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    Ijess complimentary copy vol1issue3 Ijess complimentary copy vol1issue3 Document Transcript

    • IJESS                              Volume1Issue3   ISSN: 2249‐ 9482     Sr.  TITLE & NAME OF  THE AUTHOR(S)  Page No.  No. 1  MEASURING SOFTWARE QUALITY FACTORS USING CK METRICS  1  Rashmi Goyal,  Sona Malhotra 2  INDIAN REAL ESTATE‐ A BOON TO THE ECONOMY  10  Dr. V. Santhi, Benon.S, Arun Kumar.J 3  WIRELESS SIGNAL STRENGTH ENHANCEMENT IN LOCAL AREA NETWORK (WLAN)  28  M. Umair Saleem, Tasleem Mustafa,  Ahsan Raza Sattar,  Dr. Muhammad Saleem,  Dr. Shaukat Ali 4  SECURITY IN VEHICULAR AD‐HOC NETWORKS ‐ CHALLENGES AND COUNTER MEASURES  45  Ann Baby, .Dr.Sreekumar  International Journal of Engineering & Social Sciences    www.gjmr.org 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482   MEASURING SOFTWARE QUALITY FACTORS USING CK METRICSRashmi Goyal* Sona Malhotra** ABSTRACTThis paper gives an approach to evaluate software testability. The process of SoftwareEngineering evolves with a unique issue of testability. It is an external software attribute thatassesses the complexity and effort required for testing software. The insight provided bytestability is valuable during design, coding, testing and quality assurance. To capturetestability of classes, we used different metrics to measure its characteristics. TestabilityKeywords: Software Testability, CK metrics, quality.*CSE Deptt., University Institute of Engineering & Technology, Kurukshetra** Assistant Professor, CSE Deptt., University Institute of Engineering & Technology,Kurukshetra International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       1 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482   1. INTRODUCTIONSoftware engineering is a profession dedicated to analysis, designing, implementing andmodifying software so that we develop software of high quality and fast to build. Testing hasalways been a broad concept to measure and evaluate software accurately. Software quality is theattribute to measure the software characteristics. To measure software quality, a no. of softwaremetrics is used. Metric are the quantitative measure of the degree to which a system, component,or process possesses a given attribute. Software metrics can be used to measure differentcharacteristics of a software system or software development process. Metrics for object orienteddevelopment is a relatively new field of study. The metrics focus on internal object structuresthat reflect the complexity of each individual entity, such as methods and classes, and on externalcomplexity that measures the interactions among entities, such as coupling and inheritance.Chidamber and Kemerer’s metrics suite for object-oriented design is the deepest research in OOmetrics investigation. They have defined six metrics for OO design. 2. CK METRICSWeighted methods per class (WMC): It is the sum of the complexities of all methods of a class. According to this metric if a Class C,has n methods and c1, c2 …cn be the complexity of the methods, then WMC(C)= c1 + c2 +… +cn. Mc Cabe’s complexity metric is chosen for calculating the complexity values of the methodsof a class. The value is normalized so that nominal complexity for a method takes on a value of1.0. If all method complexities are considered to be unity, then WMC = n i.e. the number ofmethods existing in that class.Depth of the inheritance tree (DIT): Depth of inheritance of a class is “the maximum length from the node to the root of the tree".More is the depth of the inheritance tree greater the reusability of the class corresponding to theroot of that tree as the class properties are shared by more derived classes under that class. Sothere too much depth dilutes the abstraction. So there is a need to set the minimum & maximumDIT value for a class as a contribution towards the reusability. International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       2 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  The definition of DIT is ambiguous when multiple inheritance and multiple roots are present asthe alternative length of the path is not being considered in case of multiple inheritance. If weadd all the ancestor classes coming in common path to the ancestor classes coming in alternativepaths then that will be the true representation of the theoretical basis of the DIT metric.Number of Children (NOC): According to this metric Number of children (NOC) of a class is the number of immediate sub-classes subordinated to a class in the class hierarchy. So greater is the value of NOC greater willbe the reusability of the parent class. Hence there should be some minimum value of NOC for aparent class for its reusability. Theoretical basis of NOC metric relates to the notion of scope ofproperties. It is a measure of how many sub-classes are going to inherit the methods of the parentclass. The definition of NOC metric gives the distorted view of the system as it counts only theimmediate sub-classes instead of all the descendants of the class. NOC value of a class, say classi, should reflect all the subclasses that share the properties of that class.NOC(i) =N+ΣiAll subclasses NOC(i)Where N is the total number of immediate subclasses of class i.Coupling between object classes (CBO):Coupling between Object Classes (CBO) is a count of the number of other classes to which aclass is coupled. Excessive coupling is detrimental to modular design and prevents reuse. Themore independent a class is, the easier it is reuse in another application. The larger the number ofcouples, the higher the sensitivity to changes in other parts of the design and thereforemaintenance is more difficult. Strong coupling complicates a system since a class is harder tounderstand, change or correct by itself if it is interrelated with other classes.Response for a class (RFC):According to this metric “Coupling between Object Classes” (CBO) for a class is a count of thenumber of other classes to which it is coupled. Theoretical basis of CBO relates to the notion thatan object is coupled to another object if one of them acts on the other, i.e. methods of one objectuse methods or instance variables of another. Here we are restricting the unidirectional use of International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       3 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  methods or instance variables of another object by the object of the class whose reusability is tobe measured. As Coupling between Object classes increases, reusability decreases and it becomesharder to modify and test the software system. So there is the need to set some maximum valueof coupling level for its reusability. If the value of CBO for a class is beyond that maximumvalue then the class is said to be non-reusable. It is the number of methods that can be triggeredby a message sent to an object.Software Testability:Software testability is affected by many different factors, including the required validity, theprocess and tools used and the representation of the requirements. Voas et. al. [27] definessoftware testability as the probability that a piece of software will fail on its next executionduring testing, provided it contains a fault. This fault sensitivity is obtained by multiplying theprobabilities that(1) the location containing the fault is executed;(2) the fault corrupts the program’s state; and(3) the corrupted state gets propagated to the output.High fault sensitivity indicates high testability and vice versa. The effort required to test aprogram to ensure that it performs its intended function. Thus testability is also measured in formof testability effort. The effect of values of CK metrics on testability is defined in the principlesbelow:Principles for measuring Testability are:1. LOC, the larger the size of a class, more effort is required to test a class.2. WMC, more the methods in a class, more difficult it is to test the class.3. DIT, greater is the inheritance tree, more testing effort is required.4. NOC, more no. of children more will be the testing effort.5. CA, increased complexity will increase testability of the software. International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       4 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  Based upon these principles (1 – 5), equations for measuring testability are following:Testability of a class = a*(LOC) + b*(WMC) + c*(DIT) +d*(NOC) +e*(CA)where a, b, c, d, e are regression coefficients.a =b =c = d =e = 1Testability of OO program = sum (testability (class)i)where i = 1 to n, n is number of classes. 3. COLLECTION OF METRIC DATATo collect metric data, we have used Eclipse platform. Source code is given as input to theMetrics tool. We analyzed software testability on metric.java and calculate ck metrics. EclipseMetrics tool is an open source tool which is available on internet. Fig 1: Metric.java International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       5 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482   Fig 2: QualityFactorGenerator.java 4. METRIC VIEW:To view metrics of source program, we have to enable metrics view from the menu list. It willdisplay the object oriented metrics for the code. Fig 3:Metric view International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       6 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482   Metric Metric.java QualityFactorGenerator.java NOC 0 0 CA 1 1 TLOC 108 40 LCOM 1 0 WMC 27 3 Table 1: CK metrics 120 metric.java 100 80 QualityFactorGener 60 ator.java 40 20 0 NOC CA TLOC LCOM WMC Fig 4: Metric graphThese metrics are saved as a text file and given as input to the QualityFactorGenerator whichfurther calculates software testability.Fig 5: Input File International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       7 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  Fig 6: Software Testability 5. CONCLUSION:The framework proposed in the paper will address testability during software development lifecycle. It may help putting testability benchmarking of software projects. The framework isgeneric in nature, and may be used by industry practitioners to quantify testability in order tomake design decisions early in the development life cycle. In future, we have to emphasize onmore testability characteristics. We will introduce more software metrics too calculate testabilityaccurately. 6. REFERENCES:[1]R. A. Khan, K. Mustafa, I Ahson, “An Empirical Validation of Object Oriented DesignQuality Metrics, Journal King Saud University, Computer & Information Science, Vol. 19, pp.1-16, Riyadh (1427H/2007).[2] Jungmayr, S. Testability Measurement and Software Dependencies. In Proceedings of the12th International Workshop on Software Measurement, pp. 179–202, October 2002.[3]Bertolino, A., and Strigini, L., “On the Use of Testability Measures for DependabilityAssessment”, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, VOL. 22, NO. 2, February 1996.[4] McCall, J. A., Richards, P. K., and Walters, G. F., “Factors in Software Quality”, Nat’l Tech.Information Service, no. Vol. 1, 2 and 3, 1977.[5]Booch, G., Object Oriented Design with Applications. Redwood City, CA: Benjamin/Cummings, 1991.[6]P. Coad and E. Yourdon, Object-Oriented Design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1991. International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       8 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  [7]Magiel Bruntink, Arie van Deursen, “Predicting Class Testability using Object-OrientedMetrics” Proceedings of the Fourth IEEE International Workshop on Source Code Analysis andManipulation (SCAM’04), pp 1-10, 2004 International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       9 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482   INDIAN REAL ESTATE- A BOON TO THE ECONOMYDr. V. Santhi*Benon.S**Arun Kumar.J** ABSTRACTThe prospects for real estate industry in India goes buoyant. All the factors that contributed to thegrowth of real estate sector- high disposable incomes, sharp increase in global liquidity, selectivecapital account liberalization, looser credit policies, a greater availability for the leverage due tofinancial liberalization and the consequent increase in shortage lending and price increase.*Asst.prof(S.G), Dept of Humanities, PSG College of technology, Coimbatore-641004** III B.E (SW) EEE , PSG College of technology, Coimbatore-641004 International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org  10 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  INTRODUCTIONReal estate sector in India is witnessing tremendous boom and is presently worth $12 billion and isgrowing at the rate of 30 per cent per annum.It is the second largest employer next toagriculture.India is fast evolving in the real estate market witnessing a growth in constructionactivities both in residential as well as commercial and retail segments. It has observed that the realestate action is no longer limited to the large metropolises of India but has now permeated to theburgeoning smaller towns and cities. These emerging centers of growth are lending sparkle to Indiasbooming economy. It has emerged as the most profitable business venture to invest US $ 90 billionby 2015 also witnessing huge FDI (Foreign Direct Investment), not only due to the 100 per centGovernment allowance with fast track approvals but also due to high potential investment returns ofmore than 25-30 per cent. Eighty per cent share of the real estate market is garnered by residentialsector and the rest is comprised of offices, shopping malls, hotels and hospitals.One Rupee investedin real estate sector results in 78 paise being added to the GDP of the country.With the urbanpopulation of India is likely to grow from 285.3 million in 2001 to 360 million in 2010, 410 millionin 2015, 468 million in 2020 and 533 million in 2025 gives a huge potential simultaneously demandfor affordable residents which is considered as the basic need of human being of food, water andshelter. The current size of real estate construction industry in India is estimated to be approximatelyUS$44 billion. The boom in retail industry has also spurred the growth in real estate sector. India atthe moment is witnessing a spurt in extremely large retail spaces.The industry is highly fragmented.The top 10 players account for approximately 10 per cent of the total revenue of the industry, while amajor part is attributed to unorganized real estate contractors.The industry is expected to witness anannual average growth rate of approximately 26 per cent till 2014. The main focus area of almost allreal estate companies is the ‘affordable housing,’ which controls more than 50 per cent of residentialsales in key residential areas such as Chennai, Gurgaon and Mumbai.The prevailing stature of the realestate market in India and it growth statistics motivated us to carry this introspective study. Realestate construction industry is also getting benefited from government initiatives. The Government ofIndia, in order to attract foreign direct investment in the industry, is working out on easier rules foroverseas investors to invest in smaller real estate projects. International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org  11 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  NEED FOR THE STUDYLow interest rates, modern attitudes to home ownership (the average age of a new homeowner is now32 years compared with 45 years a decade ago), economic prosperity along with a change of attitudeamongst the young working population from that of ‘save and buy’ to ‘buy and repay’ and liberalizedFDI regime have all contributed to sector in this boom. The above stated definition has created a needfor framing the below mentioned objective of the study to analyse the consumers preference fortowards the modern town ship development, their simultaneous perception and motivating factors atmicro level.OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY  To analyze the level of perception of consumers towards the Township Project.  To state the factors influencing the purchase of Villas in Township project.  To offer suggestion for Taamaesek Engineering Consortium India and S.P.Apparels in promoting the Township.SCOPE FOR THE STUDYThis study provides scope to review the pattern of consumer’s attitude towards the modern townshipdevelopment proposal at Tirupur and Coimbatore Districts and also draw an introspective view of theproperty promoters’ perception about the same. Thus it supposed that the current study todemonstrate functional issues of real estate business development to research scholars, academician,economic planners and the marketers as a whole.INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPANYThe current study is based on the real-time project proposal joint-venture signed between theTaamaesek Engineering Consortium India and SP Apparels to develop a modern town-ship.Taamaesek Engineering Consortium India established in the year 2000,having worked on manyprestigious projects in Singapore, viz Fullerton Hotels, Ritz Carlton, Hazel Park & Flora Valecondominiums, Millennia towers & Centennial towers etc., is ably assisted by a core team of 20 International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org  12 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  engineers with various levels of International work execution and project management expertise and100 engineering professionals from all streams of engineering contributing to a value engineereddesign. Drawing on the multi - disciplinary expertise, generates a value engineered design to createmaximum value and enhance quality of life is the MISSION and VISION of the organization.Taamaesek Engineering Consortium India’s total involvement and comprehensive value engineering,in every project cutting across all services such as civil, structure, trades, electrical, air conditioning,plumbing, fire detection and suppression, networking, water treatment, interiors. The Majorcompetitors for the concern are; JLL, CBRE and CUSMAN.SPAL, well known Knitwear Garment manufacturer is in the business for nearly two decades. SPALis one of the largest Knitwear Exporter in India and is ranked second among 5000 Exporters inKnitwear town of Tirupur, South India. SPAL is focused on producing extensive range of KnitGarments viz. Kids wear – 50per cent, Ladies Garments -35per cent & Men’s wear-15per cent. SPALis catering to major global brands and chain stores. The unit has set up globally acceptable standardsand quality norms. With this expertise gained in the manufacturing,SPAL plans to build domesticbrand in order cash in vibrant and expending domestic garment market. SPAL holds 70 per centequity stake in Crocodile Products Private Limited in. The Joint Venture Partner being CrocodileInternational Private Limited, Singapore. Further it is proposed to commence more stores all over thecountry. The Company has vertically integrated manufacturing set up starting from Spinning,Knitting, Processing (Dyeing), Printing & Embroidery, Sewing Facility and Retail in domesticmarket.To be the best clothing supplier in the world aggressively work into US, & other EUCountries and increase the customer base by 25 per cent a year, to grow into a 2000 cr. Company by2015 and to create a retail presence pan India within one year is the MISSION and VISION of theorganization.RESEARCH METHODOLOGYReal estate property development joint venture named “OPULENCE” has been signed betweenTaamaesek Engineering Consortium India and SP apparels to build a modern town ship. A marketingresearch has been conducted on their request to know the feasibility of developing a town shipconnected directly by the NH 49 National High Way Road Line. The data was collected through a International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org  13 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  well structured interview schedule. The chi-square test is an important test amongst the several testsof significance.It is a statistical measure used in the context of sampling analysis for comparing avariable to a theoretical variance. As a non-parametric test, it can be used to determine if categoricaldata shows dependency or the two classifications are independent. The entire hypothesis test in thisstudy was carried out at 5 per cent level of significance.An attempt was made to analyze the mainfactors influencing the level of buyer preference with the evident of the selected sample respondentsin the study area. For the purpose of the detailed analysis, variable are classified in two importantstrata which are termed as dependent variables and independent variables. The buyer preferenceinterms of opinion towards likeliness, opinion towards uniqueness and opinion towards willingnessby the sample respondent was taken as dependent variables and the independent variables used inthis study are age, location, annual family income. The instrument used in collecting the primary datawas Structured Questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of both closed and open ended questions.The sample size taken for my study is about 200 respondents. Area sampling was done. If clusterhappen to be some geographic subdivisions, cluster sampling is better known as area sampling. Inother words, cluster designs, where the primary sampling unit represents a cluster of unit based ongeographic area, are distinguished as area samplings. The frequency distribution of the variables werecalculated with help of simple percentage, by writing the formula FD = F/N x 100. Where F denotesthe number of respondents, and N denotes the total number of sample population. (O  E ) 2 Chi–square test ( ) = 2  E Degrees of freedom = (R-1) (C-1) Where O = observed frequency E = expected frequency R = number of rows C = number of columns International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org  14 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482   The 2 values obtained as such should be compared with relevant table value of 2 and the inferencecan be drawn. If the calculated value is greater than the table value the hypothesis framed will berejected, otherwise accepted. TABLE-I FACTORS INFLUENCING THE BUYERS DECISION TOTAL S.NO FACTORS RANK SCORE 1. Price 1640 1 2. Location 1404 2 Transport, Shops and Public 3. 1040 3 Amenities 4. Facilities & Amenities 798 4 Brand Image of builder / property 5. 530 6 developer 6. Landscape Area (Sq.Ft) 48 10 7. License of the Builder 368 7 8 Registration & Documents 240 8 9. Loans & EMI 660 5 10. Security of the Property 112 9 Source-primary dataIt is found from the analysis that most of the respondents are influenced by competitive price, localityand transport, shops and public amenities. International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org  15 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482   FIGURE-I AGE AND FACTOR SCORE FIGURE-II AGE AND FACTOR RANKING International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org  16 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482   FIGURE-III GENDER AND FACTOR SCORE FIGURE-IV GENDER AND FACTOR RANKING FIGURE-V International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org  17 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482   ANNUAL INCOME AND FACTOR PRICE FIGURE-VI ANNUAL INCOME AND FACTOR RANKING International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org  18 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  FACTORS INFLUENCING TO BUY TOWNSHIPThe following variables have been selected to the level of likeliness; uniqueness and willingness topurchase the property are Age, Location, Annual family income and Profession. TABLE-II AGE AND OPINION ABOUT WILLINGNESS TO BUY A TOWNSHIP Opinion towards willingnessAge Might Probably Definitely Total Definitely Probably or(in yrs) would not would not would buy would buy might buy buy not buy 16 6 4 0 1020 – 30 36 (44.4) (16.7) (11.1) (0) (27.8) 16 22 20 4 430 – 40 66 (24.2) (33.3) (30.3) (6.1) (6.1) 8 32 8 4 1440 – 50 66 (12.1) (48.5) (12.1) (6.1) (21.2) 4 16 4 0 8Above 50 32 (12.5) (50) (12.5) (0) (25)Total 44 76 36 8 36 200SOURCE-PRIMARY DATA International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org  19 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482   TABLE-III CHI-SQUARE TEST Calculated 2 Table Factor D.F Result Value Value Age 28.750 21.026 12 RejectedThe above table shows that the calculated chi-square value (28.750) is greater than the table value(21.026). So, the null hypothesis is rejected. Hence, there is a close significant relationship betweenage and opinion about willingness to buy a township. TABLE-IV ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME AND OPINION ABOUT WILLINGNESS TO BUY A TOWNSHIP Opinion towards willingnessAnnual Family TotalIncome Might or Probably Definitely Score Definitely Probably Might not not notLess than 2 2 0 2 2 82,00,000 (25) (25) (0) (25) (25)2,00,001 – 2 0 4 2 2 104, 00, 000 (20) (0) (40) (20) (20)4,00,001 – 4 16 2 0 0 226,00,000 (18.2) (72.7) (9.1) (0) (0)6,00,001 – 10 18 8 0 0 36 International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org  20 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  8,00,000 (27.8) (50) (22.2) (0) (0)8,00,001 – 10 16 6 2 10 4410,00,000 (22.7) (36.4) (13.6) (4.6) (22.7) 16 24 16 2 22Above 10,00,000 80 (20) (30) (20) (2.5) (27.5)Total 44 76 36 8 36 200SOURCE-PRIMARY DATA TABLE-V CHI-SQUARE TEST Calculated 2 Table Factor D.F Result Value Value Annual family 54.138 31.410 20 Rejected incomeThe above table shows that the calculated chi-square value (54.138) is greater than the table value(31.410). So, the null hypothesis is rejected. Hence, there is a close significant relationship betweenannual family income and opinion about willingness to buy a township. International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org  21 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482   TABLE-VI LOCATION AND OPINION ABOUT WILLINGNESS TO BUY A TOWNSHIP Opinion towards willingnessLocation Might or Probably Definitely Total Definitely Probably Might not not not 12 46 12 6 24Coimbatore 100 (12) (46) (12) (6) (24) 32 30 24 2 12Tirupur 100 (32) (30) (24) (2) (12)Total 44 76 36 8 36 200 SOURCE-PRIMARY DATA TABLE-VII CHI-SQUARE TEST Calculated 2 Table Factor D.F Result Value Value Location 13.368 9.488 4 Rejected The above table shows that the calculated chi-square value (13.368) is greater than the table value (9.488). So, the null hypothesis is rejected. Hence, there is a close significant relationship between location and opinion about willingness to buy township International Journal of Engineering and Social Science    www.gjmr.org  22 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482   TABLE-VIII PROFESSION AND OPINION ABOUT WILLINGNESS TO BUY A TOWNSHIP Opinion towards willingnessProfession Might or Probably Definitely Total Definitely Probably Might not not notBusiness / 18 32 16 2 12 80Industrialist (22.5) (40) (20) (2.5) (15) 16 24 8 2 10Self Employee 60 (26.67) (40) (13.33) (3.33) (16.67) 10 20 12 4 14Employee 60 (16.67) (33.33) (20) (6.67) (23.33)Total 44 76 36 8 36 200 SOURCE-PRIMARY DATA TABLE-IX CHI-SQUARE TEST Calculated 2 Table Factor D.F Result Value Value Profession 5.898 15.507 8 Accepted International Journal of Engineering and Social Science    www.gjmr.org  23 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482   The above table shows that the calculated chi-square value (5.898) is less than the table value (15.507). So, the null hypothesis is accepted. Hence, there is no significant relationship between profession and opinion about willingness to buy a township. TABLE-X PROFESSION AND OPINION ABOUT WILLINGNESS TO BUY A TOWNSHIP Opinion towards willingnessProfession Might or Probably Definitely Total Definitely Probably Might not not notBusiness / 18 32 16 2 12 80Industrialist (22.5) (40) (20) (2.5) (15) 16 24 8 2 10Self Employee 60 (26.67) (40) (13.33) (3.33) (16.67) 10 20 12 4 14Employee 60 (16.67) (33.33) (20) (6.67) (23.33)Total 44 76 36 8 36 200 International Journal of Engineering and Social Science    www.gjmr.org  24 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482   TABLE-XI CHI-SQUARE TEST Calculated 2 Table Factor D.F Result Value Value Profession 5.898 15.507 8 Accepted The above table shows that the calculated chi-square value (5.898) is less than the table value(15.507). So, the null hypothesis is accepted. Hence, there is no significant relationship betweenprofession and opinion about willingness to buy a township.FINDINGS Price got the first rank in all categories of gender and landscape area got the tenth rank in all categories of gender. It brings from the analysis that majority of the respondents are very much interested to buy a township. Most of the respondents are influenced to buy a township by its competitive price, locality and transport, shops and public amenities. While in the case of Annual family income level, the respondents who earn eight lakhs to ten lakhs opined that they are willing to purchase township. The result of chi-squared test accepted the result at 5 per cent level of significance. It is clear from the analysis that the respondents who are businessman and self employees are opined that they probably would buy the township than the other group of the respondents.RECOMMENDATIONThe current study aims on the consumer’s attitude on purchase of opulence township, so as to takeinformed business decisions (which would form as inputs to go ahead with the proposed township)and through this process of study it has been found that India’s real estate market is poised fortremendous growth potential with a wave of development and investment into these “exciting” International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org  25 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  assets. It is recommended that the “Opulence” has been well received by the industry stakeholderscompany and they can go forward with the project. Opulence can be further added to the projectproposal green property with infrastructure, keeping tradition & technology under one roof .It is alsorecommended that the concern can added amenities which can provide Yoga / meditation centers,Gym, Clinics, Crèche, ATMs etc., Developers can look at Coimbatore - Tirupur belt for the furtherbusiness promotions.The price tag should be moderately range between 30 – 40 lakhs to attract allcategories of potential buyers.CONCLUSIONIt was observed that the main factor affecting the real estate business in Coimbatore and Tirupurdistricts is due to the increased in land prices, followed by government policies / lack of infrastructureand lastly by fluctuation in interest rate in home loans.India is emerging as one of the places to livein with tranquility and a better social life. India now is not only a place to find greenery and anenriched culture but also it is the place to find various opportunities in terms of jobs and money. Dueto growth in income class there has been an unprecedented rise in the real estate business in India.. Real Estate Agents are good option as well, for those service class people who hardly have enoughtime to search for place to put up their effects. There is a discernible hunger for knowledge andinteraction as developers and investors begin to penetrate the Indian real estate market. TheOpulence’s key success lies in the provision of pollution free environment, hassle free traffic,optimum utilization of the scope of upcoming projects proposed area, existing educationalestablishments (for multiplex/malls) and location proximity etc.,References:Books- 1. C.R.Kothari- Research methodology and techniques, second edition, new age international (p) Limited publications, Reprinted, 2005. 2. O.R. Krishnaswamy and M.Ranganatham- Methodology of Research in social science; Himalaya Publishing House; reprint 2006. International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org  26 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482   3. Philip Kotler, “Marketing Management”, prentice hall of India private Ltd., New Delhi, 2000. 4. Pillai,R.S.N and Bagavathi, “Modern Marketing”, S.Chand and Company Ltd., 2004Journals and Magazines- 1. Rands Joseph, Real Estate Development in India; Published 10/07/2006 2. Samuel Zell, Real estate industry- The true barometer for a country’s economy; Keynote Address, Chairman Equity Group Investments, USA in a International Symposium; a Global Platform where Developers & Investors Gather to Discuss Emerging Opportunities in India Real Estate Market; 23-25 April 2007, Renaissance Mumbai Hotel & Convention Centre, Mumbai, India. 3. Jones Lang LaSalle Meghraj (2007); Emerging Trends and Adoption of Sustainable practices in India; New Delhi, 25 November.Web Sites- 1. http://www.buzzle.com/articles/real-estate-developements-india.html 2. Mizra Sajid; Properties in south India; Article sphere; May 2007. : http://www.articlesphere.com/Article /Properties-in-south-India/156562. International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org  27 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482   WIRELESS SIGNAL STRENGTH ENHANCEMENT IN LOCAL AREA NETWORK (WLAN)M. Umair Saleem*Tasleem Mustafa** Ahsan Raza Sattar*** Dr. Muhammad Saleem**** Dr. Shaukat Ali***** ABSTRACTWith the improvement in IEEE 802.11 standards, wireless networks are increasing in number.With the advancement of technology, the data rates and coverage of Wi-Fi and usage fordifferent high bandwidth increases. The major problem in the Wireless Local Area network(WLAN) is its coverage. In this research, different techniques were implemented to increase thesignal strength of wireless network (WLAN). Various forms of antennas (circular, parabolic etc.)with different types of material (aluminum, steel and iron etc) were prepared locally. Thesedevices were used to increase the signal strength of WLAN in a minimum cost. These equipmentswere attached with the AP (Access point) to enhance its efficiency and signal strength.Furthermore comparative study among these devices with AP and existing devices were carriedout to evaluate the performance of above mentioned antennas.*Computer Network Engineer, MIT College of Commerce and Computer, Faisalabad, Pakistan.** Chairman, Department of Computer Science, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.*** Lecturer, Department of Computer Science, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan**** Senior Research officer, Dept. of water management, University of agriculture Faisalabad,Pakistan.***** Assistant Professor, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       28   
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  INTRODUCTIONIn the present, the industry is grown towards portability of network. Most of the phonecompanies and signal based network companies launch wireless network facilities instead ofwired network. This mobility supports efficiency as well as service opportunities not achievablewith wired networks.NEED FOR RESEARCHIn wireless network, the communication of network is based on signals. If everything is alrightthen the user (who is wirelessly connected with the network) is using network by sitting at a fardistance, he must has a network coverage problem. But how the network increases its signals andcovers a long distance in a minimum cost. When the signal drops then the speed of the networkaccess will automatically decrease. Hence the signal must be strong and covers long distancewith networks original speed. The major problem in the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)is its coverage. But it is possible to increase signals with the use different types of antennas. Butthese are much costly antenna devices. Small CPW-fed T-shaped antenna for MIMO applicationwas presented to gain signal strength of wireless network. The size of the antenna was only 35%of conventional CPW-fed T-shaped antenna, which had been satisfied return loss bandwidth andOmni-directional radiation characteristics. Wi-Fi Access Points are being configured in most ofthe possible areas like public parks, hotels, banks and universities.ANTENNA CHARACTERISTICSThe D-Link Extreme Antenna was a multipurpose antenna designed to help get betterperformance of wireless signals. It was an Omni-directional antenna (360o coverage) with therange of 200 meters shown in figure (1). The dimensions of this antenna was (2.9” x 4.2” x 5.3”).Operating Temperature of the antenna was (-3°F to 150°F (-21°C to 66°C)) and StorageTemperature was (-21°F to 170°F (-29°C to 80°C)) it was so much expensive antenna ascompared to signal strength. The market price of this antenna was 180$. International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       29   
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  Figure (1): D-Link Extreme N™ 2.4GHz AntennaWIRELESS SIGNAL RADIATION OF D-LINK EXTREME ANTENNA INAIR:The above antenna spreads the wireless signals in a circular form shown in figure (2). It radiatesthe signals up and down like a jumping ball.Figure (2): Wireless signal radiation of D-Link Extreme antennaMATERIAL USED TO BUILD D-LINK EXTREME ANTENNA:The first step in building of wireless antenna is the collection of the material required forbuilding. The essential materials for the wireless antenna are as follows. 1. Low resistance aluminum wire International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       30   
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482   2. Special plastic for coating 3. Special nut to connect with Access Point 4. Aluminum connectors 5. Ninety degree straight building of antenna 6. Fine soldering 7. Low resistance Copper wireIn this research, different techniques and types of antennas were judged-in for the investigationto increase the signal strength and spread signals of wireless network. Various forms of antennas(Omni-directional) with different types of material (aluminum, steel iron etc) were preparedindigenously.These devices were used to increase the signal strength of WLAN in a minimum cost. The totalcost of these type of antennas was approximately 3$ to 5$. These equipments were attached withthe AP (Access point) built in antenna to enhance its efficiency. The range of these antennas wasapproximately above 1000 meters (1km) in outdoor use. Furthermore comparative study amongthese devices with AP and existing devices was carried out to evaluate the performance of abovementioned antennas.PROBLEM STATEMENT:In a wireless based network, signal range is a big problem. A user who wants to connect with awireless network from a far distance must have a signal problem. When the signal drops then thespeed of the network access will automatically decrease. The user cannot make a reliableconnection with the network. A 5-dbi Access Point antenna has no enough signal strength. Themaximum outdoor range of that antenna was 100 meter. In this research, we investigated newhome made antenna to increase signal strength of Wireless Network.PROPOSED SOLUTION: International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       31   
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  A new home made wireless antenna was investigated to increase signal strength. This antennawas used to increase signals up-to 1000 meters and also in a minimum cost. Following are thespecification of homemade antenna.Wireless signal radiation of homemade wifi antenna in air:The following figure (3) shows that the signal spread in the air horizontally. The signal strengthlevel was not same in all the directions. It depends on the environment and other factors i.e.building, furniture and trees etc. It spreads signals at least 1 km. a. Horizontal ViewFigure (3): Wireless signal radiation of homemade wifi antenna b. Vertical ViewThe following figure (4) shows, how the signal spread in the air. The vertically view of signalsshows that the signals are spreading like a fountain. The signal strength level is not same in allthe sides. Middle lobe is approximately 300 meter up in the air and side lobes covers 1000 meterapproximately in left and right. The signal strength depends on the environment and some otherfactors i.e. building, furniture and trees etc. But with all these factors this antenna spreads signalsat least 1 kilo meter. International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       32   
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  Figure (4): Wireless signal radiation of homemade wifi antennaMaterial to build Homemade antenna.The first step in building the wireless home antenna is the collection of the material required forbuilding. The essential materials for the homemade wireless antenna are as follows 1. Local packing aluminum foil 2. Local Copper wire 3. Aluminum wire 4. Nuts and BoltsADVANTAGESRANGE as compared to other antennas:The range of any antenna depends on the material of antenna and also the environment in whichthat antenna is used. This antenna was made up of a local material like aluminum, iron and steel.The range of this antenna was more than 1000 meters (1 km).The user can connect with the network easily while he will away from the access point up to1000 meter. The efficiency of this antenna is very high than the other wireless antennas.OUTDOOR Adjustment:The antenna should be placed outdoor approximately 20 feet high from the ground.Material used International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       33   
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  A local material was used to build homemade antenna. A simple rough aluminum and plane steelwas required to build this antenna.PRICE compared to the other antennas:The price will depended on the material which is used to manufacturing of antenna. Thisresearch also concluded that these antennas were made up of a local aluminum and iron material.The Total cost to build this antenna was approximately 3$-5$. It was most reasonable priceantenna.Research MethodologyThe major problem of WLAN network is the network coverage range. When the signal dropsthen the speed of the network access will automatically decrease. The requirements, was toincrease the network signal strength also in a minimum cost. In this research, we wereinvestigated new techniques to increase signal strength of WLAN. Various forms of antennaswith different types of materials i.e Aluminum and iron etc was prepared locally. These deviceswere used to increase the signal strength of WLAN and in a minimum cost. These antennas wereattached with the AP (Access point) antenna to enhance its efficiency. The signals which wereemits from the AP were reflected by these antennas and travels a long distance as compared tothe AP.Materials and MethodsWireless Networks are spreading day by day due to their reliability, ease and low cost. The speedand the reliability of communication of communicating devices is depends on wireless signal.These signals must be strong, powerful and covered long distance as possible in a minimum cost.These are strong if the user is using network in its coverage range. The aim of this research wasinvestigated that how to improve the signal strength of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)and new ways of improving existing standards in terms of distance covered and data rates.There are lot of software available in the market to measure the strength once the access pointhas been installed (Net Stumbler, 2007) or to even plot-out maps of signal strength (Air Magnet,2007); however to gain this information in proceed of the installation requires a degree ofcalculation. This is particularly important in business environments, where it is necessary toknow that network connection cannot be made to the network from outside the building. International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       34   
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  Figure 5: Wireless signals in buildingSome security point of views was also a big question that It is necessary to guarantee that theuser cannot be connect to the network if he wants to connect to the network from outside of thebuilding. If his device full strength signals then he can easily connected to the network. Figure 5shows an example of the results of a survey, which is color-coded to aid the explanation of theinformation.Increasing Signal Strength with Homemade AntennaA homemade antenna was attached with the Access point to increase its efficiency. When theuser was out of range from the access point range, low speed of 5.5 Mbps shown in Figure (6). Itcannot connect a reliable connection, and have no access of network with the proper speed.Figure 6: Wireless network out of range International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       35   
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  A homemade antenna was attached with the Access point, that antenna was gain the signalstrength up to double of signals original coverage of access point. A user who was received 5.5Mbps signals with original antenna of AP, was received 54 Mbps speed with the home madelocal antenna shown in the figure (7).  Watch out the speed: 5.5 Mbps  Watch out the signal strength level: 3 of 5 lights are glowed.  Signal quality was also very low. Hence the sent and receive capability would also be decrease due to low signals. Figure (7): Wireless network increase high rangeSignal Measurement Calculator: PdBm = Log Pmw x 10 1 Watt = 1x 1000 mW PdBm = Log 1000 x 10 = 30 dBm 100 mW; P dBm = Log 100 x 10 = 20 dBmFor link budget calculations, the dBm convention is more convenient than the Watts convention. International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       36   
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  Signal Attenuation Attenuation (fading) of an RF signal is defined as follows: Pin : power level input at the attenuator input Pout: power level output at the attenuator output Attenuation is expressed in dB as follows: PdB = 10 x Log (Pout / Pin) i.e., If, due to attenuation, 1/2 power is lost (Pout/Pin = 2), Attenuation in dB is 10 x Log (2) = 3dBPath Loss Path loss is the loss of power of an RF signal travelling (propagating) through space. It is expressed in dB. Path loss depends on:  Antenna height is a great factor of path loss.  Line of sight clearance between the receiving and transmitting antennas.  The distance between receiving and transmitting antennas.Loss of Free SpaceAttenuation of the electromagnetic wave while propagating through space. This attenuation isCalculated using the following formula:Loss of Free space = 20 * Log R (Km) + 20 * Log F (MHz) + 32.4F = RF frequency expressed in MHz.R = distance b/t the receiving and transmitting antennas.At 2.4 Ghz, this formula is: 20 * Log R (Km) + 100THE EXPERIMENTSIn total, three experiments were performed. The following are the experiments.Experiment 1st Sniffing for sources of the interferenceWhile performing all experiments, other 802.11 wireless equipments can potentially affect anyresults obtained. Thus, the aim of the experiment had been identified, II" I I other potential802.11 causes of the interference using a wireless sniffer. A wireless sniffer was a program thathas ability to capture and report to the user all traffic in the form of the packets (including beaconframes) that traverses in free space. Wireless on had been a tool that allows users to monitor thestatus of the wireless adapter(s) and gather information about nearby wireless access points inreal-time, it can help users to: International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       37   
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482    The measure of the network throughput and view available data rates  Verifying the their network configuration had been correctExperiment 2nd: The Time VarianceThe correct variance over the time of the signal power and Packet mistake Rate had beenunknown. This testing aims to settle on if the signal power and ultimately the error rates alterconsiderably over time. We had been chosen any measurement point relatively close to the AP(ensure packets will be conventional by the wireless swarm) and run the program for as long aspossible.Experiment 3rd: Signal propagationThe main aim of this experiment had been to determine the signal strength and the amount of theloss throughout in the area. All of this area had been measured in which experiment had to beconducted. The plan captured the emit packets from the AP side and record data to the TXT anddatabase files.Uploading the dataOnce the experiments had been completed during allocated slot, the collected data from all abovethree experiments has been then uploaded using a wired connection to a desktop system. Thefiles that are uploaded include  Text files  Wireless Mon files  Signal strength filesData AnalysisThe statistically software had been needed to that analyzed the experimental results of theexperiment and proceeded to collate the recorded data within the text and database files intomeaningful and compact information set. The program outputs of this information on a singleline along with the particular area. The information set had been present in the database a filedetermines. The round trip time i.e. time in which packet send and received had been to thesystem at a particular distance and at a particular packet size, the average signal strength hadbeen the total number of the packets collected and finally the number of the packets was missed.REUSLTS AND DISCUSSIONIt was studied the motivation by the need for fundamental understanding of ultimate limits ofbandwidth efficient delivery of higher bitrates in digital wireless communications and to also International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       38   
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  begin to look into how these limits might be approached. He examined that exploitation of multielement array (MEA) technology that was processing the spatial dimension (not just the timedimension) to improve wireless signal strength and capacities in certain applications.Measuring and Performance signal strength:Access point was sending Normal signals, and Pc was received average signals beforeimplemented homemade (Locally) metallic material antenna behind Access point shown in thefigure 18.Figure (8) signal strengthAccess point was sending High signals and Pc receives high signals after implementinghomemade (Locally) antenna behind Access point shown in the figure 8. International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       39   
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  Figure (9): Boost signal strengthAnalysis of reason of Signal lossThe requirements, is to increase the network signal strength also in a minimum cost. In thisresearch, we were investigated new techniques to increase signal strength of WLAN. Variousforms of antennas with different types of materials i.e. Aluminum and iron etc was preparedlocally. These devices were used to increase the signal strength of WLAN in a minimum cost.These antennas were attached with the AP (Access point) antenna to enhance its efficiency. Thesignals which were emitting from the AP were reflected by these antennas and travel a longdistance as compared to the AP. Distance Vs Mean 200 180 160 140 Distance 120 100 Mean 80 60 40 20 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 MeanFigure 10: Distance Vs Mean RTTThe above figure 10 shows that the distance VS mean. The distance increase and distancedecrease was affected negatively on the network. The distance of 90 feet and 110 feet wassignificant effect. The distance of 170 feet has the mean of 140 Byte Vs Mean RTT 160 140 120 100 Mean 80 Mean 60 40 20 0 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 ByteFigure 11: Byte Vs Mean RTT International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       40   
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  The above figure 11 shows that the bytes vs. mean RTT. 5000 bytes have the mean of 16.95,15000 have the mean of 41.62, 25000 have the mean of 65.45, 35000 have the mean of 74.616,45000 have the mean of 92.977, 55000 have the mean of 120.598, 65000 have the mean of139.697.Effect of walls vs. Packet LossThe above table shows the %age packet loss which shows that as we increase the number ofwalls packet loss increases but there is another consideration that if the size of packet is smallthere is almost no loss in case of six walls even so we conclude that if the packet size is small theloss will be almost nil and if we want to communicate from such a location we must maneuverpacket size.Effect of number of floors vs. RTTWe conducted experiment in university administration block to check the effect of %age packetloss and increase in RTT in multi-Floor building. We designed a scenario in which first weplaced AP at 3rd Floor and PC on second, first and ground respectively. Than we place AP on2nd floor and PC on first and first and ground Floor, the last part of the experiment was to placeAP at 1st floor and PC at ground floor. The analysis of variance table is below:SUMMARYMain aim of my research had been to look in the current technologies influencing the market like“wireless local area networks” due to the cheap cost and efficiency, how were the Access Pointsends the signals, how were the antenna boost the signals. In wireless network, thecommunication of network is based on signals. If everything is alright then the user (who iswirelessly connected with the network) is using network by sitting at a far distance, he must hasa network coverage problem. But how the network increases its signals and covers a longdistance in a minimum cost. When the signal drops then the speed of the network access willautomatically decrease. Hence the signal must be strong and covers long distance with networksoriginal speed. The major problem in the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is its coverage.But it is possible to increase signals with the use different types of antennas. But these are muchcostly antenna devices.In this research, we have been investigated new techniques to increase signal strength of WLAN.Various forms of antennas with different types of materials i.e. Aluminum and iron etc have been International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       41   
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  prepared locally. These devices were used to increase the signal strength of WLAN in aminimum cost. This antenna was attached with the AP (Access point) antenna to enhance itsefficiency. The signals which were emitted from the AP will amplified with these antennas andtravel a long distance as compared to the original signals of AP. Furthermore comparative studyamong these devices with AP and existing devices will be carried out to evaluate theperformance of above mentioned antennas.LITERATURE CITEDBaek,S., 2010. Receiver Synchronization for UWB TDOA Localization. Electrical andComputer Engineering. 1(2): 355-380.Chadchan S. M., C. B. Akki. 2009. The Survey of Handoff Issues in Wireless ATM Networks,International Journal of Nonlinear Science. 7(2):189-200.Chakravarty T., S. M. Roy, S. K. Sanyal and A. De. 2005. A novel microstrip patch antenna withlarge impedance bandwidth in VHF/UHF range. Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 5(4):83-93.Chen, Y. B., Y. C. Jiao, F. S. Zhang, and H. W. Gao. 2006. A novel small CPW-fed T-shapedantenna for MIMO system applications. Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications,20(14): 2027-2036.Cheng H. R., X. Q. Chen, l. Chen and X. W. Shi. 2009. Design of a fractal dual-polarizedaperture coupled micro-strip antenna. Progress in electromagnetics research letters, 9(1):175-181.Chou H. and D. Wu. 2002. Radiation of a handset monopole antenna in the presence of a finiteshielding sheet for the purpose of SAR reduction. IEEE International Symposium on Antennaand Propagation, 1(2): 452-455.Chou H., H. C. Cheng, H. T. Hsu and L. R. Kuo. 2008. Investigations of isolation improvementtechniques for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) WLAN portable terminal applications.Progress In Electromagnetic Research, 8(5): 349-366. International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       42   
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  Cunningham, S. & Grout, V. 2007. War and Peace: A practical study of Wi-Fi related issues.Proceedings of the International Conference E-Activity and Leading Technologies. 1(2): 393-399.Roche G. and Gorce J. 2007. On predicting in-building WiFi coverage with a fast discreteapproach, Int. J. Mobile Network Design and Innovation, l(2):1344-1364.Fakhr R. S., A. A. L. Neyestanak and M. N. Moghaddasi. 2009. Compact size and dual bandsemicircle shaped antenna for MIMO applications. Progress In Electromagnetic Research, 1(2):147-154.Foschini G.J. and M.J. Gans. 1998. On limits of wireless communications in a fadingenvironment when using multiple antennas. Wireless Personal Communications, 6(1): 311-335.Gesbert, D., H. Bolcskei, A. G Dhananjay and J. P. Arogyaswami. 2002. Outdoor MIMOWireless Channels: Models and Performance Prediction. Transactions on communications, 5(9):1926-1934.Hardy, W. 2003. VoIP Service Quality: Measuring and Evaluating Packet-Switched Voice,McGraw-Hill Professional, 9(2): 32-35Ji, Z., Li, B.-H. Wang, H.-X., Chen, H.Y. and Sarkar, T.K. 2001. Efficient raytracing methodsfor propagation prediction for indoor wireless communications. IEEE Antennas and PropagationMagazine. 43(2): 41-49.Jiao J., G. Zhao, F.S. Zhang, H.W. Yuan and Y.C. Jiao. 2007. A broadband CPW-fed T-shapeslot antenna. Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 7(6): 237-242.Johansson B., S. Jain and E. Yücesan, 2010. Estimating path loss in wireless local area networksusing ordinary kriging, Proceedings of the Winter Simulation Conference, 9(8): 2888-2896.Krusevac S., P. B. Rapajic and R. Kennedy. 2006. Mutual coupling effect on thermal noise inmulti-element antenna systems. Progress in electromagnetics research, 5(5): 325-333.Min K.S., M.S. Kim, C.K. Park and M. D. Vu. 2008. Design for PCS antenna based on WIBRO-MIMO. Progress in electromagnetics research letters, 1(2): 77-83. International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       43   
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  Nedil, M., M. A. Habib, T. A. Denidni and H. Boutayeb. 2008. Quasi-metallic-wall technique forincreasing the efficiency of CB-CPW antennas. Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 3(4):437-455.Rahman, M. and F. Harmantzis 2004. IEEE 802.11 Inter-WLAN Mobility Control withBroadband Supported Distribution System Integrating WLAN and WAN Stevens Institute ofTechnology, Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, NJ 07030, U.S.A.Ren W. 2008. Compact dual-band slot antenna for 2.4/5 Ghz WLAN applications. Progress inelectromagnetics research 8(1): 319-327.Shynu S. V., G. Augustin, C. K. Aanandan, P. Mohanan, and K. Vasudevan. (2006). Design ofcompact reconfigurable dual Frequency microstrip antennas using Varactor diodes. Progress inelectromagnetics research, 60: 197-205.Stallings, W. 2004. IEEE 802.11: Wireless LANs from a to n. IT Professional. McGraw Hillpublication, 6(5): 32-38Tzannes,P., 2005. Design considerations of MIMO antennas for mobile phones. Characterizingwireless lan transmission characteristics Piers online, 4(1): 129-135Usman M.and A. Abd-al-hameed, 2008. Design considerations of MIMO antennas for mobilephones. Piers online, 4(1): 121-125.Takeuchi S. and K. Sezaki 2004. An Improved Power Saving Mechanism for MAC Protocol inAd Hoc Networks. IEEE Communications Society, 3(2): 2791-2796Wiley J. 2008. Modern Antenna, Mobile Network Design and Innovation, 1(2):233-276. International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org       44   
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482   SECURITY IN VEHICULAR AD-HOC NETWORKS - CHALLENGES AND COUNTERMEASURESAnn Baby*.Dr.Sreekumar** ABSTRACTVehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETS) are a kind of MANETs (Mobile Ad Hoc Networks) whichoperate without any predefined infrastructure. Vehicular Networks are conceived from theIntelligent Transportation Systems. Ad hoc (or self-organizing) networks operate withoutpredefined infrastructure. In VANETs, vehicles equipped with Wi-Fi hardware constitute themobile nodes (hosts). VANETs help in inter vehicular and intra vehicular communication. Themost challenging issue in VANETs is the security aspect. This paper is an effort in discussing thesecurity aspects in VANETs, the challenges, requirements and a possible solution to overcome ethe security aspects in VANETs.Keywords: VANETs, V2V, V2I, RSU, DCF, PCF, Vehicular Public Key Infrastructure, DigitalSignatures.* Computer Science Department, Rajagiri College of Social Sciences, Kalamassery, Kerala** Computer Science Departments, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala. International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org     45 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  1. INTRODUCTIONThe innovations and improvement in the networking technologies has resulted in thedevelopment of VANETs. VANETS (Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks) is a special kind ofMANETs (Mobile Ad Hoc Networks)) which aids in Vehicular Communication. VehicularCommunication offers safer roads, efficient driving and easier maintenance. VANETs help insaving time and money. The IEEE 802.11 Wireless standards are of high acceptance in today’sacademic and commercial standards. Driving cars includes two aspects: the first one being driverassistance and car safety and the second one is infotainment for the travelers in the car (1). Theexchange of data and information between vehicles helps in the process of transferring realtime data. It also helps in communication about the road traffic and environment conditions.VANETS also finds its applications in determining free parking slots and online help for carmaintenance. Research is also in progress for inter-vehicle communication. The field of inter-vehicular communications (IVC), including both vehicle-to-vehicle communications (V2V) andvehicle-to roadside communications (V2R), also known as VANET, is recognized as animportant component of ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems) in various national plans.(2) Trafficfatalities are the leading causes of death in many countries. (3)This paper discusses the IEEE802.11 standards for VANETS, the security problems that occurs in VANETs and thecountermeasures to overcome them.2. VANET BASICSVehicular ad hoc networks are also known under a number of different terms such as intervehicle communication (IVC), Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) or WAVE.(3) AMANET is a self forming network which can function without the help of a centralized control.Each node in this type of an ad-hoc network can act as both a terminal to store data and also as arouter. The nodes communicate through wireless medium in their specific radio range. VANETsare a type of MANETs. As installing IEEE802.11 access points in all roads is expensive, it isbeneficial to go for an ad-hoc network. It also helps in quicker deployment. The greatestchallenge in creating a VANET is the rapidly changing network topology. The approximate time International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org     46 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  period in which two vehicles are in the same communication range is approximately one minute,which is a greatest challenge for implementing VANETS. The error-rate in wireless networks isalso comparatively higher. Another challenge is the limited ad-hoc mode provided by theIEEE802.11 protocols.3. WORKING OF VANETSVANETS can be of V2V or V2R (also known as V2I- Vehicle-to-infrastructure) approaches. In aV2V approach which requires zero infrastructures to outside devices is purely ad-hoc. In thisapproach, vehicles communicate with each other to determine the traffic situation. The numberof vehicles needed to use the system to get quality information need to be determined. In thesecond approach which employs both V2V and V2R requires roadside devices or units (RSUs)as outside infrastructure. RSUs are usually placed in the traffic lights, road dividers etc. Usingthis technology, vehicles can communicate with RSUs (also known as OBUs-On-Board Units)and with other vehicles. Thus, a VANET is an ad-hoc network with vehicles, other networkservices and applications (2). Figure 1: Conceptual Schematic of a VANETThe IEEE has completed the standards IEEE P1609.1, P1609.2, P1609.3, and P1609.4 forvehicular networks and recently released them for trial use. (4)4. VANET APPLICATIONSThe three major areas of applications of VANETs are safety oriented, convenience oriented andcommercial oriented. (5) Safety applications include a Slow/Stop Vehicle Advisor (SVA) which International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org     47 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  happens through V2V. Another safety application is Emergency Electronic Brake Light (EBBL).Broadcast warning message about a vehicle involved in accident is done through Post CrashNotification (PCN). Road Hazard Control Notification (RHCN) notifies other cars about roadslides, floods etc. Co-operative Collision Warning (CCW) alerts vehicles about potential crashroutes.Convenience applications include Congested Road Notification (CRN) which alerts and notifiescongestion routes. Parking Availability Notification (PAN) helps in locating available parkinglots.Commercial Applications include RVP/D, CMDD, RTVR and SA. Remote VehiclePersonification/Diagnostics (RVP/D) downloads and uploads vehicle settings from/toinfrastructure. Content Map Database Download (CMDD) helps in obtaining information fromother stations. Real Time Video Relay (RTVR) helps in viewing videos for entertainment.Service Announcements (SA) helps in giving alerts about gas stations, restaurants and restroomson the highway. (5) The U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) recently allocated 75MHz of Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) spectrum, a one or two-way short tomedium range wireless communication channels at 5.9 GHz, to be used exclusively for V2Vand V2R communications(6).5. MAC PROTOCOLS FOR VANETSVANET Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols have to cater to the fast changing networktopologies and the different kinds of applications. VANET MAC protocols have to also reducethe medium access delay for safety applications. Modifications need to be thus made to the MAClayer to create wide scale VANETs, to share the wireless channel medium. It is the duty of theMAC to ensure nodes from transmitting at the same time and to avoid collision. Due to the largeavailability of cheap IEEE 802.11 based wireless devices, both the MAC and physical layer canbe addressed. (3)Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) with acknowledgementshelps the network in avoiding collisions. Two protocols namely Distributed Co-ordinateFunction(DCF), a contention based, easy to implement access protocol where all the nodesplanning to send data compete for the channel, and Point Co-ordinate Function (PCF), a International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org     48 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  contention free protocol , which is not applicable to ad-hoc networks are defined by 802.11standards. (7)5.1 IEEE 802.11 StandardsIEEE defines a MAC sub layer, protocols and services for the WLANs and three physical (PHY)layers. The SME (Station Management Entity) and MLME (MAC Layer Management Entity)control the MAC sub layer.The IEEE working group has now come out with the 802.11p, an approved amendment (2009) tothe IEEE 802.11 standard for implementing wireless access in vehicular environments (WAVE),the next generation dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) state-of-the art technology tosupport VANETs. IEEE 802.11p includes vehicular safety applications, data transfer enabledthrough V2V and V2R, in the licensed ITS band of 5.9 GHz (5.85-5.925 GHz). The IEEE802.11p also states that in the United States proposes that the information about an accidentshould be communicated through VANET within half a second to all equipped vehicles in 500meters range. (7) 802.11p will be used as the groundwork for DSRC based on the ISO CALMarchitecture standard looking at vehicle-based communication networks, particularly forapplications such as toll collection, vehicle safety services, and commerce transactions via cars.(8) CALM is an acronym for Continuous Air interface for Long and Medium distance. WAVEuses the CSMA/CA as the basic medium access scheme for sharing links between vehicles andstations.6. INTER VEHICLE AND INTRA VEHICLE COMMUNICATIONCommunicating vehicles can be possible by microwaves for broadcast communication andinfrared for directional communication, though microwaves are used more often (9). Bluetoothtechnology is also used widely. Communication requests can be refused due to the master/slavesetup of Bluetooth. Directional MAC (DMAC) protocol, which uses only directionaltransmissions (10) helps in avoiding hidden terminal and deafness problems among nodes. ACircular Request to Send (CRTS) consisting of RTS-CTS-DATA-ACK is sent directionally. Thesource transmits its data when it receives Clear to Send (CTS) message. Though DMAC shouldhave better performance, it is hindered by mobile portability. (10) The Adaptive Space DivisionMultiplexing (ASDM) addresses the denial of Service (DoS) attacks. It is an extension of Space International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org     49 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  Division Multiple Access (SDMA) where time slots are assigned based on the location ofvehicles on the highway.Communication functions inside a vehicle can be performed using the wireless technologies.IEEE 802.15.1(Bluetooth), IEEE 802.15.3(UWB (Ultra Wide Band), high data rate) and IEEE802.15.4 (ZigBee, low data rate) can be used for the inter vehicle communication. Bluetoothwhich is a proven, cheap technology can transmit both voice and data with good securityfeatures. The power requirement is low and security features are good. It conforms to theFrequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) mode and supports star topology and has errorcorrecting mechanisms (11).7. SECURITY REQUIREMENTS IN VANETSSimilar to any other networks, VANETS are also vulnerable to attackers and adversaries. TheCIAN (Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability and Non-Repudiation) are of most importance to aVANET.Confidentiality- It ensures that information is accessible only to those nodes authorized to haveaccess. It prevents unauthorized access. Not all data are confidential but critical data requireconfidentiality. This type of access includes printing, transmitting, displaying and other forms ofdisclosure, including simply revealing the existing of a vehicle.Integrity and Authentication – It ensures safeguarding the accuracy and completeness ofinformation and processing methods. Data cannot be modified.Availability – Availability ensures that authorized users have access to information andassociated assets when required. Availability requires that vehicle details are available toauthorized parties. Availability is a requirement intended to assure that systems work promptlyand service is not denied to authorize users.Non Repudiation – The sender of the message cannot deny having sent the message. It ensuresthat a transferred message has been sent and received by the parties claiming to have sent andreceived the message. It guarantees that the sender of a message cannot later deny having sentthe message and that the recipient cannot deny having received the message. International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org     50 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  Privacy and Anonymity: Drivers of vehicles will not want their personal information accessedby other users or drivers of other vehicles. As all these information are included in thetransferred data among vehicles, it is possible that the driver of a particular vehicle can be traceddown, thus raising issues to his privacy and anonymity.Real time Constraints: Vehicles should transmit only real time data based upon real timeconstraints. Old data and outdated messages have to be eliminated by the network.8. SECURITY CHALLENGES IN VANETSThe degree of attack is more, as a variant of the IEEE 802.11 protocol is used. Here in this paper,we explore the various kinds of vulnerabilities and challenges VANETS are prone to.DoS Attacks- DoS Attacks are often executed for no obvious reasons in VANETs. This can beovercome to an extent by switching between channels. Here, networks are jammed by sendingdummy messagesBogus Information: Attackers diffuse false information to divert other drivers on the highwayand to thus get a clear road ahead for themselves.Hidden Vehicle: This is a type of sophisticated attack where vehicle A meets with anaccident/crash and broadcasts warning messages to other vehicles. Vehicle B, on receiving thebroadcast message from vehicle A dissuades A from further broadcasting by pretending to be ina better position than A, for broadcasting the accident message. Thus, A stops broadcasting, onthe belief that B would do the service, and thus playing a role in reducing congestion. So, A ishidden to other vehicles. (12) Here, there is a c chance that other vehicles are not informed intime, thus disabling the system.Tunneling: As transmission of messages and signals disappear in tunnels, false data can betransmitted by attackers before the vehicle enters the tunnel. The concept of double tunneling(wormhole) (13) is also prevalent in VANETs.Sybil Attack: In this type of an attack, vehicles forge their identities. This mostly happens whenthere is a Certification Authority (CA) to verify the identity of users. This usually occurs when avehicle can get more than one digital signature from the same CA. (14) International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org     51 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  Big Brother Scenario: This involves the monitoring of the patterns of targeted vehicles forconstructive (e.g.: car-rental) or destructive (e.g.: terrorism) purposes.Delay: As the connection in V2V and V2I are done mostly using thee Bluetooth technology,there would be a connection setup delay of not more than 3 seconds between users. This wouldalso count up to the master/slave architecture used among the vehicles.Logical Attacks: Logical attacks are triggered by external attackers who attack the wirelesscommunication and internal attackers who attack the on-board software interfaces (15). Thoughsecurity mechanisms are applied to the software, the increase in software complexity is the mainreason that is being exploited (16). Software attacks which arise due to the design,implementation and interface (11), active and passive attacks on the VANETs and thecommunication channels, eavesdropping, fabrication, replay attacks etc are the main issues facedby VANETs.Physical Attacks: Physical or hardware attacks are attacks done to the physical on-board unit. Itcan be an active, passive, invasive or non-invasive attack (16). Physical attacks can also takeplace in the in-vehicle networks where damage can be done to the components of the on-boardunits. (12)Masquerading: An attacker can pretend to have the identity of another vehicle by using falseidentities, and thus misleading another vehicle. (13)Adversaries: There can be greedy drivers who broadcast false messages and informationconvincing the neighbors that there is congestion ahead and to take alternative paths, so as theroad ahead is clear for the greedy driver. Driver profiling and tracking is not acceptable to allusers. There are the possibilities of drivers to play pranks and hack information. Maliciousprograms can be uploaded by mechanics when the vehicles go in for maintenance. There can alsobe malicious attackers like terrorists and criminals who would want to track down specificvehicles for selfish destructive needs. Message packets can be selectively dropped so as tosuppress congestion alerts. Existing data can be altered by fabrication or by replaying previousstream of data.9. SECURITY ISSUES- CHALLENGES International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org     52 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  There have been several studies regarding the threat model, Authentication and key management,Privacy and Secure positioning of VANETs. Authentication and privacy is of most concern inVANETs as the network would want to bind each driver to a single entity. The availability ofonly 50-60% (13) of vehicles neighbors that would receive a broadcast message in DSRC is alsoa problem. The low tolerance for error in collision avoidance/warning systems is also achallenge. High mobility of vehicles in the VNET network with constantly shifting set ofneighbors is a challenge for VANETs. Key distribution also poses threats as to where and howmany keys to install. The Certification authority (CA) of the PKIs is also a point of argument inVANETs.10. COUNTERMEASURES TO VANET SECURITY ISSUESThe security of Vehicle Communication is mainly based upon three aspects - the hardware,devices like ECUs, sensors, actuators, gateways, etc., the software or firmware which operatesand controls the ECU behavior and the communication channel for different communicationtypes including V2V, V2I and in-vehicle. There should be an in-vehicle security module withineach vehicle which has IDS (Intrusion Detection System) and a firewall (17, 18). The IDS shouldbe able to add rules to the firewall table dynamically to deny or disable a service. As vehicleshave a long lifespan, it is hard to change its on-board systems regularly. There is also the riskthat owners can try to modify or enhance their vehicles. No technical expertise is required fromthe user of a VC system. (19)The alerts and messages should be readily alerted and taken actionas a real time system. Liability and conformance of a VC system can also formulate legal andfinancial issues (20, 21). VC security mechanisms should be flexible to allow later modificationto the changing security requirements.To address this aspect, we can employ the use of substitutive cryptographic algorithms (22,23)for the vehicles. In today’s scenario of car manufacturing, vehicles cannot be equipped with thelatest state-of-the-art technology processors, as the vehicle cost will rise drastically. DigitalSignatures and tamper proof devices should be used in the processors built in vehicles (12).Inclusion of Electronic License Plates (ELP) (24) for vehicles can ensure cryptographicallyverifiable number plates to track vehicles when they are speeding on the highway or when it is International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org     53 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  stolen. The Vehicular Public Key Infrastructure (VPKI) (22)can be ensured in which aCertification Authority (CA) ensures the distribution of keys, key management, certificaterevocation etc. Data Correlation techniques can be used to keep track of bogus informationrecords. Verifiable multilateration techniques can be used for secure positioning of vehicles.Acknowledgements1. Rainer Baumann,”Vehicular Ad hoc Networks”, ETH Zurich 20042 Yi Qian, Kejie Lu, and Nader Moayeri, “A Secure VANET Mac Protocol For DSRCApplications”3. Nathan Balon, “Introduction to Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks and the Broadcast StormProblem”4. IEEE Draft P1609.0/D01, February 2007.5. Mainak Ghosh & Sumit Goswami, “Intelligent Transportation using VANET”, IIT, Kharagpur6. Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC)http://www.leearmstrong.com/DSRC/DSRCHomeset.7. Hamid Menouar, Mssimiliano Lenard, “A Survey and Qualitative Analysis of MAC Protocolsfor Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs)”8. " Standard Specification for Telecommunications and Information Exchange BetweenRoadside and Vehicle Systems". ASTM International9. Jean-Pierre Hubaux, "A Survey of Inter-Vehicle Communication," School of Computer andCommunication Sciences, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland, Technical Report IC/2004/2410. Gregory S. Bicke, “Inter/Intra-Vehicle Wireless Communication”11. K. Akingbehin, "Wireless Communications for Intra-Vehicle Use (Wireless Harnesses),"Institute for Advanced Vehicle Systems, University of Michigan-Dearborn, Nov. 200512. Maxim Raya, Jean-Pierre Hubauxa, “Securing vehicular ad hoc networks”13. Dr. Michele Weigle, “Introduction to Vehicular Networks”14. Kasra Amirtahmasebi, Seyed Reza Jalalini, “Vehicular Networks – Security, Vulnerabilitiesand Countermeasures”15. Marko Wolf, “Security Engineering for Vehicular IT Systems,” Vieweg Teubner, Bochum,Germany 2009 International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org     54 
    • IJESS                          Volume1Issue3  ISSN: 2249‐ 9482  16. Srivaths Ravi, Anand Raghunathan, Paul Kocher, Sunil Hattangady, "Security in embeddedsystems: Design challenges", In proceedings of ACM Transactions on Embedded ComputingSystems (TECS), August 2004, pp 461-49117. Frank Kargl, Zhendong Ma, Elmar Schoch, “Security engineering for VANETs.” In 4thWorkshop on Embedded Security in Cars, escar 2006, Berlin, Germany, November 200618. Tobias Hoppe, “Applying Intrusion Detection to Automotive IT- Early Insights and SelectedShort Term Countermeasures”, 200919. Maria Fazio, Claudio E. Palazzi, Shirshanka Das†, Mario Gerla, “Facilitating Real-timeApplications in VANETs through Fast Address Auto-configuration”20. Standard Specification for Telecommunications and Information Exchange BetweenRoadside and Vehicle Systems - 5GHz Band Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC)Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, 2003.21. S. Toner , D. OMahony. “Self-Organising Node Address Management in Ad-hoc Networks.In Personal Wireless Communications” (PWC 2003), Venice, Italy, September 23-25 2003.22. IEEE P1609.2/D2 – Draft Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments –Security Servicesfor Applications and Management Messages, November 2005.23. L. Gollan and C. Meinel, Digital signatures for automobiles, in: Proceedings of Systemics,Cyberneticsand Informatics (SCI)’02, 2002.24. Y.-C. Hu, A. Perrig and D.B. Johnson, Packet leashes: A defense against wormhole attacksin wireless networks, in: Proceedings of IEEE Infocom’03, 2003.25. K. Matheus, R. Morich, I. Paulus, C. Menig, A. Lübke, B. Rech and W. Specks, “Car-to-CarCommunication– Market introduction and success factors”, in: Proceedings of ITS’05: 5thEuropean Congress and Exhibition on Intelligent Transport Systems and Services, 2005. International Journal of Engineering and Social Science   www.gjmr.org     55