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UPPER LIMBREGIONAL ANATOMYdRsurajitkundusr. lecturerdept. of anatomymaitri institute of dental sciences & research centrea...
INTRODUCTION<br />PARTS OF THE HUMAN BODY:<br /> HEAD NECK AND BRAIN, THORAX, ABDOMEN, EXTREMITIES (UPPER LIMB AND LOWER L...
THE PECTORAL REGION<br />
THE MAMMARY GLAND<br />OR<br />THE BREAST<br />
INTRODCTION<br /><ul><li>PRESENT BILATERALLY IN BOTH SEXES
MALE AND IMMATURE FEMALES- RUDIMENTARY
MATURE FEMALES- WELL DEVELOPED AND BECOMES MORE PROMINENT DURING PREGNANCY AND LACTATION
MOST IMPORTANT STRUCTURE OF THE PECTORAL REGION
IT IS A MODIFIED SWEAT GLAND (APOCRINE TYPE).</li></li></ul><li>POSITION<br />LIES IN THE SUPERFICIAL  FASCIA OF THE PECTO...
EXTENT<br />VERTICALLY<br />FROM SECOND TO SIXTH RIB IN THE MID CLAVICULAR LINE<br />HORIZONTALLY<br />FROM LATERAL BORDER...
RELATIONS<br />THE BASE OF THE MAMMARY GLAND CALLED AS  MAMMARY BED RESTS UPON THE FOLLOWING STRUCTURES (FROM SUPERFICIAL ...
RETROMAMMARY SPACE<br />
PRESENTING PARTS<br />NIPPLE<br />CONICAL PROJECTION IN THE CENTRE OF THE ANTERIOR PART OF THE BREAST, LIES IN THE FOURTH ...
STRUCTURE<br />3 COMPONENTS<br />(A) FIBROUS TISSUE<br />(B) GLANDULAR TISSUE<br />(C) AREOLAR TISSUE<br />
(A) FIBROUS TISSUE<br />SUPPORTS THE ENTIRE GLAND<br />FORMS SEPTA (SUSPENSORY LIGAMENTS OF COOPER) WHICH ANCHORS THE GLAN...
(B) GLANDULAR TISSUE<br />CONSIST OF 15-20 LOBES<br />LOBES ARE OF TUBULOALVEOLAR TYPE<br />EACH LOBE HAS ONE LACTIFEROUS ...
STRUCTURE OF THE MAMMARY GLAND<br />
NEUROVASCULAR SUPPLY<br />
ARTERIAL SUPPLY<br />BREAST IS HIGHLY VASCULAR ORGAN. SUPPLIED BY THE FOLLOWING SETS OF ARTERIES:<br />AXILLARY ARTERY- LA...
VENOUS DRAINAGE<br />VEINS FORM AN ANASTOMOTIC VENOUS CIRCULAR PLEXUS ARROUND THE MAMMARY GLAND KNOWN AS CIRCULAR VENOSUS....
NERVE SUPPLY<br />INTERCOSTAL NERVES (4TH- 6TH )- ANTERIOR AND LATERAL CUTANEOUS BRANCHES.<br />
LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE<br />
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Breast (Mammary gland)

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aA brief ppt description about mammary gland which may be necessary for teaching for first year mbbs bds and paramedical students, hope i may be usefull

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Transcript of "Breast (Mammary gland)"

  1. 1. UPPER LIMBREGIONAL ANATOMYdRsurajitkundusr. lecturerdept. of anatomymaitri institute of dental sciences & research centreanjora, durgchhattishgarh, india<br />
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION<br />PARTS OF THE HUMAN BODY:<br /> HEAD NECK AND BRAIN, THORAX, ABDOMEN, EXTREMITIES (UPPER LIMB AND LOWER LIMB)<br />UPPER LIMB<br />HAS 4 PARTS- SHOULDER, ARM, FOREARM AND HAND<br />
  3. 3.
  4. 4. THE PECTORAL REGION<br />
  5. 5. THE MAMMARY GLAND<br />OR<br />THE BREAST<br />
  6. 6. INTRODCTION<br /><ul><li>PRESENT BILATERALLY IN BOTH SEXES
  7. 7. MALE AND IMMATURE FEMALES- RUDIMENTARY
  8. 8. MATURE FEMALES- WELL DEVELOPED AND BECOMES MORE PROMINENT DURING PREGNANCY AND LACTATION
  9. 9. MOST IMPORTANT STRUCTURE OF THE PECTORAL REGION
  10. 10. IT IS A MODIFIED SWEAT GLAND (APOCRINE TYPE).</li></li></ul><li>POSITION<br />LIES IN THE SUPERFICIAL FASCIA OF THE PECTORAL REGION<br />BUT <br />A SMALL EXTENSION KNOWN AS AXILLARY TAIL OF SPENCEPIERCESTHE AXILLARY FASCIA THROUGH A SMALL FORAMEN KNOWN FORAMEN OF LANGER AND LIES IN THE AXILLA<br />
  11. 11. EXTENT<br />VERTICALLY<br />FROM SECOND TO SIXTH RIB IN THE MID CLAVICULAR LINE<br />HORIZONTALLY<br />FROM LATERAL BORDER OF STERNUM TO THE MID AXILLARY LINE ALONG THE FOURTH RIB<br />
  12. 12.
  13. 13. RELATIONS<br />THE BASE OF THE MAMMARY GLAND CALLED AS MAMMARY BED RESTS UPON THE FOLLOWING STRUCTURES (FROM SUPERFICIAL TO DEEP)<br />RETROMAMMARY SPACE<br />DEEP FASCIA (PECTORAL FASCIA)<br />MUSCLES- PECTORALIS MAJOR, SERRATUS ANTERIOR, EXTERNAL OBLIQUE<br />RETROMAMMARY SPACE<br />A SPACE DEEP TO THE BASE OF THE GLAND, LIES SUPERFICIAL TO DEEP FASCIA, CONTAINS LOOSE AREOLAR TISSUE, MAKES THE GLAND FREELY MOVABLE.<br />
  14. 14. RETROMAMMARY SPACE<br />
  15. 15. PRESENTING PARTS<br />NIPPLE<br />CONICAL PROJECTION IN THE CENTRE OF THE ANTERIOR PART OF THE BREAST, LIES IN THE FOURTH INTERCOSTAL SPACE, PINK IN COLOUR, HAS HIGH NERVOUS INNERVATION AND OPENINGS OF 15-20 LACTIFEROUS DUCTS.<br />(B) AREOLA<br />CIRCULAR PIGMENTED AREA OF SKIN AROUND THE BASE OF THE NIPPLE, BECOMES DARKER DURING PREGNANCY AND LACTATION, CONTAINS MODIFIED SEBACIOUS GLANDS WHICH BECOMES ENLARGED DURING PREGNANCY AND LACTATION FORMING TUBERCLES OF MONTGOMERRY<br />
  16. 16. STRUCTURE<br />3 COMPONENTS<br />(A) FIBROUS TISSUE<br />(B) GLANDULAR TISSUE<br />(C) AREOLAR TISSUE<br />
  17. 17. (A) FIBROUS TISSUE<br />SUPPORTS THE ENTIRE GLAND<br />FORMS SEPTA (SUSPENSORY LIGAMENTS OF COOPER) WHICH ANCHORS THE GLAND TO THE OVERLYING SKIN AND TO THE UNDERLYING DEEP FASCIA (PECTORAL FASCIA) AND DIVIDES THE GLAND INTO 15-20 LOBES<br />
  18. 18. (B) GLANDULAR TISSUE<br />CONSIST OF 15-20 LOBES<br />LOBES ARE OF TUBULOALVEOLAR TYPE<br />EACH LOBE HAS ONE LACTIFEROUS DUCT<br />LOBES ARE ARRANGED IN A RADIATING MANNER ARROUND THE AREOLA<br />THE LACTIFEROUS DUCT DILATES NEAR ITS OPENING IN THE NIPPLE TO FORM LACTIFEROUS SINUS WHICH ACT AS RESERVOIR OF MILK<br />DUCTS ARE SURROUNDED BY MYOEPITHELIAL CELLS<br />
  19. 19. STRUCTURE OF THE MAMMARY GLAND<br />
  20. 20. NEUROVASCULAR SUPPLY<br />
  21. 21. ARTERIAL SUPPLY<br />BREAST IS HIGHLY VASCULAR ORGAN. SUPPLIED BY THE FOLLOWING SETS OF ARTERIES:<br />AXILLARY ARTERY- LATERAL THORACIC BRANCH AND SUPERIOR THORACIC BRANCH<br />INTERNAL THORACIC ARTERY- PERFORATING BRANCH<br />POSTERIOR INTERCOSTAL ARTERY (2ND , 3RD, 4TH )- LATERAL BRANCH.<br />
  22. 22. VENOUS DRAINAGE<br />VEINS FORM AN ANASTOMOTIC VENOUS CIRCULAR PLEXUS ARROUND THE MAMMARY GLAND KNOWN AS CIRCULAR VENOSUS.<br />VEINS FROM THIS PLEXUS ENDS IN AXILLARY, INTERNAL THORACIC AND POSTERIOR INTERCOSTAL VEINS.<br />
  23. 23. NERVE SUPPLY<br />INTERCOSTAL NERVES (4TH- 6TH )- ANTERIOR AND LATERAL CUTANEOUS BRANCHES.<br />
  24. 24. LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE<br />
  25. 25. CLINICAL ANATOMY<br />SKIN INCISIONS FOR BREAST SURGERIES GIVEN ALONG THE SKIN CREASES AND IN A RADIAL MANNER.<br />BREAST IS A COMMON SITE FOR TUMOUR.<br />TUMOUR IN THE BREAST CAN BENIGN OR MALIGNANT<br />BENIGN TUMOUR- PAPPILOMA- TREATED BY SURGICAL EXCISION OF THE GROWTH.<br />MALIGNANT TUMOUR- BREAST CANCER/ CARCINIMA<br />BREAST CANCER TREATED BY REMOVAL OF THE AFFECTED (ONE OR BOTH) BREAST- SURGICAL PROCEDURE KNOWN AS RADICAL MASTECTOMY<br />DIAGNOSIS OF BREAST CANCER DONE BY EXAMINATION OF THE AFFECTED BREAST LUMP<br />
  26. 26. CLINICAL ANATOMY (CONT.)<br />BREAST CANCER- SIGNS AND SYMPYOMS:<br />A HARD NON-MOVABLE BREAST WITH A SOLID PALPABLE LUMP<br />RETRACTION OF THE OVERLYING SKIN DUE TO INFILTERATION OF CANCER CELLS ALONG THE SUSPENSORY LIGAMENTS OF COOPER<br />RETRACTION AND FLATTENING OF THE NIPPLE DUE TO AFFECTION OF THE LACTIFEROUS DUCTS<br />SKIN ARROUND THE BREAST- PEAU D ORANGE DUE TO RETRACTION OF THE HAIR FOLLICLES AND OEDEMATOUS SKIN<br />DIAGNOSIS CAN BE CONFIRMED BY FNAC (FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY), MAMMOGRAPHY AND USG (ULTRASONOGRPHY)<br />KRUKENBURG TUMOUR<br />
  27. 27. questions<br />LONG QUESTION<br />DESCRIBE THE MAMMARY GLAND <br />OR<br />DESCRIBE THE MAMMARY GLAND (BREAST) UNDER THE FOLLOWING HEADINGS-(a) location and extent (b) important relations (c) structure (d) blood supply (e) lymphatic drainage (f) applied anatomy.<br />SHORT NOTES<br />MAMMARY BED <br />LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE OF THE MAMMARY GLAND<br />STRUCTURE OF MAMMARY GLAND<br />SHORT ANSWERS<br />RETROMAMMARY SPACE<br />TAIL OF SPENCE<br />FORAMEN OF LANGER<br />LIGAMENT OF COOPER<br />
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