successfully. It will bethe interface user’s responsibility to check the report to ensure that no errors have occurred.A sequential file containing the error records can also be generated if an error occurs. Theprogram can be rerun using this file after fixing the errors. This file can also be used forcreating formatted reporting as well as for audit purposes.Dialog Programming General• If the layout of screens is the same for multiple functions (such as ADD, MOVE, and DELETE), use the same screen for all functions. Use online status and security features to control which function is executed.• Define all global data in the main program module instead of the PBO/PAI.• To handle a lock entry failure, raise an error message (type E) preventing any further progress but leaving the user on the current screen. The user can take an alternative action or continue to try to lock the object. To minimize the impact on users, limit retries.• When activating buttons or boxes, activate the associated text as well. This enables the user to click on the either button/box or the text.• For additional standards, see the SAP online documentation, “SAP Styleguide”. Naming• For online programs, the initial screen should always be 9000. Screen numbering should follow functionality. For example: 9000 - Initial 9100 – Block 1 9110 - Sub-functionality of Block 1 9120 - Sub-functionality of Block 1 Etc....• Use Data Dictionary names (short, medium, long) for field text on screens where applicable.• Use SAVE_OK_CODE as the field name when saving the OK Code field. It is recommended that you use a backup version of the OK Code field to avoid sending a screen that already has a function code.• Always define the field with a Format = OK as OK_CODE. This field is used to validate the OK Event.• Prefix radio buttons with RB_, push buttons with PB_, and check boxes with CB_. Report ProgramsCS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 19 of 66
  • 21. Coding Standard – ABAP• The only report screen is 1000, which is automatically assigned by SAP.• When using the WRITE command, constants should be defined as Text Elements. Hardcoded character strings should NOT be used alone. Text elements should be defined and used in the WRITE command in addition to a corresponding string value. This technique ensures accuracy of output by using text elements, while improving readability of the program.• For list reports, include the following information to give users a clear indication as to what the report consists of. For example: - End-User Reports: selection criteria, entries found, requester, report name, date/time, exceptions, parameters, etc. - Conversion/Interface Reports: number of records read, number of records processed, number of records written, date/time, transactions posted, etc. Program StructureABAP is an event driven programming language. However, proper program structure andmodular coding is still important to maintain readability and efficiency of an ABAP program.A program should be divided into distinct sections that are properly documented in thecode. Whenever possible, it is sensible to use function modules already available instead ofcreating new ones. Refer to the program template in the Appendices section for the properorder and structure of your program.Forms should not be too long to help ensure modularity and for ease of following theprogram logic.All forms should be in the order they are first called. Using the letter F and a number code toidentify related forms can help facilitate this.E.g. perform f1000_intialisation. perform f2000_main_processing. form f2000_main_processing. perform f2100_modify_data. perform f2200_calculation. endform.Note: If a form contains very general functionality that could be used in other programs, itmay be useful to create it as a function module. Readability• Start each new command or clause on a new line. Do not put multiple commands on the same line.• If a statement continues past one line, indent all subsequent lines.• Skipped lines and indention should be used to promote clarity between sections of code as well as between file definitions and declarations.• Use the Pretty Printer automatic formatting function for your programs to ensure uniform indentation of program codeCS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 20 of 66
  • 22. Coding Standard – ABAP• Project Standard Form headings. Add appropriate form description to these headings. Note: “Pretty Printer” creates SAP Form headings if no comment lines exist after previous ABAP statement. Authorizations & SecurityAs a rule, authorization checks should be used whenever appropriate to verify the accesslevel of the user executing the program. Please see the Portal Integration team documenton security & authorizations for ABAP development. Performance Considerations Database SelectionsThe 3-tier architecture of SAP distributes workload across the servers (presentation,application, and database). The majority of the work takes place on the application anddatabase servers. There is an obvious limit on capacity; this means that if not managedcorrectly the database server can become a major bottleneck. Applications developersshould aim, for performance reasons, to migrate the majority of processes to the applicationservers and to be as efficient as possible when accessing the database server.This can be achieved in a number of ways. In order to improve performance times whereverpossible the number of database accesses made by a program should be kept to aminimum. The contents of tables can be selected into internal tables (tables local to theprogram) and used for reference during the program execution rather than using theSELECT...ENDSELECT logic (see diagram below). Application Server Select VBELN Select VBELN POSNN POSNN From VBFA into table I_VBFA Where VBELV = S_DOC_NUMBER From VBFA And POSNV = S_ITEM_NO Where VBELV = S_DOC_NUMBER And POSNV = S_ITEM_NO Move: VBFA-VBELN to I_VBFA-VBELN, VBFA-POSNN to I_VBFA-POSNN. Append I_VBFA. Endselect. Multiple Single Database Database Accesses Accesses VBFA Database VBFAThe typical procedure would be to select relevant fields from the table into an internal tableat the event START-OF-SELECTION. In this example only those records of the sales documentflow table (VBFA), which fall within the selection criteria are selected into an internal table.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 21 of 66
  • 23. Coding Standard – ABAPInternal tables are generally quicker than using field-groups for small volumes of data(although they are less flexible for sorting, especially for a large volume of data records).Field groups should be used if there is a high number of data records that would need to beprocessed (e.g. 100+ records). Field groups use memory space on the application serverthat does not impede processing space for other applications. Field groups are also moreefficient in their storage handling because the data is compressed before being stored.In addition, a number of additional principles should be adhered to for efficient coding:• Where possible fields should be specified rather than SELECT *.• When accessing pool and cluster tables, these should be accessed using the full primary key.• Avoid placing a ‘SELECT’ or ‘SELECT SINGLE’ in a loop to minimize the number of database requests.• Avoid using ‘SELECT...INTO CORRESPONDING FIELD’, as the associated overhead with corresponding field could be significant.• The number of records retrieved should be limited using the ‘WHERE’ clause rather than selecting and using the ‘CHECK’ statement.• Fields should be listed in the WHERE clause in the same order as they appear in the table.• Where possible the ‘AGGREGATE’ function should be used rather than ‘SELECT…’ and then do the manipulation.• When defining internal tables the use of include-structures should be avoided.• Minimize database accesses. Keep the number of communication processes between the database and application servers, as well as the transferred dataset as small as possible.• Do the most restrictive calls first. For example, to process all materials with a quantity-at- hand above 50, the tables containing stock quantities should be read before the material master tables.• Always check for the DELETION FLAG on key master data tables (i.e., KNA1, KNVV, MARA…). Deletion flags are usually named LOEVM, LOEKZ, LVORM, etc.• Do not use Order By clause on non-key or non-indexed fields. Bring the data into an internal table with a single call and then sort the internal table. This relieves the database of the additional sort requirement and utilizes the processing and memory of the application server.• In all cases look to decrease the number of database calls. Whenever possible issue calls to retrieve all records into an internal table. Do the processing using the internal table.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 22 of 66
  • 24. Coding Standard – ABAP • Nested selects should be avoided as they result in a large volume of database accesses (dependent on size of tables). Where further database accesses depend on data stored in an internal table the following syntax can be used: IF NOT ITAB1 [] IS INITIAL Select FIELD1 FIELD2 From TABLE Into table ITAB2 For all Entries inITAB1 Where FIELD3 = ITAB1-FIELD3 And FIELD4 = S_FIELD. ENDIF. • In a SELECT statement, the HAVING clause allows you to specify a logical condition for the groups in a GROUP-BY clause. Effective use of the having clause can reduce the set of data transferred from the database to the application server. When the having clause is used, the aggregates and groups are constructed in the database instead of the application server, thereby reducing the resulting set. • When creating a program that writes new or update existing records you MUST secure that your program handles COMMIT at a reasonable frequency. As a general rule, you should do a commit every 1000 or 10 000 records. If your program is running for a long period of time without doing a commit, the data base and finally the whole system will be deadlocked and eventually shutting down the system is the only option left to terminate the execution as all resources are consumed by your program. If multiple inserts must be made to a table, inserting an array from a table, rather than performing multiple inserts of single records will improve performance. For example: INSERT CUST FROM TABLE TAB. Will be more efficient than: LOOP AT TAB. MOVE-CORRESPONDING TAB TO CUST. INSERT CUST. ENDLOOP.• Open SQL is SAP’s version of SQL and is designed to work with most RDBMS Systems (Relational Database Management Systems). Avoid using any native SQL features that are not documented or used in Open SQL.• You can specify as many WHERE conditions as you like in all types of database tables – i.e. transparent tables, pool tables and cluster tables. However, you should be aware for performance reasons that complex WHERE conditions involving pool and cluster tables usually cannot be passed to the database system. They must be processed by the SAP database interface through post-selection.• Use secondary index / Create secondary index if accessing a database table with non-key fields depending on the frequency of usage and volume of data accessed. CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0 Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project <VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 23 of 66
  • 25. Coding Standard – ABAP• Use of total key is preferred in search criteria. If you can not give total key and you can give former part of key, still the select is effective. If you are specifying later part of key then it is equivalent to non-key field which is not effective.• When a full key is unknown and only one record is needed, the UP TO 1 ROWS append is added to the SELECT statement.• When using the AND OR operator the most likely elimination criteria is specified first. (Expressions are evaluated left to right and the evaluation ends when the final result has been established) ABAP Statements Compute and Move Statement Use operators (+, -, *, /) in the form of “pctocc = seatsocc / seatsmax” instead of the COBOL form of “Divide seatsocc by seatsmax giving pctocc”. Use the = sign in the form of “J_4KRCAT_I = VBAP_I-J_4KRCAT” instead of the COBOL MOVE statement “MOVE VBAP_I-J_4KRCAT TO J_4KRCAT_I”. Compare Operators Use compare operators (=, <, >, <>) instead of EQ, NE, LT, GT Avoid ‘Hard Coding’ RULE OF THUMB: Use constants rather than ‘hard coding’ when: • It adds value to the code and is named informatively. • It is defined in the standard include. Incorrect: CONSTANTS: C_SA LIKE BKPF-BLART VALUE SA, C_DR LIKE BKPF-BLART VALUE DR, C_DG LIKE BKPF-BLART VALUE DG, C_KR LIKE BKPF-BLART VALUE KR, C_KG LIKE BKPF-BLART VALUE KG, C_AC LIKE BKPF-BLART VALUE AC, C_O LIKE T001B-RRCTY VALUE 0. IF rs_header-document_type = C_SA OR rs_header-document_type = C_DR OR rs_header-document_type = C_DG OR rs_header-document_type = C_KR OR rs_header-document_type = C_KG OR rs_header-document_type = C_AC OR rs_header-document_type = C_O. ... Correct: CONSTANTS: C_GL_ACCOUNT_DOC LIKE BKPF-BLART VALUE SA, C_CUSTOMER_INVOICE LIKE BKPF-BLART VALUE DR, C_CUSTOMER_CREDIT_MEMO LIKE BKPF-BLART VALUE DG, C_VENDOR_INVOICE LIKE BKPF-BLART VALUE KR, CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0 Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project <VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 24 of 66
  • 26. Coding Standard – ABAP C_VENDOR_CREDIT_MEMO LIKE BKPF-BLART VALUE KG, C_ACCRUALS LIKE BKPF-BLART VALUE AC. IF RS_HEADER-DOCUMENT_TYPE = C_GL_ACCOUNT_DOC OR RS_HEADER_DOCUMENT_TYPE = C_CUSTOMER_INVOICE OR RS_HEADER_DOCUMENT_TYPE = C_CUSTOMER_CREDIT_MEMO OR RS_HEADER_DOCUMENT_TYPE = C_VENDOR_INVOICE OR RS_HEADER_DOCUMENT_TYPE = C_VENDOR_CREDIT_MEMO OR RS_HEADER_DOCUMENT_TYPE = C_ACCRUALS....OR this is also correct:IF RS_HEADER-DOCUMENT_TYPE = ‘SA’ OR “GL_ACCOUNT_DOC RS_HEADER_DOCUMENT_TYPE = ‘DR’ OR “CUSTOMER_INVOICE RS_HEADER_DOCUMENT_TYPE = ‘DG’ OR “CUSTOMER_CREDIT_MEMO RS_HEADER_DOCUMENT_TYPE = ‘KR’ OR “VENDOR_INVOICE RS_HEADER_DOCUMENT_TYPE = ‘KG’ OR “VENDOR_CREDIT_MEMO RS_HEADER_DOCUMENT_TYPE = ‘AC’. “ACCRUALSCASE VS. IF/ELSE: Which to use when both would work?IF/ELSE RULE OF THUMBUse the IF/ELSE rather than the CASE statement when there is only one condition.Example:IF T_DETAIL-BSCHL = C_POSTING_KEY_70. <action 1>.ELSE. <action 2>.ENDIF.CASE RULE OF THUMBUse the CASE statement rather than IF/ELSEIF statement when there are multiple conditions.Example:CASE T_DETAIL-BSCHL. WHEN C_POSTING_KEY_70. <action 1>. WHEN C_POSTING_KEY_75. <action 2>. WHEN OTHERS.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 25 of 66
  • 27. Coding Standard – ABAP <action 3>.ENDCASE.Note: ‘WHEN OTHERS’ always requires generic error processing.Incorrect:CASE sy-subrc. WHEN 1. MESSAGE ID ‘ZSD’ TYPE ‘E’ NUMBER ‘100’. WHEN 2. MESSAGE ID ‘ZSD’ TYPE ‘E’ NUMBER ‘101’. WHEN OTHERS.* No action requiredENDCASE.Correct:CASE sy-subrc. WHEN 1. MESSAGE ID ‘ZSD’ TYPE ‘E’ NUMBER ‘100’. WHEN 2. MESSAGE ID ‘ZSD’ TYPE ‘E’ NUMBER ‘101’. WHEN OTHERS. MESSAGE ID ‘ZSD’ TYPE ‘E’ NUMBER ‘102’.ENDCASE.If you are using CHECK or EXIT statements, be careful while considering any required follow-on processing, e.g. a failed CHECK statement in the START-OF-SELECTION event of a programcauses the program to move directly to END-OF-SELECTION processing.Break Levels in Loop StatementsInside Loops the preferred way of recognizing changes is AT....ENDAT. Avoid using OnChange Of statement. Theres a difference between these statements.AT ..... ENDATThis statement is triggered based on any change in the field specified and any change in aprevious field inside the structure. Note: All character fields on the right are filled with * afterthe current control level key. See SAP Help for more information.ON CHANGE OFCS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 26 of 66
  • 28. Coding Standard – ABAPThis statement is specific to a single field. Using this statement can cause unpredictableresults.Internal TablesDefining internal tablesWhen defining a table using occurs the ‘occurs’ statement allocates an area in memory ofthe specified size. It is generally accepted as preferable, to declare a type (for customstructures) or use the database structure and use syntax ’standard table of’ to define aninternal table.Internal tables should be defined, whenever possible, without header lines. It improvesreadability to use work areas instead when processing internal tables.Incorrect: DATA: BEGIN OF T_MAT OCCURS 0, MATNR LIKE MARA-MATNR, WERKS LIKE MARC-WERKS, DISPO LIKE MARC-DISPO, END OF TYPE_MAT.Correct: TYPES: BEGIN OF TYPE_MAT, MATNR LIKE MARA-MATNR, WERKS LIKE MARC-WERKS, DISPO LIKE MARC-DISPO, END OF TYPE_MAT. DATA: IT_MAT TYPE STANDARD TABLE OF TYPE_MAT, WA_MAT TYPE TYPE_MAT.Always use Work Areas while processing internal tables. LOOP AT IT_MAT INTO WA_MAT. ENDLOOP. (OR)Use Field symbols on LOOP/READ statements as it is easier to modify the internal table entryand also avoids the usage of MODIFY statements.Sorting internal tablesWhen sorting internal tables, specify the fields to SORT on.SORT ITAB BY FLD1 FLD2. Is more efficient than SORT ITAB. (OR)Instead of using SORT table itab with matnr use, SORTED table with table key matnrThe access type of an internal table defines the way in which ABAP accesses the individualtable entries. There are three access types: Standard, Sorted, and Hashed.DELETE ADJACENT DUPLICATES statement should always be used with specific sort /comparison fields.Incorrect:DELETE ADJACENT DUPLICATES FROM T_DOCUMENT.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 27 of 66
  • 29. Coding Standard – ABAPCorrect:DELETE ADJACENT DUPLICATES FROM T_DOCUMENT COMPARING VBELN VBELP.Note: Internal Tables should be always sorted before using DELETE ADJACENT DUPLICATES.Standard Internal TablesStandard tables have a linear index. You can access them using either the index or the key. Ifyou use the key, the response time is in linear relationship to the number of table entries. Thekey of a standard table is always non-unique, and you may not include any specification forthe uniqueness in the table definition.This table type is particularly appropriate if you want to address individual table entries usingthe index. This is the quickest way to access table entries. To fill a standard table, appendlines using the (APPEND) statement. You should read, modify and delete lines by referring tothe index (INDEX option with the relevant ABAP command). The response time for accessinga standard table is in linear relation to the number of table entries. If you need to use keyaccess, standard tables are appropriate if you can fill and process the table in separatesteps. For example, you can fill a standard table by appending records and then sort it. If youthen use key access with the binary search option (BINARY), the response time is inlogarithmic relation to the number of table entries.Sorted Internal TablesSorted tables are always saved correctly sorted by key. They also have a linear key, and, likestandard tables, you can access them using either the table index or the key. When you usethe key, the response time is in logarithmic relationship to the number of table entries, sincethe system uses a binary search. The key of a sorted table can be either unique, or non-unique, and you must specify either UNIQUE or NON-UNIQUE in the table definition. Standardtables and sorted tables both belong to the generic group index tables.This table type is particularly suitable if you want the table to be sorted while you are stilladding entries to it. You fill the table using the (INSERT) statement, according to the sortsequence defined in the table key. Table entries that do not fit are recognized before theyare inserted. The response time for access using the key is in logarithmic relation to thenumber of table entries, since the system automatically uses a binary search. Sorted tablesare appropriate for partially sequential processing in a LOOP, as long as the WHERE conditioncontains the beginning of the table key.DO NOT use APPEND to fill the entries of SORTED internal table.Do NOT use SORTED tables in database SELECT statements as it would lead to a short dump ifthe system tries to append the entries into the sorted internal table.Hashed Internal TablesHashed tables have no internal linear index. You can only access hashed tables byspecifying the key. The response time is constant, regardless of the number of table entries,since the search uses a hash algorithm. The key of a hashed table must be unique, and youmust specify UNIQUE in the table definition.This table type is particularly suitable if you want mainly to use key access for table entries.You cannot access hashed tables using the index. When you use key access, the responsetime remains constant, regardless of the number of table entries. As with database tables,the key of a hashed table is always unique. Hashed tables are therefore a useful way ofconstructing and using internal tables that are similar to database tables.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 28 of 66
  • 30. Coding Standard – ABAPDO NOT use APPEND to fill the entries of HASHED internal table.CollectThe COLLECT statement is used to create a unique dataset.To fill a standard internal table without creating duplicate entries and add up the Packed,Integer, and Floating Point fields at the same time, use: COLLECT itab.This is only recommended for tables for which you expect approximately 50 entries or less.The COLLECT statement scans the table sequentially for a match on all fields that do nothave a data type of Packed, Integer, or Floating-Point. Hence it is can be resourceexpensive for larger tables.When dealing with larger internal tables, it is more efficient to READ the internal table withkey, and then perform an INSERT or MODIFY statement on the table depending on the returncode.Other ways to create unique datasets are to fill an internal table with all entries SORT it thenuse the statement ‘DELETE ADJACENT DUPLICATES’. (This statement is much more efficientthan deleting using a LOOP structure that would achieve the same effect).ABAP List ViewerA call back FORM in List Viewer should not be called the same name as an ABAP event orkeyword.i.e. rt_events-form = TOP_OF_PAGE.Incorrect:*&---------------------------------------------------------------------**& Form DEFINE_EVENTS*&---------------------------------------------------------------------** This form defines the events for display list*----------------------------------------------------------------------** <--RT_EVENTS Event table*----------------------------------------------------------------------*FORM define_events TABLES rt_events LIKE t_events. rt_events-name = slis_ev_top_of_page. RT_EVENTS-FORM = TOP_OF_PAGE. APPEND rt_events.ENDFORM. " DEFINE_EVENTSCorrect:*&---------------------------------------------------------------------**& Form DEFINE_EVENTS*&---------------------------------------------------------------------** This form defines the events for display list*----------------------------------------------------------------------** <--RT_EVENTS Event table*----------------------------------------------------------------------*FORM define_events TABLES rt_events LIKE t_events.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 29 of 66
  • 31. Coding Standard – ABAP rt_events-name = slis_ev_top_of_page. rt_events-form = PROCESS_TOP_OF_PAGE. APPEND rt_events.ENDFORM. " DEFINE_EVENTSABAP QueriesABAP Queries should not be used in production. A query generates a program which mustbe reviewed by ABAP COE. The generated program must have the following disciplines inplace: • Program Header is required • Program Name should end with _Query • If a key field statement is being used in a Where statement in SQL, then the field must be made mandatory on the selection screen so that Index scan is forced rather than a table scan.SAPScript Coding StandardsPrint ProgramPrint Program - Header At the top of each print program include the header text.Print Program and Form (Layout Set) CombinationsSAP allows multiple print programs to call one form layout. To reduce complexity andmaintenance a newly enhanced form layout should have its own enhanced print programthat calls this form. Here are some examples of the Print Program(s) on the left that calls theForm on the right:Example 1: Print Program #1 - change Form #1 - change Print Program #2 - no change becomes ZPrint Program #1 - changed ZForm #1 - changed Print Program #2 - no change Form #1 - no changeExample 2: Print Program #1 - change Form #1 - change Form #2 - no change becomes ZPrint Program #1 - changed ZForm #1 - changed Print Program #1 - no change Form #2 - no changeCS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 30 of 66
  • 32. Coding Standard – ABAP Form Painter - Adding and Deleting WindowsWhen adding a window to a page use Z as the first letter of the window name. You candelete windows from pages that are no longer being used by the print program. Deletewindows when it is necessary to reduce clutter within the form and to make futuremaintenance less complex. Do not use the Graphical Form Painter to delete windows sincethis editor permanently deletes the window from the form. Use the older non-graphical formpainter to remove the Window from Page Windows (the window will still remain in the form).You are then required to document the deleted window name in the Documentationsection of the form.Form Painter - Delete LinesFor program enhancements within a window refer to 3.1.6. You can only delete lines inblocks as shown below./*63-JWILMO-20000204 begin: delete/*&REGUH-NAME1&/*63-JWILMO-20000204 end: deleteForm Painter - ElementsWithin a window, do not change the element name/number that is being called a printprogram. If the element is no longer being used by the print program (or other printprograms), you can comment out the code ‘deleted/comment out elements clause shownbelow. However, do no comment out the element itself. If more than one block of elementscan be commented out you can begin at the top of the first element and end at the bottomof the last element as shown in elements 512 and 513 below./*63-JWILMO-20000204 begin: delete/comment out elements512/*The items listed below are managed on the following account:/*&REGUH-NAME1&/*&REGUH-STRAS&513/*------------------ Heading ---------------------------------------------/*&ULINE(71)&/*<K>Document,,Your document,,Date,,,,Deductions,,Gross amount</>/*<K>Number,,Date,,Text</>/*63-JWILMO-20000204 end: delete/comment out elementsStandards for all Enhancement User Exits • Always create a new separate include for each Gap in a SAP Enhancement exit Separate User Exits allow enable the independent migration of code as part or the promote-to-production path • Using the EXIT statement will terminate processing for all subsequent user exitsCS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 31 of 66
  • 33. Coding Standard – ABAP • The use of memory pointers in order to overcome User Exit Interface limitations is not permitted FIELD-SYMBOLS: <F> TYPE STANDARD TABLE. ASSIGN ((SAPMV56A)XVTTP[]) TO <F>. T_XVTTP = <F>.The variable XVTTP accessed in this example is not within the regular data scope of thecurrent program. In order to overcome this limitation and we are using the Assign statementagainst a specific memory location. During the execution of the VOFM we have no controlof the availability of this memory location. The SAP Interpreter basically searches all availablememory areas for the specified name and returns the value found in the first location - thatsa solution thats very difficult to maintained going forward - Any OSS note or externaltransport could affect the availability of specific variables in SAP Memory – this isunacceptable.DO NOT use CHECK statements in User-exits instead use IF….ENDIFCustom BAPI DevelopmentBAPI must be part of the Business Object Repository (BOR). Use Business Object Builder (BOB –Transaction SWO1) to associate a BAPI with a Business Object.Naming Convention for custom BAPI’s is ZBAPI_objectname_method name i.e.ZBAPI_COMPANYCODE_GETDETAIL.Do not use BAPI in a report program if you require a few fields. Instead make use of selectstatement. If its an online transaction program or you will be needing most of the fields thenusing BAPI is OK.BAPI Interface consists of Import and Export only. No Tables and no Exceptions should beused in the BAPI Interface.All messages need to be returned to the calling program via Return Structures: BAPIRET1 or BAPIRETURN BAPIRET2Adding a BAPI to an existing SAP object should be done using Subtypes and should not havea Z* as part of the naming convention. Z* is only used for BAPIs belonging to custom objects.All messages that can be issued by a BAPI MUST be listed in the BAPI DocumentationSome Basic Rules: • Always perform database changes using the update task • No screen output allowed in BAPI • Can not cause program termination i.e. message type A • Cannot dispatch commit work - Must useBapiService.TransactionCommit (Function Module BAPI_TRANSACTION_COMMIT)CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 32 of 66
  • 34. Coding Standard – ABAPPlease refer to SAP BAPI Programming Guide for more detail on programming with BAPIs. In4.6, use transaction BAPI to get to relevant documentation. Other sources arehttp://service.sap.com/bapiLogical DatabasesLogical databases can be inefficient because they can generally be thought of as nestedselects where large volumes of data as retrieved which may not exactly match reportrequirements. There are, however, instances when the use of a logical database can bejustified. For instance, in Asset Management a large number of calculations are performedwhich would take a large amount of time to replicate in custom code. Where a logicaldatabase maps closely to the data required by a program it maybe justified incorporating itinto the code however checks should be made to ensure that the authority checksperformed by the logical database are sufficient.Selection Screen ParametersInclude organizational entities (e.g. sales organization, plant) fields in the selection screenwherever it makes sense as this can also help reduce execution time (this should bemandatory for multiple company implementations). Use can often be made of the userparameter IDs to bring values into a selection screen. The following is an example of how thiscan be coded:Parameters: SALES_ORG LIKE TVKOV-VKORG MEMORY ID VKO.Frequently used parameter ID codes are:Company Code BUKSales Organization VKODistribution Channel VTWDivision SPAPlant WRKStorage location LAG USE SELECT-OPTIONS with NO-EXTENSION NO INTERVALS instead of PARAMETER SELECT matnr into wl_matnr From mara Where matnr IN s_matnr.Program DocumentationDocumentation of all new ABAP developments is completed in three ways. Program Folder OverviewThe initial development results in a program folder that is stored electronically (whererelevant).Subsequent modifications are monitored via the project Change Control system and eachchange will result in additional testing documentation clearly documenting the change.Again, these will be stored electronically. Header details and on-line help are recorded inthe program itself.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 33 of 66
  • 35. Coding Standard – ABAPFor all new programs, the following components make up the program folder:1. Program Functional Specification (provided by User/Configurer/Implementation Team member on-site),2. Program Technical Specification (written internally to ABAP team),3. Commented program source code (all messages and text elements must be fully commented),4. Test conditions,5. Test plan using all test conditions,6. Test Data used in the Test Plan,7. Expected Results for each Test Condition in the Test Plan,8. Actual Results generated when the Test Plan is executed,9. ALE related interface will also require a configuration script review to validate entries have been added for that particular interface.10. Program on-line help documentation.Once a program change has been requested. The program folder also contains:1. Copy of change request2. Amended source code (commented where appropriate changes have been made)3. Additional test data and results, along with test plan and test conditions. Source Code DocumentationAll ABAP developments start with the program name followed by header documentationrelating to the purpose of the report. The program author and creation date, together withinformation relating to the report user is also included. This type of header is also used forcustom-built include modules, and custom-built function modules.Example:************************************************************************* 1/ Report name: Cost Centre report************************************************************************* 2/ Description/program functions************************************************************************** This program is a Cost Centre report, which can be sorted* And summarized in different formats.************************************************************************** 3/ Responsibility************************************************************************ * Author: A Programmer* Creation Date: 14th February 02* Requested by: E User* Reference document: (design document)* Owner: Controlling* Project: A Project************************************************************************* 4/ External References*************************************************************************CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 34 of 66
  • 36. Coding Standard – ABAP* Include modules, input files etc.*************************************************************************REPORT ZKEVR034 NO STANDARD PAGE HEADING LINE-SIZE 132 LINE-COUNT 65 MESSAGE-ID ZE.Within the code comments are added as necessary to ensure that the code is clear,readable and maintainable. On-line HelpOn-line help will accompany all on-line programs. This is held in the Documentation elementof the ABAP program. Four sections are usually populated by default and details for eachare:Description: an overview of what the program does (and who the program is intended for).Parameters: an explanation of the select options where appropriate.Output:an explanation of the different output options where appropriateThis documentation can then be accessed by the user via the Help / Extended Help menupath when running the program. Program AttributesIn addition to the title an ABAP report should be given the following attributes:Type: e.g. 1 (Reporting) (as appropriate)Status: K (Customer program)Application: S (Basis) (as appropriate)It is not normally necessary to assign the program to a class but it can be important that anAuthorization Group is assigned. This is to ensure that the program can be properly securedbut is the responsibility of client authorization specialists to review. Program ModificationsAny changes that are made to a program (because a problem has been identified orbecause further enhancements are required) are carefully documented in the code (as wellas in the program folder). A summary of the change is included in the headerdocumentation of the code, immediately below the author details.************************************************************************** Revised by: A Programmer* Change Date: 14/2/02* Change Request: 00001* Description: Addition of the document type Invoice* Cancellation (N) to the program selection* OSS Note: 00001 (If required)* Changes identified by: XD1 S00K900001************************************************************************The CR (Change Request) number from the Change Request system should be entered sothe change details can be referenced, as should the SAP System and Correction numberrelating to the change.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 35 of 66
  • 37. Coding Standard – ABAPCode which needs to be changed is not removed but preceded by * to remain ascomment. Any section changed is surrounded with some form of documentation andcommented as normal. The SAP correction and transport number is used to identify each linewhich change the code applies to, as illustrated in the following example:* Code commented out by A. Programmer 14/02/02 to implement change to add* Doc type invoice cancellation (N) to Credit memo (O) and Debit memo (P)* IF VBRK-VBTYP = O OR VBRK-VBTYP = P. “XD1 S00K900001 CLEAR MAKE_NEGATIVE. “XD1 S00K900001 IF VBRK-VBTYP = O. “XD1 S00K900001 MAKE_NEGATIVE = Y. “XD1 S00K900001 ENDIF. “XD1 S00K900001* End of code commented out by A. Programmer 12/09/98. Program TestingAll code is thoroughly Unit Tested before it is submitted for User Testing. The testing strategy isdocumented by two documents:• Test Conditions - details what conditions will be tested.• Test Plan - details how the conditions will be testedTest ConditionsBefore coding, all conditions that will require testing are defined from the FunctionalSpecification. Obviously, as each program differs in its output, it therefore has a set of testconditions unique to itself. However, there are common features to most programs and testconditions that are of general application. The following test conditions (which cannotnecessarily be tested on the same test run) are typical:Selection screen Selection screen contains a range of sales organization/plant/division boxes. Selection screen contains a single parameter box for currency, defaulting to theuser’s parameter ID setting for currency. Currency parameter box cannot be left blank.Selection Report selects within range of sales organizations/plants/divisions specified. Report selects a single value of sales organization. Report doesn’t select outside the specified ranges. Report verifies that the currency entered in the parameter box is a valid value. Report terminates if the user attempts to view documents for which there is no authorization.Report header Report header displayed correctly once at the top of each page of the report. Report selections displayed correctly on first page beneath report header. Column headers displayed correctly once at the top of each page of the report.Report layout Detail lines formatted correctly. Report is sorted correctly by sales organization, customer... A new page is started for each new plant/sales org/customer/material... Full fields are displayed correctlyCS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 36 of 66
  • 38. Coding Standard – ABAPFunctions Currencies are correctly converted Totals for each plant/sales org/customer/material... are correct. Totals for the report are correct. Download file is contains correct dataExceptions Program handles one record correctly. Program handles many records correctly. Program handles no records at all. Program reports correctly if attempting to view unauthorized records. Test PlanOnce test conditions have been written, the programmer writes a test plan. This is adocument that details how the test conditions will be tested in a step-by-step format. Itmakes reference to the actual test data used (documented in the program folder) anddetails the expected results, while also referencing the actual results for comparison.Test DataTest data is the data that was used to test the scenarios documented on the test plan. Thereare cross-references on the test plan to the test data used. Test data can be, for example,print outs of SAP table contents with relevant records highlighted, Variant print outs or datadocumented in a word or spreadsheet format. This is documented and kept in a separatesection in the program folder.Expected ResultsExpected results are results that are expected to occur if the test data specified is used toexecute the step specified on the test plan. This is either documented on the test plan (e.g.error messages) or documented in a word or spreadsheet format (e.g. expected results ofreport calculations on test data).Relevant expected results are cross-referenced to the corresponding actual results.Actual ResultsActual results are documentary evidence of the test run result. They can be screen dumps(e.g. selection screen errors displayed), actual report print outs or spool printouts.Actual results are cross-referenced to the test conditions that they relate to and arenumbered for easy reference e.g. for test run 1, they would be called AR1, etc.Naming ConventionsPlease refer to the project naming conventions document for guidelines and procedures inthe naming of SAP Objects.Alternatively please contact the ABAP project manager.Program Documentation TemplatesProgram folders are documented in a consistent manner using the following header patternsas reference.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 37 of 66
  • 39. Coding Standard – ABAP Program Header************************************************************************* 1/ Report Name:************************************************************************************************************************************************** 2/ Description/ Program functions**************************************************************************************************************************************************** 3/ Responsibility************************************************************************* Author:* Creation Date:* Requested by:* Reference Document:* Owner:* Project:************************************************************************* Revised by:* Change Date:* Change Request:* Description:* SAP Correction:************************************************************************ Program Change************************************************************************* Revised by:* Change Date:* Change Request:* Description:* SAP Correction:************************************************************************CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 38 of 66
  • 40. Coding Standard – ABAP Include Program Header************************************************************************* 1/ Include Name:************************************************************************************************************************************************** 2/ Description/ Include functions**************************************************************************************************************************************************** 3/ Responsibility************************************************************************* Author:* Creation Date:* Requested by:* Reference Document:* Owner:* Project:************************************************************************* Revised by:* Change Date:* Change Request:* Description:* SAP Correction:************************************************************************ Sub-routine/Form************************************************************************* Form:* Description:* -> Input Parameter TEXT* <- Outbound Parameter TEXT* Called by:* Calls:************************************************************************Example:*---------------------------------------------------------------** Form GET_LAST_RUNDATE_TIME **---------------------------------------------------------------** This form is to read table ZZLRT where last run time and date ** of this ABAP program is stored. **---------------------------------------------------------------** Parameters / Tables: ** --> JOBID Job name used to run this ABAP ** --> REPID ABAP name **---------------------------------------------------------------* FORM GET_LAST_RUNDATE_TIME USING JOBID REPID.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 39 of 66
  • 41. Coding Standard – ABAP Function Module************************************************************************* 1/ Function Module Name:************************************************************************************************************************************************** 2/ Description / Function module functions**************************************************************************************************************************************************** 3/ Responsibility************************************************************************* Author:* Creation Date:* Requested by:* Reference Document:* Owner:* Project:************************************************************************* Revised by:* Change Date:* Change Request:* Description:* SAP Correction:************************************************************************The Function Module Interface should adhere to the following naming conventions:Importing Parameters: IM_x….xExporting Parameters: EX_x…..xChanging Parameters: CH_x….xTables Parameters: TB_x….xThe use of Tables in custom developed function modules should generally be avoided sinceit implies the use of old internal table definition with header lineFunction Module – Exception HandlingFor SAP function modules or generic custom function modules we MUST handle themessaging ourselves since we dont have detailed messages in the functions. In order for thegeneric syntax to work below the function must make use of the Message...Raising format sothat the SY variables are properly set.After a call to a function, the developers are routinely using the following default as insertedby the editor.Incorrect: IF sy-subrc <> 0. MESSAGE ID sy-msgid TYPE sy-msgty NUMBER sy-msgno WITH sy-msgv1 sy-msgv2 sy-msgv3 sy-msgv4. ENDIF.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 40 of 66
  • 42. Coding Standard – ABAPThis is not allowed unless the Message...Raising format is used consistently throughoutthe function.After a Call Function, it is the developer’s responsibility to check the return code andprovide meaningful messaging.Sample Code: ZSDR_TAKEALL_CLOSEOUT and its call to CALL FUNCTIONZ_SD_ORDER_MATERIAL_QUANTITIES for an example of specific custom message handlingCorrect: CALL FUNCTION Z_SD_ORDER_MATERIAL_QUANTITIES EXPORTING p_del_prc_qty = c_on p_confirm_qty = c_on TABLES t_orders = rt_vbeln t_status = rt_item_qty EXCEPTIONS input_not_correct =1 selected_qty_not_correct = 2 quantities_not_selected = 3 OTHERS = 4. CASE sy-subrc. WHEN 1. MESSAGE e555 WITH Invalid input(009). WHEN 2. MESSAGE e555 WITH Selected qty not correct(011). WHEN 3. MESSAGE e555 WITH Quantities not selected(012). WHEN 4. MESSAGE e555 WITH Other Reasons(013). ENDCASE.Application OSS notesThe following program header should be copied into any program when an OSS note isapplied: ******************************************************************* * OSS Note History * **-----------------------------------------------------------------* * OSS Note Date OSS Note Version & Date Username * ------------------------------------------------------------------* * xxxxxxxxxx mm/dd/yyyy zzzzz from MM/DD/YY zzzzzzzzzzzz * *-----------------------------------------------------------------*The version is part of the OSS note information. SAP pretty often updates OSS notes andtherefore we need to be able to identify which version has been appliedEach code section thats affected by an OSS note should be marked as described below:Minor change: DATA: BEGIN OF I_CLEARED_CHECKS_RECORD, I_CHECT(10), I_DATUM(8), “<<< insert OSS Note 12345678 mgiess * I_FILLER(62), “<<< delete OSS Note 12345678 mgiess END OF I_CLEARED_CHECKS_RECORD.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 41 of 66
  • 43. Coding Standard – ABAPMajor change Insert Example: * OSS Note 12345678 mgiess Insert begin: DATA: BEGIN OF I_CLEARED_CHECKS_RECORD, I_CHECT(10), I_DATUM(8), I_FILLER(62), . . . <30 more lines of new code> END OF I_CLEARED_CHECKS_RECORD. * OSS Note 12345678 mgiess Insert endThe following examples contain the modification assistant automatic comments (shown inblue below).Major change Delete only Example:*{ INSERT DE1K901245 1*OSS Note 211722 jwilmo delete begin*} INSERT*{ DELETE DE1K901245 3* IF NOT XEK08BN-J_3AFSKZ IS INITIAL AND "AFS-Material AFS* NOT XEK08BN-J_3AEBSP IS INITIAL AND "Kond auf Pos AFS* TKOMV-J_3AETENR IS INITIAL AND "auf Pos.Ebene AFS* TKOMV-KRECH = C AND "mengenabhängig AFS* TKOMV-KNTYP = B. "BzNebKos AFS* H-WERT = TKOMV-KWERT * EKPO-MENGE. " AFS* H-WERT = H-WERT / LD_EKPO-MENGE. " AFS* ENDIF. " AFS*} DELETE*{ INSERT DE1K901245 2*OSS Note 211722 jwilmo delete end*} INSERTNote the standard delete comments containing the OSS note number are ‘inserted’ in thecode before and after the delete. Modification assistant does not allow comments whenyou delete code.Major change Replace Example if the lines being inserted for the replace allow the OSS notecomment:*{ REPLACE DE1K900368 1* X_INRIV-EXTERNIND NE X . x_inriv-externind ne X and "<<< Replace OSS Note 169411 cwood1 ( baltd-tcode = AS91 or "<<< Insert OSS Note 169411 cwood1 baltd-tcode = AS81 ). "<<< Insert OSS Note 169411 cwood1*} REPLACEMajor change Replace Example if the lines being inserted for the replace do not allow theOSS note comment on the same line:*{ INSERT DE1K900370 1* OSS Note 0177387 mwild Replace BEGIN:*} INSERT*{ REPLACE DE1K900370 2* if itab_dd03p_orig-adminfield = if itab_dd03p_orig-adminfield <=* OSS Note 01770387 mwild Replace END.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 42 of 66
  • 44. Coding Standard – ABAP*} REPLACECS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 43 of 66
  • 45. Coding Standard – ABAP ABAP Program TemplatesThis appendix details some basic recommended programming templates for various types ofABAP program. Basic Report List(Use standard program header as outlined in program documentation section).************************************************************************ Table Declarations ************************************************************************TABLES:************************************************************************ Selection Screen Parameters ************************************************************************SELECT-OPTIONS:PARAMETERS:************************************************************************ Data Declarations ************************************************************************INCLUDE... (For data definitions)DATA: ... i_int_tab TYPE STANDARD TABLE OF ty_int_tab.FIELD-GROUPS: INSERT... INTO HEADER...FIELD-SYMBOLS:Include constants, working storage.***********************************************************************The INITIALISATION event occurs before the selection screen is shown. It happens only onceand is ignored in background processing.************************************************************************ Initialization***********************************************************************INITIALIZATION. (Set up defaults for select options if necessary).***********************************************************************This event is used for selection screen checks and validation of correct entries. It occurs eachtime the ENTER key is hit on the selection screen. This event is ignored in backgroundprocessing.************************************************************************ At Selection-Screen Event***********************************************************************AT SELECTION-SCREEN.***********************************************************************This event is used to set up report header details.******************************************************************************** Top of Page EventCS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 44 of 66
  • 46. Coding Standard – ABAP*******************************************************************************TOP-OF-PAGE.***********************************************************************This event is used for report footer processing.******************************************************************************** End of Page Event*******************************************************************************END-OF-PAGE.***********************************************************************This event is used to begin the data retrieval.******************************************************************************** Start of Selection*******************************************************************************START-OF-SELECTION.Select records: SELECT.... FROM.... WHERE...INProcess/further validation of selected dataAppend/modify internal table or extract dataset.This event can be used to output details.******************************************************************************** End of Selection*******************************************************************************END-OF-SELECTION.SORT...LOOP / LOOP AT Totals/sort processing events: AT FIRST. ENDAT. AT NEW… ENDAT. AT END OF... ENDAT. AT LAST. ENDAT.ENDLOOP.Subroutines - include any reusable code:FORM...CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 45 of 66
  • 47. Coding Standard – ABAPENDFORM.Interactive ABAP Report List(Use standard program header as outlined in Program Documentation section).******************************************************************************** Table Declarations*******************************************************************************TABLES:******************************************************************************** Selection Screen Parameters*******************************************************************************SELECT-OPTIONS:PARAMETERS:******************************************************************************** Data Declarations*******************************************************************************INCLUDE... (For data definitions)DATA: ... i_int_tab TYPE STANDARD TABLE OF ty_int_tab.FIELD-GROUPS: INSERT... INTO HEADER...FIELD-SYMBOLS:Include constants, working storage.The INITIALISATION event occurs before the selection screen is shown. It happens only onceand is ignored in background processing.******************************************************************************** Initialization*******************************************************************************INITIALIZATION. (Set up defaults for select options if necessary).*******************************************************************************This event is used for selection screen checks and validation of correct entries. It occurs eachtime the ENTER key is hit on the selection screen. This event is ignored in backgroundprocessing.******************************************************************************** At Selection-Screen Event*******************************************************************************AT SELECTION-SCREEN.*******************************************************************************This event is used to set up report header details.******************************************************************************** Top of Page Event*******************************************************************************TOP-OF-PAGE.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 46 of 66
  • 48. Coding Standard – ABAP*******************************************************************************This event is used for report footer processing******************************************************************************** End of Page Event*******************************************************************************END-OF-PAGE.*******************************************************************************This event is used to begin the data retrieval.******************************************************************************** Start of Selection******************************************************************************START-OF-SELECTION.Select records: SELECT.... FROM.... WHERE...INProcess/further validation of selected dataAppend/modify internal table or extract dataset.*******************************************************************************This event can be used to output details.******************************************************************************** End of Selection*******************************************************************************END-OF-SELECTION.SORT...LOOP / LOOP AT Totals/sort processing events: AT FIRST. ENDAT. AT NEW... ENDAT. AT END OF... ENDAT. AT LAST. ENDAT.ENDLOOP.Subroutines - include any reusable code:FORM...ENDFORM.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 47 of 66
  • 49. Coding Standard – ABAPBatch Input Program(Use standard program header as outlined in program documentation section).******************************************************************************** Table Declarations*******************************************************************************TABLES:******************************************************************************** Selection Screen Parameters*******************************************************************************SELECT-OPTIONS:PARAMETERS:******************************************************************************** Data Declarations*******************************************************************************INCLUDE... (For data definitions)Batch data structure:DATA: BEGIN OF BDCDATA OCCURS 10. INCLUDE STRUCTURE BDCDATA.DATA: END OF BDCDATA.FIELD-GROUPS: INSERT... INTO HEADER...FIELD-SYMBOLS:Include constants, working storage.*******************************************************************************The INITIALISATION event occurs before the selection screen is shown. It happens only onceand is ignored in background processing.******************************************************************************** Initialization ********************************************************************************INITIALIZATION. (Set up defaults for select options if necessary).*******************************************************************************This event is used for selection screen checks and validation of correct entries. It occurs eachtime the ENTER key is hit on the selection screen. This event is ignored in backgroundprocessing.******************************************************************************** At Selection-Screen Event ********************************************************************************AT SELECTION-SCREEN.*******************************************************************************This event is used to begin the data retrieval.******************************************************************************** Start of Selection *CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 48 of 66
  • 50. Coding Standard – ABAP*******************************************************************************START-OF-SELECTION.Upload data from temporary SAP table, or Unix file,READ DATASET FILE INTO REC.Or upload file from a PC fileCALL FUNCTION WS_UPLOAD.Open the batch input (BDC) sessionCALL FUNCTION BDC_OPEN_GROUP EXPORTING CLIENT = SY-MANDT GROUP = SESSION_NAME "session name USER = SY-UNAME KEEP = X. "Keep session after processingLOOP AT TAB. Create the BDC entries for the first screen of the transaction E.g. Screen 1000 PERFORM BDCDYNPRO USING X SAPMxxxx 1000 . PERFORM BDCDYNPRO USING TABL-FIELD LITERAL. (Literal or field) Insert all other screens for this transaction. PERFORM BDCDYNPRO USING X SAPMxxxx nnn . PERFORM BDCDYNPRO USING TABL-FIELD TAB-VAR. Insert data into the BDC session. CALL FUNCTION BDC_INSERT EXPORTING TCODE = TCOD TABLES DYNPROTAB = BDCDATA. REFRESH BDCDATA.ENDLOOP.*******************************************************************************This event can be used to output details.******************************************************************************** End of Selection ********************************************************************************END-OF-SELECTION.Close the BDC Session.CALL FUNCTION BDC_CLOSE_GROUP.*******************************************************************************CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 49 of 66
  • 51. Coding Standard – ABAPProgram Performance tuning techniquesThis appendix details some recommended programming performance improvementtechniques and considerations that can be used during the construction phase of an ABAPprogram.Technique 1: Using Select StatementsWhen using the statement:SELECT * FROM tableIn order to extract all records from a given table, it is more efficient to narrow the selectionusing specific table fields as search keys.For example:SELECT * FROM VBAK ….Instead use:SELECT VBELN, AUART, BNAME, KUNNR INTO (VBAK-VBELN, VBAK-AUART, ….)FROM VBAK..The performance advantage in selecting 1000 records, for instance, using fields VBELN,AUART, BNAME & KUNNR only can be considerable: SELECT * FROM table producing results in 2,910,000 micro seconds(ms) SELECT column1 ,.. producing results in 239,000 ms Technique 2: Selecting ordered records from a tableWhen selecting records from a table and then having them ordered in a specified orderusing theSELECT FROM table ORDER BYStatement, such as:SELECT VBELN BNAME... INTO TABLE IVBAK FROM VBAKWHERE BNAME IN S_BNAME ORDER BY BNAMEIt is better to use this statement:SELECT VBELN, AUART, BNAME, KUNNR INTO TABLE IVBAK FROM VBAKWHERE BNAME IN S_BNAME.SORT IVBAK BY BNAME.The Sort statement sorts IVBAK the table once it has been populated. In the formerstatement, the sort takes place record by record, whereas in the latter statement, the sorttakes place more efficiently on the whole table after being populated.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 50 of 66
  • 52. Coding Standard – ABAPThis is because the former statement interrogates the database twice in order to select aspecific record. In the latter statement, the same result is achieved in less time and moreefficiently because the database is interrogated only once. Technique 3: Reading large internal tables without using binary searchWhen reading in internal table with a high number of records, like:SELECT VBELN KUNNR... INTO TABLE IVBAK WHERE…READ TABLE IVBAK WITH KEY VBELN = ‘00900000090’.Where a key is used to search for records with fields that match the key field, it is better to usea binary search to speed up the search. For example:READ TABLE IVBAK WITH KEY VBELN = ‘00900000090’BINARY SEARCH TRANSPORTING NO FIELDSIn order for the BINARY SEARCH to work properly the table must be sorted in ascending orderof the search criteria.If you want to verify the existence of a record but don’t need any of the fields from therecord, then use the faster variant: BINARY SEARCH TRANSPORTING NO FIELDS Technique 4: Moving data from Internal Table 1 to Internal Table 2When populating an internal table with records from another internal table:LOOP AT ITAB1. MOVE ITAB1 TO ITAB2. APPEND ITAB2.ENDLOOP.It is better to use:Itab2[ ] = itab1[ ].This is because the former statement processing the source internal table on a record-by-record basis. The latter method uses a single hit on the table to populate the destinationinternal table. Note that both the internal tables must be of same structure in order to use thesecond method. Technique 5: Appending data from Internal Table 1 to Internal Table 2When populating the destination internal table from the source internal table, like:LOOP AT ITAB1. MOVE ITAB1 TO ITAB2. APPEND ITAB2.ENDLOOP.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 51 of 66
  • 53. Coding Standard – ABAPIt is better to use this statement:APPEND LINES OF ITAB1 TO ITAB2.This is because the former statement appends records from the source table to thedestination table on a record-by-record basis. This could a very long time if the source tablecontains a large number of records. However, the second method uses a single “hit” on thesource table to populate the destination internal table. This is a far more efficient processingstep. Technique 6: Deleting data from Internal TablesWhen deleting records from an internal table, like:LOOP AT IVBAK WHERE BNAME = ‘SMITH’. DELETE BNAME.ENDLOOP.It is better to use this statement:DELETE IVBAK WHERE BNAME = ‘Smith’.This is because the second method uses a single processing step to delete specific recordsform internal table IVBAK, whereas the former method processed each record in IVBAK oneby one.Here are a few things one should think about when checking for program efficiency.Is the program using SELECT statements? Convert them to SELECT column1 column2 or use projection views.Are CHECK statements for table fields embedded in SELECT ... ENDSELECT loop? Incorporate the CHECK statements into the WHERE clause of the SELECT statementDo SELECT s on non-key fields use an appropriate DB index or is the table buffered? Create index for the table in the data dictionary or buffer tables if they are read onlyor read mostly.Is the program using nested SELECT s to retrieve data? Create a Database View in the Data Dictionary and then use this View instead of thenested selects.Are there any SELECT statements without a WHERE Condition against files that grow constantly(BSEG, MKPF, VBAK)? Program design is wrong. Go back to performance tuning and read again.Is the program using SELECT ... APPEND ITAB... ENDSELECT techniques to fill internal tables? Change the processing to read the data immediately into an internal table. (SELECT VBELN AUART ... INTO TABLE IVBAK...)CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 52 of 66
  • 54. Coding Standard – ABAPIs the program using SELECT ORDER BY Statements? Data should be read into an internal table first and then sorted, unless there is an appropriate index for the order by fields.Is the programming doing calculations/summation that can be done on the database viaSUM, AVG, MIN or MAX functions for the SELECT Statement? Use the calculation capabilities of the database via SELECT SUM....Are internal tables processed using the READ TABLE itab WITH KEY ... technique?Change table accesses to use BINARY SEARCH method. ABAP Code Review Checklist ABAP Code Review_checklist.xlsABAP ObjectsNaming Conventions in ABAP ObjectsIntroductionABAP Objects namespace validity is very complex. In order to avoid problems duringdevelopment it is not only helpful but also necessary to outline name conventionsfor that matter.Classes and their dependent subclasses share the same namespace which affects Constants (CONSTANTS) , Variables (DATA, CLASS-DATA) , Methods (METHODS, CLASS-METHODS) and Events (EVENTS, CLASS-EVENTS).SAP has not yet decided whether to allow upper/lower case for internal names (to separateindividual words - as in JAVA). Therefore in order to do that we still have to use theunderscore character.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 53 of 66
  • 55. Coding Standard – ABAPNaming ConventionsGeneral rules: • Always use meaningful English terms for naming objects. • Use glossary terms whenever possible. For example: ZCL_COMPANY_CODE, instead of BUKRS, as this will be SAP"s standard in the future (see BAPIs) • Where names are grouped together use the _ as a separator. For example: ZCL_COMPANY_CODE, ZCL_GENERAL_LEDGER_ACCOUNT • Names should describe what the subject is not how it is to be implemented. For Example: PRINT_RECTANGLE and not RECTANGLE_TO_SPOOL.General Conventions ZCL_<class name> The class name should consist of nouns and shouldClass in Class Library* only use the singular form: ZCL_COMPANY_CODE ZCL_GENERAL_LEDGER_ACCOUNT ZIF_<interface name> Interfaces in The naming conventions for classes also apply toClassLibrary* interface:. ZIF_STATUS_MANAGEMENT, ZIF_CHECKER Types in the DDIC* Z<type name> LCL_<class name> The class name should consist of nouns and should Local Class only use the singular form: LCL_TRANSACTION LIF_<interface name> The class name should consist of nouns and should Local Interface only use the singular form: LIF_PRINTERObjects marked with * are protected by the global TADIR, but they occupy the samenamespace as data elements, tables, structures and types.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 54 of 66
  • 56. Coding Standard – ABAPClass Conventions <method name>Method Name The method name should begin with a verb. GET_STATUS, CREATE_ORDER, DETERMINE_PRICE <event name> Event names should be named like this:Event <Noun>_<Participle of Verb >. BUTTON_PUSHED, COMPANY_CODE_CHANGED, BUSINESS_PARTNER_PRINTED <type name>_tyLocal Class TypeDefinition INTERNAL_TYPE_TY, TREE_LIST_TY <variable name> You should avoid using verbs at the beginning when naming Data Definition variables within a class (CLASS-DATA, DATA).(Variable) (This is to prevent confusion with method names.) LINE_COUNT, MARK_PRINTED, MARK_CHANGED, STATUS C_<constant name> Data Definition C_MAX_LINE,(Constants) C_DEFAULT_STATUS, C_DEFAULT_WIDTH, C_MAX_ROWSFixed Method Names SET_<attribute name>, GET_<attribute name> You should prefix all types ofAttribute Accesses attribute access with GET_ or SET Accordingly, GET_STATUS, SET_USE_COUNTCS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 55 of 66
  • 57. Coding Standard – ABAP ON_<event name> For methods that deal with an event, you should begin theMethods that Deal with an Event name with ON followed by the name of the relevant event. ON_BUTTON_PUSHED, ON_BUSINESS_PARTNER_PRINTED AS_<new Type>Methods that carry out TypeConversions AS_STRING, AS_ISOCODEMethods that deliver a BooleanValue These methods cannotreturn IS_<adjective> any EXCEPTIONS. Recommendation: The IS_OPEN, IS_EMPTY, Boolean value should be IS_ACTIVE represented bySPACE/"X" for False/True.Check Methods These methods differfrom the IS_<adjective>" methods CHECK_<objective>by their ability to return CHECK_AUTHORIZATION, exceptions. CHECK_PROCESS_DATE CHECK_AUTHORIZATION, CHECK_PROCESS_DATEMethod ConventionsThe parameters are observed from the point of view of the methods, which implementedthem:CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 56 of 66
  • 58. Coding Standard – ABAPIMPORTING-Parameter IM_<parameter name>EXPORTING-Parameter EX_<parameter name>CHANGING-Parameter CH_<parameter name>RESULT RE_<result>EXCEPTIONS See "Exceptions"ExceptionsThe developer’s job is made easier when standards for the naming of exceptions areavailable. The following is a table of meaningful exceptions, which can also be usedgenerically.(Example: ...NOT_FOUND could become DATE_NOT_FOUND)EXCEPTION MEANINGACTION NOT The requested action or the requested OK-Code is not supportedSUPPORTED This EXCEPTION can be set if the user is required to select what happensCANCELLED next in a method (for example: Selection List) and he/she selects "Cancel".EXISTING A new object already exists in the database. The methods could not carry out your task because of the present state of the environment. This exception is especially intended for casesFAILED where the environment is temporarily in a situation that does not allow the method tasks to be carried out. A sub function of the method could not be carried out because of the..._FAILED present state of the environment. (OPEN_FAILED, CLOSE_FAILED, SELECTION_FAILED, AUTHORIZATION_FAILED)FOREIGN_LOCK Other users lock data.INCONSISTENT Object data in the database is inconsistent...._INCONSISTENT The sub-object data of an object in the database is inconsistent. The object data entered is not correct. (e.g. Company Code is notINVALID available) (in contrast to NOT_QUALIFIED) The given sub-object data of an object is not correct. (In contrast to..._INVALID NOT_QUALIFIED) The last resort. If all else fails and the error can no longer be contained,INTERNAL_ERROR apply this EXCEPTION.NOT_AUTHORIZED The user does not have authorization for this action.NOT_CUSTOMIZED The object requested is not correctly customized...._NOT_CUSTOMIZED The sub-object of the object requested is not correctly customized.NOT_FOUND The requested object has not been found...._NOT_FOUND The sub-object of the object requested has not been found. The combination of input parameters is not sufficient to allow theNOT_QUALIFIED method’s functions to be carried out. (In contrast to INVALID)..._NOT_QUALIFIED A specific parameter of the method is not qualifiedCS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 57 of 66
  • 59. Coding Standard – ABAPNUMBER_ERROR Error in the provision of numbers. This exception can be set where the Basis System registers anSYSTEM_ERROR unexpected error code.Work FlowIntroductionThis document is created to outline naming standards, programming standards, andpreferred practices/approach in Workflow development and provide guidelines for BusinessWorkflow development for WIPRO. These are Wipro’s "Workflow Development Standards" andcontain WIPRO specific programming conventions as SAP best practices.As new standards are developed, this guide will be updated on an ongoing basis. Thedocument is intended for use by ABAP/Workflow developers as a guide for developmentsand enhancements to R/3. The user of this document should be familiar with basic conceptsof R/3 and business workflows.OBJECTIVEThe objectives of this document are as follows: • To describe a consistent set of practices so that all business workflows follow these practices and use uniform conventions and techniques. • To recommend, explain and suggest techniques that can be followed during design and development of SAP Business Workflow. Naming Convention1.1Workflow Templates / TaskNaming Format Components Description / ChoicesAbbreviation forworkflow template /Taskgd_xx G ‘Z’ to be used for all transportable programs ‘Y’ for all test programs developed as local private objects and not intended for transportCS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 58 of 66
  • 60. Coding Standard – ABAP d Development class xx Descriptive text1.2Business ObjectNaming Format Components Description / ChoicesObject Typegxx g ‘Z’ to be used for all transportable programs ‘Y’ for all test programs developed as local private objects and not intended for transport xx Descriptive text. If it is inherited or copied from Standard Business Object, STD Object type to be mentioned here to replace xx. e.g. ZBUS1001Object Namexx xx Meaningful name which will describe object type. Spaces are not allowed in object name , so it should be a proper combination of Block and small letters e.g. PurchaseOrderNamexx Xx Meaningful name which needs to be seen in Object builder. ( Spaces are allowed for this name) e.g. Purchase OrderDescriptionxx xx Description to elaborate object type e.g. Purchase OrderNote: Naming of attributes, methods and events is similar to naming convention of name ofObject and its description1.3Business Object – programNaming Format Components Description / ChoicesProgram nameCS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 59 of 66
  • 61. Coding Standard – ABAPgRXX G ‘Z’ to be used for all transportable programs ‘Y’ for all test programs developed as local private objects and not intended for transport Rxx Along with constant ‘R’, Descriptive text, preferably name same as super type object’s programNote: Naming of variables, constants and coding standards for this program are same asreferred in Beacon Program ABAP standard document.Preferred Approaches / practices:A. Workflow implementing approach: Activities to be carried out before development of workflow: The first step in designing a business process for inclusion in a workflow should be to determine the business objective for which the workflow is to be implemented. Gather following information about the process so that it can be mapped to workflow for designing / development purpose. A. Determine SAP Business object which can be used to carry out required functionalities. B. Determine exact flow of current process so that it can be then mapped to workflow definition C. Determine what activities are involved in the process, which can be mapped to individual steps inside Workflow definition D. Determine who are the responsible/authorized persons involved in the process, as they have to be used as agents for routing the correct work to correct person i.e. get the information of Organization structure. If organization structure is not available/will not be used, decide upon agent determination strategy. E. Determine based on which particular actions, workflow should react to them i.e. identify exact events based on which workflow should be triggered. F. Get information about volume of data.B. Workflow scenario development: Design and Development of a workflow scenario can be divided primarily under two heads: • Workflow template related developments • Business Object related developments I. Workflow template related developments Approach to be followed for workflow template related development: 1. SAP provides workflow templates that may suit your objectives. Check whether same is serving the purpose.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 60 of 66
  • 62. Coding Standard – ABAP 2. If template satisfies the requirements, use the existing template. 3. If the purpose is not served, try to use it by configuring it- Involves activities like changing the agents, scheduling dead-line monitoring, maintaining information texts etc. 4. If the purpose is not served by configuring, then copy the template and then change it i.e. extend the template. 5. If the template for the required functionality is not present, then create your own template. 6. When creating the template naming conventions to be followed as mention in this document. 7. Check and decide upon handling error conditions within workflow based on process requirements. Activities to be carried out during Workflow development: 1. As mentioned in preferred approach section, if template needs to be developed, before creating a totally new workflow template, check whether any SAP provided existing template can be used for extending its functionality. 2. So by using base functionality of existing template, add only required functionality to meet the additional requirements. 3. While adding steps to workflow template as far as possible use standard tasks as reusable components i.e. check whether standard tasks available can be used instead of creating new tasks separately. 4. For starting a workflow different mechanisms can be used, out of which use of events should be preferred approach as far as possible. This approach has greater flexibility considering maintenance and administration of workflows. 5. Once development of workflow template is complete, perform unit testing through workflow builder and use tools like workflow log at this stage to remove errors so as to reduce number of errors caused during testing in- conjunction with application. II. Business Object related developments: Approach to be followed for business object related development: 1. Check whether standard business object, its method and events can be used directly. 2. Check on the event triggering i.e. application from which event is to be triggered by it, or needs a custom development or any other mechanism for raising an event. 3. If the purpose is not served with available attribute or methods or events available with existing object, then extend the object by using inheritance and delegation technique. 4. In the delegated BOR Object types, don’t change any Standard SAP method. Instead develop a new method. Activities to be carried out during Business Object development: 1. As mentioned in preferred approach section, if existing method, attribute or events are not fulfilling the requirements, use inheritance and delegationCS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 61 of 66
  • 63. Coding Standard – ABAP mechanism and then extend object to add required methods, attributes or events to the object. 2. Before extending an object check if it is already extended, if available, use the same for further extension. This will prevent creating more subtypes for the same object, which can be cumbersome from maintenance point of view. 3. While adding custom methods, attributes and events follow naming convention from this document. 4. Follow coding standards for Beacon Program ABAP standards in case Object program is modified manually. 5. Once extension of object is complete, generate the same and test the same from Object builder for checking added attributes, methods etc , so that error free object can be used for workflow template. Performance tips: • Reducing the number of work items for each workflow i. Replace reading/calculating background methods by virtual attributes (for the evaluation of a virtual attribute, no work item is created). ii. Group together several small background methods in one large group (a work item is created for every background step). • Preventing unnecessary tRFCs i. Replace asynchronous methods by synchronous methods (thus the system does not have to execute the exiting event). This is usually possible if the method is not exited in the update program. ii. Do not check input data in the first workflow step but use the option of check function module. Thus you avoid the generation of unnecessary work items and the relocation of unnecessary tRFCs. • The log of the workflow events should be deactivated at the latest by the time production starts. It should only be active in production system if this is necessary for an error analysis • Workflow Technical Trace is intended to be used while developing a workflow or customizing a communication interface. As such should be avoided using it in production systems • Check and decide on using techniques like usage of Event queue in order to combat threat of system overload if large amount of data being used which in turn will cause a high number of events/workflows triggered at the same time. • All performance-related tips as mentioned in Beacon Program ABAP standards to be used for code used for methods of Business Objects. Error Handling: As mentioned in the workflow design / development section, error handling strategy should be in place at the time of designing a workflow template. e.g. this strategy could be just as intimating the concerned person in case of error, who in case of technical errors can be workflow administrator and in case of business errors, a concerned person from business. This strategy will actually depend upon requirement of business process, which should be decided at the time of workflow template design.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 62 of 66
  • 64. Coding Standard – ABAP Checklist for Workflow development: WF development checklistQA Summary ObjectiveThe QA process is designed to evaluate the quality of ABAP programs and program foldersdeveloped as part of SAP R/3 Projects. Its main objectives are to:• Ensure that efficient coding methods are used and verify that established coding standards are followed.• To facilitate knowledge transfer on sound programming techniques.• To detect potential problems that might affect system performance before they leave the development environment• To ensure ABAP standards are implemented across all ABAP development. ScopeThe QA process is designed to address the following development issues:• Data retrieval from high-volume tables like VBFA, MSEG and BSEG.• The use of hard-coded literal values• Modularization, naming standards and program documentation to maximize maintainability• Selection screens and select-options processing• Security for critical and sensitive reports• Program Folder documentation• Consistent user interfaces that are in line with SAP standards for style• Efficient programming practices This section is meant to give a consistent approach to QA of ABAP code across SAP R/3 projects. Target AudienceThe target audience for this document according to the purpose is as follows: Action & AdherenceCS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 63 of 66
  • 65. Coding Standard – ABAP Project Managers Technical Team Leaders Technical Quality Assurors Technical programmersQA Process Overview• For all new programs, the developer will provide the following components as part of the program folder (in this order):1 Program Functional Specification (provided by User/Configurer/Implementation Team member on-site),2 Program Technical Specification (written internally to ABAP team),3 Commented program source code (all messages and text elements must be fully commented),4 Test conditions,5 Test plan using all test conditions,6 Test Data used in the Test Plan,7 Expected Results for each Test Condition in the Test Plan,8 Actual Results generated when the Test Plan is executed,9 ALE related interface will also require a configuration script review to validate entries have been added for that particular interface.10 Program on-line help documentation.• A QA review must be executed for each ABAP program folder. A QA process must also be undertaken for each Technical Specification written, before any other component of the program folder can be written. Once the technical specification has been QA’ed and approved, then the program folder components listed above can be written. A series of QA processes may take place on the program folder to: 1. Test the program functionality using test conditions and test plan from the program folder and, 2. To assess the quality of the program documentation. Once the program meets the functionality of the Functional Specification fully, the program folder will be signed-off and approved by the ABAP Development Project Manager.CS_ABAPCDS – Version 2.0Select the document classification as per the defined classification in the master list of documents’ for your project<VERY CONFIDENTIAL/CONFIDENTIAL/INTERNALLY RESTRICTED/PUBLIC> Page 64 of 66