Soy processing 2006_eng


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  • The system serves for the production of fermented products of soy beans. Among the manufactured products rank: • soy joghurt • soy quark • soy fresh cheese
  • The system consists of the following areas: • soy pueree production • decanter / okara area • plant fat storage tank • heater • collecting tanks/mixing station • fermentation tanks • mixing system • filler line • CIP - system
  • The system consists of the following areas: • soy pueree production • decanter / okara area • plant fat storage tank • heater • collecting tanks/mixing station • fermentation tanks • mixing system • filler line • CIP - system
  • - the beans are transported by help of a pneumatic system from the storage area to the soaking tanks - the pneumatic system consists of a low pressure blower with a station for big bags (funnel with cell wheel air-lock) - the conveying air is separated by a cyclone above the soaking tanks
  • - the soaking station consists of 2 soaking tanks, 15,000 l each - the soaking tanks are equipped with U-Z-agitators, which serve for distributing additives - the soaking tanks are filled with water and beans: • the soy beans are supplied from the big bags with compressed air via the cell wheel air-lock and cyclone into the tank • the water is counted program-controlled via a flow meter • 10000 kg water is added to 5000 kg beans • the beans absorb a water volume that corresponds approx. to their own weight, so that after the soaking time (8 - 12 hours) approx. 5000 kg product water is available
  • The area soy pueree production consists of the soaking station, hot water preparation and the mills.
  • - as soon as the soaking time is over, the swollen soy beans are conveyed via the belt weigher - the bean rate is approx. 2000 kg/h
  • - hot product water + drinking water are added to the soy beans at a certain ratio - the bean/water mixture is transported by a positive displacement pump to the mills - the mill system consists of a perforated disk mill and a colloid mill - the perforated disk mill serves for pre-grinding and the colloid mill for fine grinding - the water is dosed proportionally to the soy bean quantity - the ratio is adjustable
  • The system consists of the following areas: • soy pueree production • decanter / okara area • plant fat storage tank • heater • collecting tanks/mixing station • fermentation tanks • mixing system • filler line • CIP - system
  • - the soy pueree consits of approx. 75% soy milk and 25% okara - the decanter separates the soy pueree in soy milk and okara - the decanter is designed for a throughput of 6000 kg/h - the soy milk is supplied to the heater - okara is diluted with water (enhanced transport) and conveyed into a okara tank via the positive displacement pump
  • The heater is designed for 2 temp. - programs: - program 1: 105°C with deaerator - program 2: 90°C with homogeniser The heater is built-up as follows : exchanger (supply)  scrape heat exchanger  pre-cooler  exchanger (return)  cooler  deep cooler/heater (depending on the program) Due to the high viscosity of the soy milk, positive displacement pumps are used.
  • Program 1: 105°C - the soy milk at a temperature of approx. 40°C is supplied from the decanter into the fore-run vessel - the milk is warmed up to approx. 65 - 70°C in the exchanger and sent to the deaerator
  • - the deaerating temperature is approx. 65 - 70°C - the vacuum pressure is 200 mbar
  • - after setting the dry mass / addition of growing medium, the second heating takes place at 90°C - during this heating cycle, a single homogeniser (200/50 bar) will be passed through - the homogeniser needs a pre-pressure of approx. 5 bar - upstream of the homogeniser, plant fat can be dosed (approx. 5 - 30% of the total flow rate, depending on the final product)
  • - the soy milk leaves the heater at a temperature of approx. 6°C - for collecting soy milk, 3 collecting tanks are provided - the volume of each collecting tank is 15.000 l - in the collecting tanks, the final dry mass is set by addition of water
  • - the mixing station is allocated to the collecting tanks - the mixing station may be used for adding dry materials - following products may be added: • soy powder for increase of dry mass • growing medium for specific modification of soy milk
  • - the fat tank has a volume of 5000 l, and a jacketed double-coat with a separate hot water circuit - a diaphragm pump is used for filling the fat tank; an adjustable positive displacement pump for emptying (dosage) - the fat is rated and dosed to the heater flow rate proportionally
  • The heater is designed for 2 temp. - programs: - program 1: 105°C with deaerator - program 2: 90°C with homogeniser The heater is built-up as follows : exchanger (supply)  scrape heat exchanger  pre-cooler  exchanger (return)  cooler  deep cooler/heater (depending on the program) Due to the high viscosity of the soy milk, positive displacement pumps are used.
  • - the fermentation tank storage consists of 6 fermentation tanks, of 4000 l each - tank 1-4 for yoghurt production / tank 5-6 for quark production (reinforced agitators, cylindro-conical tank) - the tanks have a sterile air connection
  • - as soon as the fermentation time is over, the product is sent to the mixing system by a mobile product pump - here the product passes through a plate cooler, a stretcher that is homogenizing the product and a dynamic mixer - additionally it is possible to dose fruit / herbs in proportion to the product stream - the cooling temperature is 15°C
  • - the product is sent from the mixing system to the filling line - the filling line has two dosing heads - products: yoghurt, quark, cheese - cup formats: 75, 95 (200 gr.) - number of cycles: max.: 37 cycles/minute normally: 28 cycles/minute - flow rate at normal cycle count: 1340 kg/h
  • Soy processing 2006_eng

    1. 1. SOY FOOD Processing
    2. 2. Overview Soy food production Soya - versatile product Soybeans belong to the legume family and are native to East Asia. They have been an important protein source in the Orient for millions of people for over five thousand years. Soybeans have been in the Western world since the 20th century. Soybeans can be grown on a variety of soils and a wide range of climates, ranging form tropical Brazil to the snowy island Hokkaido in the north of Japan. As soybeans mature in the pod, they ripen into a hard, dry bean. Although most soybeans are yellow, there are also rare varieties which are black, brown or green. Soya beans are very versatile: soya beans can be used as whole soya beans, soya sprouts, or processed as soya milk, tofu, tempeh, soya souce or miso. Soya is also used as ingredient for non-food products, such as soy candles and biodiesel. Soy candles are becoming more popular because they burn longer and healthier.
    3. 3. The increasing popularity of soya foods is mainly attributed to the large amount of health benefits which are associated with the use of soya beans. The role of soya in the prevention of chronic diseases continues to be a top priority for scientist around the world. The FDA has confirmed that foods containing soy protein may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Only people with soy allergy (about 0.5 percent of the population) should avoid eating food containing soy protein. Over the past years, there has been an increasing interest in the antioxidant effects of soya and in particular the health benefits of soya isoflavones, which seem to reduce menopause symptoms. Soya is very important for vegetarians and vegans. Soya has a high protein content and soya is rich in vitamins, minerals and fibers. The easiest way to consume soya is by drinking soya milk. High yield - A given area of land planted with soybeans can produce much more protein than land planted with other crops, or if the land were used to raise cattle. Overview Soy food production Soya - healthy product
    4. 4. Overview Soy food production Soya – Protein source Whole soybeans are an excellent source of protein (soybeans contain on average 37% protein!) and dietary fibre. Soy protein is the only vegetable whose protein is complete. Soy protein has attracted a lot of attention recently due to its ability to lower LDL (bad cholesterol) levels. Results from research have prompted health professionals to request the government to officially give a stamp of approval for soy's cholesterol-lowering effects. The Food and Drug Administration recently approved the cholesterol-lowering health claim for soy, indicating that daily consumption of 25 grams of soy protein (6.5 grams of soy protein per serving) may lower LDL cholesterol.
    5. 5. Overview Soy food production Cow‘s milk vs. Soymilk   Source: Vandermoortele (UK) Ltd. (ALPRO soymilk) Nutritional value per 100 g Cow's milk Soymilk Whole Semi-skimmed Protein Fat Carbohydrate kJ kcal 3.4 g 3.5 g 4.6 g 269 64 3.5 g 1.5 g 5.4 g 208 49 3.6 g 2.3 g 3.4 g 204 49 Cholesterol 10 mg 5 mg 0 Lactose 4.6 g 5.4 g 0 Fatty acid composition Saturated Poly-unsaturated Mono-unsaturated 63.5% 3.0% 33.5% 63.5% 3.0% 33.5% 14.0% 63.5% 21.6%
    6. 6. Overview Soy food production World production of soybeans   Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) Top Soybean Producers in 2005 (million metric tons) United States 83.9 Brazil 52.7 Argentina 38.3 China 17.4 India 6.6 Paraguay 3.5 Canada 3.0 Bolivia 1.7 Italy 0.5 World Total 214.3
    7. 7. Overview Soy food production What the soy bean is used for World Soybean Production 95 (million tons) Oil Crushing 75 Soy bean uses in 1986 Stock 15 Human Food 5 54 of meal 13 of oil 52 animal feed 2 food proteins INTO Where of
    8. 8. Overview Soy food production Technology <ul><li>Producing a nutritious tasting soymilk for human consumption is thus considerably more complicated than just grinding the soybeans with water. </li></ul><ul><li>The challenge thus was to develop a method of processing soybeans into soymilk which neither had rancid or fishy taste nor the chalky mouth feel. </li></ul><ul><li>Certain factors have to be controlled during the process, such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cleaning and dehulling without damaging the soybeans - destruction of the lipoxidase enzymes which cause off- flavour development. - elimination of flatulence-causing oligosaccharides - inactivation of the trypsin inhibitors which are present in the raw soybeans - maintenance of high-protein efficiency ratio - removal of undesirable smell - removal of sedimentable solids. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Overview Soy food production Technology – Concerns about soybeans <ul><li>Lipoxygenase enzyme: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This enzyme is responsible for causing the development of characteristic &quot;beany„- off-flavour and bitterness in protein foods and the fishy smell in oil extracted from soybeans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The enzyme has to be inactivated or its activity controlled in order to make palatable foods. The enzyme is inactivated by heat treatment or pH control, often both, of soybeans prior to their disintegration for the extraction of oil or protein. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, such treatment causes the water soluble solids, especially protein, to get bound to the insoluble fibrous solids of soybean. The degree of such binding depends on the severity of the treatment. This leads to a greatly reduced yield of protein in aqueous extract of soybeans (soymilk) and a mouth feel that reminds one of the milk of magnesia. Any foods and beverages made from such soymilk are not very acceptable by most people. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Overview Soy food production Technology – Concerns about soybeans <ul><li>Trypsin Inhibitor: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unless thoroughly inactivated, this enzyme could limit the growth of growing humans and animals as inferred from studies on laboratory animals. Trypsin inhibitor can be inactivated by heat treatment and chemical means </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oligosaccharides: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are complex sugars, raffinose and stachyose, in soybeans. Together these make up about 5% of the soybean. They can cause flatulence and stomach upset. It is desirable to reduce them in palatable foods. Soaking of soybeans in water for making soymilk and removal of fibrous residue gets rid of a large percentage of oligosaccharides. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Raw material reception and storage Soy been dehulling Overview Soy food production Soy milk process steps Milling of the bean Separation of the fibres Enzyme inactivation and deodorization Homogenization Protein standardization Okara
    12. 12. Overview Soy milk production Soy milk production process
    13. 13. Overview Soy food production Technology – Storage + Cleaning <ul><li>Soybean Varieties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any organization contemplating large scale production of soymilk should make a survey of the available types of soybeans in order to select those that will give soymilk with the best flavour and colour, and the best recovery of protein, solids, and fats. These factors vary widely from one soybean variety to another. High grade beans generally produce the best soymilk, and the large-seeded soybeans are considered to be the superior type. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moulds and insects are the primary causes of quality deterioration in stored soybeans. Both are favoured by high moisture, warm temperatures and the presence of damaged soybeans and foreign material. This being the case, it is important that the soybeans be essentially sound, clean and dry if they are to be stored for any period of time. Moisture control is the key to successful storage. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cleaning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial soybeans contain varying amounts of foreign material such as dirt, dust, stones etc. It is vital for the production of high quality soymilk that this foreign material be removed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just as important is the elimination of damaged soybeans from the supply to the soymilk processing plant. This is necessary because the enzyme lipoxidase ... will have acted on the fatty acids in the damaged soybean cell tissue, producing compounds with the characteristic beany flavour. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Overview Soy food production Technology - dehulling <ul><ul><li>Soybean hulls contain unwanted substances. Also the hulls are an obstruction to continued processing, especially in the decanter. Soil bacteria are present in the soybean hulls. The hulls should therefore be removed to reduce bacteria count in the soymilk, resulting in better flavour and shelf-life. Soybean hulls contain polysaccharides which should be removed to avoid off-flavours and processing problems caused by foaming. The holding time for heat treatment of the soybeans to inactivate undesired enzymes can be shortened when using dehulled soybeans. This will decrease protein denaturation and browning of the soymilk. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dehulled soybeans produce a white, attractive, appetizing soymilk. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Overview Soy milk production Soy puree production process
    16. 16. Soya bean storage pneumatic conveying Overview Soy milk production Storage + bean feed
    17. 17. Overview Soy milk production Soaking tanks Soy been soaking: Soybeans are washed thoroughly and soaked in about three times their volume of water for a period sufficient to swell them completely. The soaking process softens the beans for grinding and leaches out flatulence-causing oligosaccharides. In the tropical climate, especially in summer, one should avoid soaking the beans for too long. Four to six hours of soaking time in the summer and eight to twelve hours in winter is sufficient in most locations. One kg of whole soybeans yields about 2.2 kg of soaked beans, having a volume of about 3 litres. soaking tanks + belt weighter
    18. 18. water tanks + plate heat exchangers + mills Overview Soy milk production S oaking station + mills
    19. 19. Overview Soy food production Technology <ul><li>Enzyme Inactivation (without sodium bicarbonate): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blanching of the soybeans in a solution of hotwater starts the inactivation of the bitter taste causing enzyme lipoxidase. This treatment also washes out water soluble oligosaccharides (flatulence causing) and starts the inactivation of trypsin inhibitor (reducing digestibility). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grinding (without sodium bicarbonate): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grinding in a hot water solution converts the soybeans into a colloid solution (soyslurry) without unwanted enzyme activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two mills are used: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- perforated disk mill - Colloid mill </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. soaking tank bean discharge valve Overview Soy milk production Belt weighter belt weigher
    21. 21. eccentric screw pump perforated disk mill colloid mill 2.000 l hot water (90 °C) + 2.000 kg beans = 4.000 l slurry Overview Soy milk production Water dosing station + mills
    22. 22. Overview Soy milk production Perforated disk mill
    23. 23. Overview Soy milk production Colloid mill
    24. 24. Overview Soy milk production Separation of the fibres
    25. 25. <ul><li>Fibre Separation (decanting): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In order to avoid chalkiness and obtain a good mouthfeel of the soymilk, the insoluble fibres are filtered away. To achieve optimal results, a decanter centrifuge is used. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From the cooked slurry, soymilk is extracted by filtering and mechanically pressing the fibrous residue called okara. The soymilk thus obtained has about 70% of the protein originally in the soybean, most of the remaining being in the okara. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Okara, being already cooked adequately, is also a good source of high quality protein with dietary fibre. One kg of dry soybeans yields 1-2 kg of okara, depending on the bean quality and the slurry extracting method used. It can be used to prepare many nutritious foods. Unless dried to a moisture level of 10% or lower, its shelf life without refrigeration is rather limited. Properly refrigerated okara can be kept for two weeks or longer and it can be used in making snacks, bread, and a variety of other foods. </li></ul></ul>Overview Soy milk production Separation of the fibres
    26. 26. okara pump Overview Soy milk production Decanter + okara Decanter CC458 (Westfalia)
    27. 27. Overview Soy milk production Pasteuriser and degassing tank
    28. 28. Overview Soy milk production Pasteurization + degassing Heating: To inactivate Trypsin inhibitor and for extended shelf life, storage and transportation of soymilk should be at 4 °C or a lower temperature. Technical data: Capacity: 3.000 l/h Heating temperature: 105 °C Holding time: 2 min Degassing temp.: 80 °C
    29. 29. control-PC plate heat exchanger fore-run vessel product pump Overview Soy milk production Pasteurization + degassing
    30. 30. Overview Soy milk production Deaerator Deodorization: To remove unwanted volatile off-flavours the clarified soymilk base is deaerated by means of vacuum in the deodorizer.
    31. 31. Overview Soy milk production Homogenizer Homogenization: Homogenization breaks down fat globules into very fine particles by forcing them under great pressure through minute valve openings, and distributes them evenly throughout the soymilk. Otherwise the fats would tend to lump together, rise to the surface, and separate as a distinct layer. Homogenization gives soymilk a creamier, more uniform consistency.
    32. 32. Overview Soy milk production Buffer tanks
    33. 33. Overview Soy milk production Milk storage tanks + standardization Standardization: The base soy milk has a dry mass of 16 to 18 %. Water is added to the soymilk base to obtain the desired protein content of the soymilk.
    34. 34. Standardized soy milk Soy drinks Overview Soy food production Soy food process steps Soy fermented products Addition ingredients Direct UHT heating Aseptic dosing unit Steril tank Aseptic packaging Addition cultures Incubation / Fermentation Fruit dosing unit Cooling Packaging Buffer tanks Fermentation tanks
    35. 35. Overview Soy Food production Soy drinks – overview
    36. 36. Overview Soy milk production Soy drinks – Powder mixing station <ul><li>Fortification: </li></ul><ul><li>Soymilk for school-feeding programs in developing countries is preferably fortified with vitamins and minerals, e.g. vitamin B-12 and calcium. Soymilk has only 1/5 of the calcium in cow's milk (but 1/2 of that in mother's milk). </li></ul><ul><li>Flavouring and Formulation: </li></ul><ul><li>One of the keys to widespread acceptance of soymilk is proper formulation, using sweetening and flavouring agents of the types and in the amounts suited to local tastes. The addition of oil to soymilk results in increased richness and creaminess (good mouthfeel) and adds calories.... </li></ul>
    37. 37. Soy Food production Soy drinks – Premix tanks
    38. 38. Soy Food production Soy drinks – Premix tanks
    39. 39. Soy Food production Soy drinks – UHT plant <ul><li>UHT Treatment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct method UHT treatment of soymilk serves two purposes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to inactivate bacteria thereby prolonging shelf life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to deodorize the soymilk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The UHT treated product should be aseptically packed. </li></ul>
    40. 40. Soy Food production Soy drinks – Aseptic filling
    41. 41. Soy Food production Overview fermented products Soya Yogurt, Soya fresh cheese, Soya quarg Another way to extend the shelf life of soymilk is by culturing it with dairy yogurt cultures, e.g. Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Culturing has the added advantage of reducing flatulence causing sugars, the oligosaccharides stachyose and raffinose, especially when using L. acidophilus culture. While cultured soya drinks can be made using thin soymilk, well formed soya yogurt requires thick soymilk (10 to 13% soymilk solids). Whey separation may be prevented by adding a stabilizer like agar, gelatin, or arabic gum to the soymilk. The stabilizer also gives a firmer consistency to the yogurt.
    42. 42. Soy Food production Overview fermented products
    43. 43. Soy Food production Fermented products - pasteurizer
    44. 44. Overview Soy milk production Fermented products - pasteurization + degassing Heating: For extended shelf life Technical data: Capacity: 3.000 l/h Heating temperature: 90 °C Holding time: 2 min Degassing temp.: 70 °C
    45. 45. Soy Food production Fermented products - fermentation tanks
    46. 46. plate cooler CIP-pump strecher dynamic mixer dosing pump mobile product pump Soy Food production Fermented products - mixing system + cooler
    47. 47. Soy Food production Fermented products - filling machine
    48. 48. Overview Soy food production Realised project - project overview Soaking tanks: 2 x 16.000 l Hot water tank: 1 x 4.000 l Slurry to decanter: 4.000 l/h Raw milk to heater: 3.000 l/h Heater: 3.000 l/h Buffer tanks: 5 x 15.000 l Premix tanks: 3 x 60.000 l Fermentation tanks: 4 x 6.000 l (joghurt and fresh cheese) 2 x 5.000 l (quarg) Cooler (ferm. prod.) : 3.000 l/h Okara tank: 1 x 60.000 l 1 x 20.000 l CIP station: 4 x 5.000 l CIP neutralization: 1 x 10.000 l Central Control system: Siemens S7 OTAS Plant