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Environmental polluttion
 

Environmental polluttion

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This presentation contains all tupes of environmental pollution.

This presentation contains all tupes of environmental pollution.

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    Environmental polluttion Environmental polluttion Presentation Transcript

    • CONTENT               Introduction What is pollution Types of pollution Air pollution Light pollution Littering Noise pollution Soil contamination Radioactive contamination Thermal pollution Water pollution Pesticide Pollution Conclusion Bibliography
    • INTRODUCTION  Environmental pollution is any discharge of material or energy into water, land, or air that causes or may cause acute or chronic detriment to the Earth's ecological balance or that lowers the quality of life.  Pollutants may cause primary damage, with direct identifiable impact on the environment, or secondary damage in the form of minor perturbations in the delicate balance of the biological food web that are detectable only over long time periods.
    • What is pollution?  Pollution is any discharge of material or energy into water, land, or air that causes or may cause acute or chronic detriment to the Earth's ecological balance or that lowers the quality of life or in simple terms we can say that pollution is the contamination of the waste materials into the earth’s ecology.  Pollutants may cause primary damage, with direct identifiable impact on the environment, or secondary damage in the form of minor perturbations in the delicate balance of the biological food web that are detectable only over long time periods.
    • Types of pollution Pollution is of following types:•Air pollution •Light pollution •Littering •Noise pollution •Soil contamination •Thermal pollution •Water pollution
    • Air pollution  Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulates, or biological materials into the atmosphere that cause discomfort, disease, or death to humans, damage other living organisms such as food crops, or damage the natural environment or environment.  The sources of air pollution are classified into two groups: Natural Sources II. Man made sources  Natural Sources of Air Pollution:-They are dust storms, forest fires, ash from smoking volcanoes, decay of organic matters and pollen grains floating in air.  Manmade Sources of Air Pollution:- They are population explosion, deforestation, urbanization and industrialization, whose effects can be explained as follows: I.
    • Causes of air pollution  (1) greenhouse effect, contamination, radiation, rain, (2) particulate (3) increased UV (4) acid (5) increased ground level ozone concentration, (6) increased levels of nitrogen oxides  Air pollution affects respiratory system causing breathing difficulties and diseases such as bronchitis,asthma,lung cancer, tuberculosis and pneumonia.  Air Pollution affects the central nervous system causing carbon monoxide poisoning.CO has more affinity for hemoglobin than oxygen and thus forms a stable compound carboxyl hemoglobin(CO),which is poisonous and causes suffocation and death.
    • Effect of air pollution  Air pollution affects respiratory system causing breathing difficulties        and diseases such as bronchitis, asthma, lung cancer, tuberculosis and pneumonia. Air pollution causes depletion of ozone layer due to which ultraviolet radiations can reach the earth and cause skin cancer, damage to eyes and immune system. It causes acid rain which damages crop plants, trees, buildings, monuments, statues and metal structures and also makes the soil acidic. It causes greenhouse effect or global warming which leads to excessive heating of earth's atmosphere, further leading to weather variability and rise in sea level. The increased temperature may cause melting of ice caps and glaciers, resulting in floods. Air pollution from certain metals, pesticides and fungicides causes serious ailments. Lead pollution causes anemia, brain damage, convulsions and death. Certain metals cause problem in kidney, liver, circulatory system and nervous system. Fungicides cause nerve damage and death.
    • Prevention And Control of Air Pollution: Methods of controlling gaseous pollutants  Combustion  Absorption  Adsorption  Methods of controlling particulate emissions  Mechanical Devices  Fabric Filters  Wet Scrubbers
    • Light pollution  Light pollution, also known as photo pollution or luminous pollution, is excessive, misdirected, or obtrusive artificial light. Pollution is the adding-of/added light itself, in analogy to added sound, carbon dioxide, etc. Adverse consequences are multiple, some of them may not be known yet.  Light pollution is the alteration of light levels in the outdoor environment (from those present naturally) due to man-made sources of light. Indoor light pollution is such alteration of light levels in the indoor environment due to sources of light, which compromises human health. Light pollution is the introduction by humans, directly or indirectly, of artificial light into the environment.  Apart from emitting light, the sky also scatters incoming light, primarily from distant stars and the Milky Way, but also the zodiacal light, sunlight that is reflected and backscattered from interplanetary dust particles.
    • Causes of light pollution 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Light pollution is caused by uncontrolled emissions and reflections. The design of most of the light emitting sources allows a significant fraction of light to go up in the sky. Excessive use of light emitting sources also causes significant loss of light energy and increases the production of greenhouse gases. Careless outdoor lighting is also responsible for light pollution. Estimates point out that about one-third of the energy used for outdoor lighting is sent to outer space where it doesn't serve any useful purpose and causes light pollution. The rate at which the urban areas are expanding is contributing to the increase in the levels of light pollution. Three decades ago, the outdoor lighting products that were available to the public were limited to incandescent lights, mercury vapor lamps, etc. but today more powerful fixtures are available.
    • Effect on wildlife  Medical research on the effects of excessive light on the human body suggests that a variety of adverse health effects may be caused by light pollution or excessive light exposure, and some lighting design textbook use human health as an explicit criterion for proper interior lighting.  light affects organisms and ecosystems it is called ecological light pollution. While light at night can be beneficial, neutral, or damaging for individual species, lighting is responsible for one-fourth of all electricity consumption worldwide and case studies have shown that several forms of over-illumination constitute energy wastage, including non-beneficial upward direction of night-time lighting.  In 2007, Terns, the company responsible for managing electricity flow in Italy, reported a saving of 645.2 million kWh in electricity consumption during the daylight saving period from April to October. It attributes this saving to the delayed need for artificial lighting during the evenings . public lighting is the single largest source of local government's greenhouse gas emissions, typically accounting for 30 to 50% of their emissions . its presence invariably disturbs ecosystems.
    • Control of Light Pollution  The following steps can be taken to reduce the light pollution: Avoid causing light pollution  do not fit unnecessary lights  do not use excessively bright lights, a 150 watt tungsten halogen      lamp is quite adequate, 300 or 500 watt bulbs are too powerful for domestic security lighting Action against light pollution If you are experiencing light pollution from your neighbors try approaching the owner of the offending light, politely requesting: re-angling or partial shading of the light fitting of a passive infra red sensor using a lower power bulb
    • Littering  In order to define the littering we need to define the litter first. The litter refers to different waste products such as containers, papers, and wrappers that have been disposed onto streets, countryside's and remote places, meaning that the simplest littering definition would be pollution of our environment by different litter waste.  Littering is much more serious problem than some think it is, not just environmental but also an economic problem too because countries spend huge sums of money to clean and remove litter out of our environment.  Litter is also not a local problem as some think it is, because littering is happening worldwide. In US 75% of Americans admit to littering within the last 5 years, most of them being young people between age 20-35. Among people that litter the most are smokers, and cigarette butts are believed to be most commonly littered items.
    • Causes of littering  In addition to intentional littering, almost half of litter on U.S. roadways is now a result of accidental or unintentional litter, usually debris that falls off of improperly secured trash, recycling collection vehicles and pickup trucks. Population levels, traffic density and proximity to waste disposal sites are factors known to correlate with higher litter rates . Government neglect, the inability of governments to remove litter in a timely manner, is also a reason why humans are tempted to litter.  Illegally dumped hazardous waste may be affected by the costs associated with dropping materials at designated sites; some facilities charge a fee for depositing hazardous material. Access to nearby facilities that accept hazardous waste may deter use. Additionally, ignorance of the laws that regulate the proper disposal of hazardous waste may have an impact on proper disposal.  According to a study by the Dutch organization VROM, 80 percent of the people claim that "everybody leaves a piece of paper, tin or something, on the street behind". Young people from 12 to 24 years cause more litter than the average (Dutch or Belgian) person. Eighteen percent of people who regularly cause litter were 50 years of age or older. However, a 2010 survey of littering in Maine,  New Hampshire target groups within many campaigns conducted to keep countries free of litter. In 1999, research by Keep America Beautiful found that 75% of Americans admitted to littering the last five years, yet 99% of the same individuals admitted they enjoyed a clean environment.
    • Effect of Littering  Effect on humans: Litter can harm humans and the environment in different ways. Hazardous materials contained within litter and illegally dumped rubbish can leach into water sources, contaminate soil and pollute the air.  When tires are burned they can smoulder for long periods of time emitting hundreds of chemical and compounds that pollute the air causing respiratory illnesses.  Effect on wildlife: Also Animals may get trapped or poisoned with litter in their habitats. Cigarette butts and filters are a threat to wildlife and have been found in the stomachs of fish, birds and whales, who have mistaken them for food.  Animals can get trapped in the rubbish and be in serious discomfort. For example, the plastic used to hold beverage cans together can get wrapped around animals' necks and cause them to suffocate as they grow.
    • Control of Littering  Litter control is essential in maintaining safe, clean and sustainable neighborhoods.  Citizens and businesses play a critical role in stopping litter.  The Litter Control Crew is responsible for helping to clear litter from major roadways throughout the County.  Please help keep the Litter Control Crew safe! If you see the crew working on a roadway, and be attentive to keep them out of harm's way.
    • Noise Pollution  Indoor noise is caused by machines, building activities, music performances, and especially in some workplaces. There is no great differ Noise pollution is the disturbing or excessive noise that may harm the activity or balance of human or animal life. The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused by machines and transportation systems, motor vehicles, aircraft, and trains. Outdoor noise is summarized by the word environmental noise. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential areas.  Hence whether noise-induced hearing loss is brought about by outside (e.g. trains) or inside (e.g. music) noise.  High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects in humans, a rise in blood pressure, and an increase in stress and vasoconstriction, and an increased incidence of coronary artery disease. In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by altering predator or prey detection and avoidance, interfere with reproduction and navigation, and contribute to permanent hearing loss.
    • Causes of noise pollution  .Industrialization: Most of the industries use big machines which are capable of producing large amount of noise. Apart from that, various equipments like compressors, generators, exhaust fans, grinding mills also participate in producing big noise.  Social Events: Noise is at its peak in most of the social events. Whether it is marriage, parties, pub, disc or place of worship, people normally flout rules set by the local administration and create nuisance in the area. People play songs on full volume and dance till midnight which makes the condition of people living nearby pretty worse. attention of people.  Transportation: Large number of vehicles on roads, aero planes flying over houses, underground trains produce heavy noise and people get it difficult to get accustomed to that. The high noise leads to a situation wherein a normal person lose the ability to hear properly.  Construction Activities: Under construction activities like mining, construction of bridges, dams, buildings, stations, roads, flyovers take place in almost every part of the world.
    • Effect of Noise Pollution  Noise can have a detrimental effect on wild animals, increasing the risk of death by changing the delicate balance in predator or prey detection and avoidance, and interfering the use of the sounds in communication, especially in relation to reproduction and in navigation. Acoustic overexposure can lead to temporary or permanent loss of hearing.  An impact of noise on wild animal life is the reduction of usable habitat that noisy areas may cause, which in the case of endangered species may be part of the path to extinction. Noise pollution has caused the death of certain species of whales that beached themselves after being exposed to the loud sound of military sonar.  Noise also makes species communicate more loudly, which is called Lombard vocal response. Scientists and researchers have conducted experiments that show whales' song length is longer when submarine-detectors are on. If creatures do not "speak" loudly enough, their voice will be masked by anthropogenic sounds. These unheard voices might be warnings, finding of prey, or preparations of net-bubbling.  European Robins living in urban environments are more likely to sing at night in places with high levels of noise pollution during the day, suggesting that they sing at night because it is quieter, and their message can propagate through the environment more clearly. The same study showed that daytime noise was a stronger predictor of nocturnal singing than night-time light pollution, to which the phenomenon often is attributed.
    • Control of Noise Pollution  There are many methods which help to control the noise        pollution. The source of noise must be reduced. The path of transmission of sound must be stopped and the receiver of noise must be safe guarded. The amount of traffic must be reduced near the residential homes, educational institutes and hospitals. The machinery must be redesigned and the vehicles must be properly maintained. The acoustical furnishing must be done so that the sound can be absorbed. The industries must be built away from the residential areas and the legal laws must be established and observed to protect the humans from noise pollution. A general awareness program to educate the people must be done
    • Soil contamination  Soil contamination or soil pollution is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. It is typically caused by industrial activity, agricultural chemicals, or improper disposal of waste. The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (such as naphthalene and benzoic solvents, pesticides, lead, and other heavy metals. Contamination is correlated with the degree of industrialization and intensity of chemical usage. Types of soil pollution Soil pollution is of following types: Agricultural Soil Pollution A. pollution of surface soil B. pollution of underground soil  Soil pollution by industrial effluents and solid wastes A. pollution of surface soil B. disturbances in soil profile  Pollution due to urban activities A. pollution of surface soil B. pollution of underground soil
    • Causes of Soil Contamination Soil pollution is a result of many activities and experiments done by mankind which end up contaminating the soil. Here are some of the leading soil pollution causes: 1. Industrial wastes such as harmful gases and chemicals, agricultural pesticides, fertilizers and insecticides are the most common causes of soil pollution. 2. Ignorance towards soil management and related systems. 3. Unfavorable and harmful irrigation practices. 4. Improper septic system and management and maintenance of the same. 5. Leakages from sanitary sewage. 6. Acid rains, when fumes released from industries get mixed with rains. 7. Fuel leakages from automobiles, that get washed away due to rain and seep into the nearby soil. 8. Unhealthy waste management techniques, which are characterized by release of sewage into the large dumping grounds and nearby streams or rivers.
    • Effect of Soil Contamination  The effects of pollution on soil are quite alarming and can cause       huge disturbances in the ecological balance and health of living creatures on earth. Some of the most serious soil pollution effects are: Loss of soil and natural nutrients present in it. Plants also would not thrive in such soil, which would further result in soil erosion. Disturbance in the balance of flora and fauna residing in the soil. Increase in salinity of the soil, which therefore makes it unfit for vegetation, thus making it useless and barren. Generally crops cannot grow and flourish in polluted soil. Yet, if some crops manage to grow, they would be poisonous enough to cause serious health problems in people consuming them. Creation of toxic dust is another potential effect of soil pollution.. Soil pollutants would bring in alteration in the soil structure, which would lead to death of many essential organisms in it. This would also affect the larger predators and compel them to move to other places, once they lose their food supply.
    • Control of soil contamination  The following steps can be taken to control the soil pollution:1. Use of pesticides should be minimized. 2. Use of fertilisers should be judicious 3. Cropping techniques should be improved to prevent growth of weeds. 4. Special pits should be selected for dumping wastes. 5. Controlled grazing and forest management. 6. Wind breaks and wind shield should be built in the areas exposed to wind erosion 7. Planning of soil binding grasses along banks and slopes which are prone to rapid erosion. 8. Forestation or reforestation should be done.
    • Thermal Pollution  Thermal pollution is the act of altering the temperature of a natural     water body, which may be a river, lake or ocean environment. This condition chiefly arises from the waste heat generated by an industrial process such as certain power generation plants. The concept is most frequently discussed in the context of elevating natural water temperature, but may also be caused by the release of cooler water from the base of reservoirs into warmer rivers. Elevated river temperatures can also arise from deforestation or urbanization that can reduce stream shading. Thermal pollution is one parameter of the broader subject of water pollution. There can be significant environmental consequences of thermal pollution with respect to surface receiving waters such as rivers and lakes; in particular, decrease in biodiversity and creation of an environment hospitable to alien aquatic species may occur.
    • Causes of thermal pollution  Industrial Effluents- Industries require cooling water for     heat removal and cooling purposes. This heated water when discharged into the water system increases the temperature of water body. Nuclear Power plants-Nuclear power plants emit large quantity of heat and traces of radioactive substances which increases the temperature of water bodies. Coal- fired power plants- It is one of the major source of thermal pollution. Domestic sewage-When the domestic sewage is disposed off into water bodies like river, lakes etc it increases the temperature of receiving water. Radioactive waste- Dumping of radioactive waste in marine system increases the temperature when these substances radiate energy.
    • Effect of thermal pollution  There are two types of effects of thermal pollution  Thermal shock: Due to decrease in DO levels there is suffocation of plants and animal species which creates anaerobic conditions .The sudden change in the temperature causes harm to the aquatic organisms.  Thermal enrichment: The heated water is used for irrigation purposes to extend plant growing seasons. The warmer water also increases the metabolic rate of aquatic organisms (which in turn decreases the life expectancy of these organisms). The speedy growth is beneficial for commercial purposes
    • Control of thermal pollution  Some countries and even individual states and provinces require limits on discharges that lead to thermal pollution of receiving waters.  although this aspect of water pollution has proven to be more elusive than conventional chemical discharge.  In many cases regulation has come about through judicial application of the United States Clean Water Act and other statutes. For example, in a state statute challenge the court found that anticipated thermal pollution impacts were sufficient grounds to reverse approval of construction of two nuclear power plants.  Regulation may take very different approaches; in some laws, a best practice is required, such as the use of cooling ponds or cooling towers for waste heat discharge. In other cases, a numerical limit on acceptable temperature increase in the receiving waters is applied
    • Water Pollution  Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies  Water pollution occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.  Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water. In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities. 1. Types of water pollution a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Chemical Water Pollution Oil Spillage Suspended Matter Microbiological Surface water pollution Nutrients Pollution Ground water pollution
    • Causes of water pollution  Some wastewater, fertilizers and sewage contain high levels of      nutrients. Surface water includes natural water found on the earth's surface, like rivers, lakes, lagoons and oceans. Water bodies have micro-organisms. These include aerobic and anaerobic organisms. when humans apply pesticides and chemicals to soils, they are washed deep into the ground by rain water. In many communities in the world, people drink untreated water . Some pollutants do not easily dissolve in water.  Many industries and farmers work with chemicals that end up in water.
    • Effect of Water Pollution  The effects of water pollution are varied and depend on what chemicals are dumped and in which locations.  Many water bodies near urban areas are highly polluted.  This is the result of both garbage dumped by individuals and dangerous chemicals legally or illegally dumped by manufacturing industries, health centres, schools and market places. 1. Death of aquatic animals 2. Disruption of food-chains 3. Diseases 4. Destruction of ecosystems
    •  Control ofcontrolled by adopting a range of stringent water pollution At JSPL, water pollution is regulatory measures and monitoring processes. Some of the measures, which have been implemented for effective control of water pollution, are as follows:  Coke Oven Quenching: The waste water generated during quenching is taken to settling tanks. After settling, the water is reused for quenching the hot coke.  Sinter plant: Blow-down water is used in sinter nebulising.  Rolling mill: Process waste water is skimmed for oil and scale and then recycled back to the plant. No wastewater is discharged.  DRI: Cooling close-circuit effluent-recycling system has been installed. Waste water from the cooling section is taken to a hot water well and then to the cooling tower and the cold water well, from where it is recycled back into the process.  Power Plant: DM plant wastewater is treated in the neutralization pit. After treatment, the water is reused for wet ash handling system.  Submerged Arc Furnace: Waste water is reused for slag cooling and dust suppression.