Physics and MetaphysicsWritten by myself by Dedicated toSurajit Ghosh Science The Science called Physicsginiexmail@gmail.com Dated: 12/12/2012 Dated: 12/12/2012Preface:When I am writing this, the world of physics is facing lot of puzzles all coming out of the large and small scale structure of the universe. Ibelieved that the basic problem was drawing the correct picture. I started drawing it 10 years back but had to erase all those. This one I can noterase from my mind until my death. With this I am in perfect equilibrium, although I know nature works with probabilities any equilibrium is a death. perfect one. countlessdynamic one. But I just can’t let those sleepless nights, countless cigarettes go astray. 96% uncertainty at quantum level turns out be 96%deterministic at the universal level, rest 4% uncertainty is the reason the universe cannot have rest. universalSummary of contents • Classical unification of Newton’s Gravity with Coulombs Law unifying gravity & anti gravity producing gravitational curl. • Neo- Neo-Classical unification of Charles Ratio and Fine Structure Ratio, the complementary yin and yang force. Ratio, force. • curvature, constant. Linking the product of the above two ratio with space time curvature, the cosmological constant. • C onnection between Singularity and Charles Ratio, growth rate, scale of expansion, relativity. Ratio, relativity. lativity • Multiverse, Explanation to Galaxy rotation, missing mass problem falsifying extra dimension, Multiverse, String theory. • imageses, Relativity Horizon and beyond that, probing reality of Hubble’s UDF imag es, the age & radius of the universe. • Nature Nature of Dark matter, Dark energy a double sided error arising out of the gap of scale. • Matter Antimatter symmetry their non destructive interaction to create variety of elements. elements. • The eternity & infinity of space time arising out of top down singularity in cycle.
Laws governing the GravityTwo major physical theories which we believe describes gravity are: 1. Newton’s law of motions and Gravity 2. Einstein’s General RelativityNewton’s first law of motion is about inertia of matter which implies unless force is applied a body in rest shall continue to be in rest and a moving body shall continueto move forever. Later it was understood, as all bodies in the universe are moving, there shall be no place of absolute rest. The lack of absolute rest mean lack of absoluteposition, from where one can determine absolute distances of other objects or the absolute time lag between two events that takes place at different time. We stepped intorelativity here itself but understood later when Einstein came out with the broader picture of relativity.Newton’s second law of motions defines the nature of force, its acceleration on mass of bodies. In a smooth system like space an applied force shall constantly acceleratebodies for ever results ever increasing velocities with increments equal to the acceleration. This is the reason the force exerted by big bang constantly accelerating thegalaxies further away.Newton’s third law of motions states that for every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction: or the forces of two bodies on each other are always equal andare directed in opposite directions. This implies that any object accelerating forward the space time shall feel a negative acceleration called gravity and this gravity ismeasured from law of gravity.According to Newton’s law of universal gravitation, all bodies in the universe are attracted towards each other by a force that is stronger the more massive the bodies andthe closer they are to each other. It is this same force that causes objects to fall to the ground. Newton’s theory of gravity like general relativity (discussed later) alsoimplied that the universe in which gravity is always attractive, cannot be static, either it has to expand to escape its own gravity or it has to collapse at some point.Einstein’s Special relativity incorporates the principle that the speed of light is the same for all inertial observers regardless of the state of motion of the source. Specialrelativity also predicted that the speed of light is the highest speed limit any object may attain when its rest mass tends to zero. The fundamental postulate of the theoryof relativity, as it was called, was that the laws of science should be the same for all freely moving observers, regardless of their speed. If we extend this we can see thatrelativity will not be different from reality i.e. if our measurement of our relative distance, relative time is correct then 5/2,7.5/3, 10/4 would give same result.Einstein’s General relativity is the geometric theory of gravitation. He transformed three dimensional space into four dimensional Space time, and abandon the idea ofabsolute time (absolute time if anything shall remain Gods own Property). He showed that the curvature of space-time is directly related to the energy and momentumof whatever matter and radiation are present. The relation is specified by the Einstein field equations, a system of partial differential equations. Inspired by static modelof the universe, in his original field equations Einstein introduced a new “antigravity” force, which, unlike other forces, did not come from any particular source but wasbuilt into the very fabric of space-time (a more detailed explanation to Newton’s third law effect on Gravity). When Hubble discovered that the universe is expanding,
the cosmological constant, which he introduced, called the biggest mistake of his life. But cosmological constant was an integral part of the equation inevitable from the“Space time Relativity” without that special relativity i.e. constant speed of light is not maintained. The beauty of his field equation is that his antigravity or cosmologicalconstant comes as an addendum to the equation, if in short run, we leave it we see the universe is expanding but in long run we need to add it so that the acceleration iscontrolled otherwise the acceleration goes beyond control. This created assignment problem while making CDM model of the universe, with which physical state of massor energy this cosmological constant lambda can be associated to. So a new term “Dark energy” was coined and to support its mass “Dark Matter”. The obvious resultcame, thousands years of our knowledge got only 4% pie of the bigger picture of our universe.In Search of Revised Gravitational lawsWe may think we know enough about gravity as Newtonian Gravity and General Relativity have not let us down when we send the first rocket or in explaining theanomalous perihelion shift of planets. Our last job is to find graviton to connect standard model with general relativity. But if we understand the far reachingconsequence of Einstein’s equivalence principle then we will accept the need for some kind of control on the exchange of mass-energy ratio i.e. the speed of light orcritical density ratio, expansion ratio of the universe and the curvature of the space-time. Out of these multiple concepts of one universe we cannot determine which oneis dependent variable which one is independent variable. If we try to do so we encounter chicken-egg problem or hierarchy problem. We know Gravity is pseudo force itshould not exist in reality but still it exists both locally and universally, because it is the culmination of all the fields arising out of exchange of mass-energy and expansionof the space-time.To understand Gravity from the scratch let’s go through once again Newton’s law of universal gravitation. After reading several times we shall come across the followingfallacies, 1. The theory do not explain the origin of gravity, neither it assume any initial condition. 2. The theory has a tendency to point towards infinity, like the force of gravity is assumed to be infinity in free fall, there shall be potentially infinite number of stars to escape the fall. Gravity work on point to point; it does not create a gravitational field. 3. The theory determines the effect of gravity on planetary system like ours with accuracy, but it does not explain how it works, its nature i.e. being a force how it can always be attractive? Or it is the net positive after cancelling the negative? Or there is bottom line for both positive and negative force maintaining a constant ratio between the two? 4. The theory describes many to many relationships, but the equation is restricted to one to one relationship, it’s like “many to many” clue is missing. 5. The many to many model is not stable and by default collapses to one point and when it collapses Gravity become zero. 6. The theory cannot explain problem of missing mass calculated by Zwicky in rotation of stars in a galaxy system where unlike planetary system anti gravity plays an important role.Now knowing that our universe is expanding, if we let the many to many relationship fall into one universe, we get the following: 1. Space must be potentially infinite and perfectly elastic, when matter take its place on the space-time fabric it creates a natural slope so that the lighter matters feel gravity towards it, resulting the Universe falling back to its own centre of gravity (As the space is potentially infinite the nearest mass point may serve as centre of gravity).The strength of the gravity is directly proportional to mass. It works in the direction of centre of gravity.
2. Presence of energy or energetic matter energizes all the objects in the universe to escape the gravity by squaring its distance from the centre of gravity. It is the repulsive gravity resulting from Newton’s third law of motions itself or in Einstein’s language when matter flows towards gravity then space time fabric releases equivalent amount of tension in the form of gravitational waves. It works in the opposite direction of centre of gravity.So basically it’s a split of the original law with two different forces working in two different directions. But as a whole the equations remain same; the gravitationalconstant become variable and gets two variable components.Let’s take a real life example. Its frequently seen among kids playing soccer, when the ball goes to nearby pond, one of the tall guy asks another heavy weight guy to givea hand, and he literally float his body weight over the pond where both may fall just by balancing one another’s gravity and the first one reaches the ball by stretching hishand. Doing so, of course they both do some work and losses energy, but roughly the lighter guy do little more work.In space also lighter galaxies are escaping from gravity with support from heavier galaxies and so on. As in the space there is no fulcrum or holding point like surface ofthe earth shown in the example, sliding becomes inevitable by squaring its distance from the centre of gravity. The energy is supplied by chain loss of little mass indescending order of lighter to heavier galaxies. It also tell us, why the stars have to burn there self in a controlled manner by absorbing little energy from the neighboringstar (as we light up our candle and pass the light back in a religious place).Now let’s look into antigravity which symmetrically arises from degeneracy pressure of electron in the energy domain. We can transform Newton’s law of universalgravitation, symmetrically to law of universal antigravity and integrate into revised gravitational laws which shall look like: each body in the universe is repulsed fromevery other body by a force that is stronger the more rest energy the bodies carry and apart they are i.e. inverse square of the distance they are to each other. In fact this iscoulombs law / gauss’s law on electromagnetic flux unified by Maxwell. Notable to see that the antigravity proportionately varies with rest energy not rest mass andinverse square of the distance same as gravity. This is the reason in a field where both gravity and antigravity are present the accumulation of mass need not be centralizedas the gravity component and antigravity component in same distance is cancelled because of their opposite direction.Now if we merge this two gravity/ antigravity force laws, four individual components then they don’t cancel each other completely rather they coexists according to theirintensity layer by layer. But At large we cannot identify whether a gravitational force felt by any object whether due to gravity or antigravity as they losses their individualdirection (evidence being two pioneers direction, one towards the centre of milky way and the other took opposite direction) leaving a torque or curl effect, whichultimately determines the curvature of the path the of the whole object driven by these forces.ga = Ga’.M/R2--------(1)ga’’ = Ga’’.E/R2--------(2) ORga’’ = Ga’’.M. v2/2R2--------(3)2. (ga’’/ ga)/ (Ga’’/Ga’) =∆ g dividing 3 by 1, where ∆ g=torque or curl effect on velocity(ga’’/ ga) represents the coupling constant between gravity and electromagnetic force which causes expansion of space between matter and has value in ascending orderfrom innermost disk to outermost disk of a galaxy. The value of (ga’’/ ga) ranges from (1/276) to (1/273), followed by Charles empirical constant. (Ga’’/Ga’) represents
the coupling constant between electrostatic force and electromagnetic force which causes the electron to move along the atomic orbital’s at quantum level and also hasvalue in ascending order from innermost disk to outermost disk of a galaxy. The value of (Ga’’/Ga’) ranges from (1/138.5) to (1/137) followed by Fine structureConstant.∆ g =2. (1/276) / (1/138.5) =277/276= 1.003623= k Constant> 1∆ g =2. (1/273) / (1/137) =274/273= 1.003663= k Constant> 1So we can see that velocity of a star in a galaxy do not depend on any parameter, it shall follow the galaxy average, masses need not be centralized in a galaxy, parameter,they can have any position in the continuous gravity chain. Planets may or may not rotate on its own axis, shall depend on the gravitational curl effect on its chain. density ratiorelative mass. So also our space time curvature, critical density ra tio is just greater than 1 and space time must be curved like a sphere and the universe is builtnot to meet any singularity like big crunch i.e. there shall be quantum fluctuation and there shall be no “light off”, galaxies shall recede forever until it galaxiescollapses. ollapses.
Hubble’s UDF ImagesWhen Hubble’s telescope brought us its ultra deep field images from distance 13.3 billion light years away, the question arises whether these images are our past or theirpresent or mix of both? Without knowing the exact space time curvature we cannot determine the origin of the lights. If space time curvature is greater than one thenpast light never meets present they are totally internally reflected back to past. On the other hand if space time curvature is less than one then past light enters presentand it creates a bizarre picture of the universe. The weirdness increase as space time flattens. Somehow we are convinced that these are our past lights alone. Mind startsboggling when we try to reconcile the light path and object path, presence of gravity increases the weirdness as being mass less speed of light should have negligible effectcompared to the effect of gravity on the object path. If the universe is 13.7 billion years old and we are seeing those lights now then straight forward question arisewhether light was sleeping like the rabbit in the race between rabbit and tortoise or gravity gave the galaxies key to wormhole path where they can recede faster than lightwithout losing any rest mass and gave light path to singularity so that majority of its time are consumed inside the singularity so that ct meets vt now. If we think ofinflation which can stretch 13.7 billion year to 46 billion year then also our initial position must have been poles apart from the centre of big bang, but CMB gives us acentral position pointing towards infinity both side. We were at the central position violating Copernican principle and there was inflation and even after that we are stillat the central position is contradictory. It sound so unbelievable that if this has to be true then edge/unbounded boundary of the universe has to be trillions of light yearsaway from us that the time 13.7 billion year looks relatively small and it can be worked out without any inflation, in other words established 46/13.7 is according tooriginal scale valid for the centre of the universal space-time conditions prevailing at the time of origin of the universe. Since then the universe has changed scales1000(derived later) times. Copernican principle still holds good that there cannot be any preferred position, right time of looking in cosmos then why 46/13.7 alone.Time dilation cannot be infinitely intensive. If UDF images were from past lights then gravitational lensing would have created multiple images and huge distortion inthe images could not be ruled out. To explain x, y, z three commoving galaxies images may have been formed like (a, x, h), (b, x, q)……… (a, y, h), (b, y, q)……… (a,z, h), (b, z, q)……… but Hubble’s images are not that much distorted. Actually Hubble’s UDF images appear so real as if there is no difference between relativity andreality. The reality is we are no more there and our pictures are erased by new pictures and we cannot play it back. Our past, there present, nature doesn’t differentiatethis way, nature maintains only one time (If you say God’s time) or doesn’t maintain any time (If you don’t like God’s time then all time relative to gravity) either wayit’s the present very present, neither future nor even past. It is so sad that even after spending billions of dollars to make telescopes we cannot get pictures of our past andthe situation will not improve even if the size of the telescopes goes bigger. When we pass through a big tunnel our straight-line vision shows the other end of tunnel as apoint (in case of a flat tunnel) or even black (in case of a curved tunnel). Because of tunnel vision (even telescopes eyes are not better than ours), further we look as iflooking through 50 meter straw the picture will not change it will maintain the same brightness with increased number of galaxies as if we are not looking into pastrather we are looking at our very present. So with these wonderful telescopes we should feel happy again as we got the live broadcast right of the Mega universal showwithout spending a single dollar. This is possible only because space is opaque; space time is curved with curvature close to one, where photons are virtually imaged onreal time. Even if we reach the distance by telescope, to see a lighted object (We can’t see lights, we see lighted objects) the object must have to be there otherwise noimages are formed. When the object is there, the virtual images are formed depicting their reality i.e. free from relativity. All the irregularities of relativity gets erased ingravity transposed frame of relativity-reality, otherwise there would have been so many images for every object at interval of every second that their lights would havesolved the Olber’s paradox. This can be explained with quantum entanglement at quantum level, in fact relativity and quantum entanglement complement each other inshowing true and fair view of our universe. Photons are perfectly entangled irrespective of the spatial distance. An object moving in space emits lights from which itsimage can be formed. But as gravity deals differently with objects having different mass, so soon the path of the object and the path of lights emerging from the objectsdiverge. After crossing the curved path of the gravitation when this light reaches some distant observer the actual position is juxtaposed by some angle. But as the spin ofphotons is entangled, the imaging photons remains entangled to the source photons throughout the imaging light path irrespective of the distance they travel. Due tothis phenomenon although the positions of all cosmic objects may be a gravitational approximation but the images are perfectly real and live. If this spooky action wasnot there then we could have tracked the whole lifecycle from birth to supernovae explosion of a star moment by moments. But wherever we look from south to north
every angle it’s the repetition of same one picture. Hubble’s data may not be conclusive because beyond Hubble’s sphere radius still we see the galaxies receding fasterthan light. For example future telescope may give more accurate data so we get the correct age and radius of the universe.Red Shift and the expanding UniverseRed Shift of spectra of lights coming from far away objects is an important tool for astronomers to calculate the distances of the objects. This tool has brought ustwentieth century’s greatest discovery of expanding universe as well as mind boggling puzzles what the universe is expanding into, what is the driving force behind theexpansion, whether anything can stop the expansion etc. As Hubble’s images depicts the reality, what shall the red shifts imply which is calculated based on Hubble’sdata. It shall bounce us back ours the very ours Milky Way galaxy’s relative expansion. It will not be safe to attribute the expansion wholly to the universal expansion.The Actual universal expansion should be calculated age of 13.7 billion years multiplied the velocity of stars 12.04 km/sec equal 166 billion year and it was relativelyslow. The expansion is driven by supply of more ordinary baryonic matter from potentially infinite space time. This continuous expansion is continuously changing thescale across the space time and if we take grand average scale we can say that the universe has taken a 1000(derived later) leaps or completed 1000(derived later) completerotation or in universal times its just 1000 year (derived later) time elapsed which in earthly scale equivalent to 166 billion year (derived later) and in this time theuniverse has grown across 46 trillion light years in radius.Gap of the ScaleReason of both the pioneers we lost connection cannot be one (Power constraint) as they were twins yet pioneer 10 probed for 8 year longer time which may be itsrelativity boundary from earth. If we see its life time data then we find:Although Pioneer 10 was accelerated up to 12.56 Km /sec its velocity was slightly brought down to 12.51 during this 30.89 years journey starting from Date of launch 2-Mar-72 to Date of last communication 23-Jan-03. In this time i.e. 974,199,600 seconds (aprox) 12 billion km was travelled by pioneer 10 (as noted from Wikipedia). Oncean objects velocity is gravitationally adjusted then it can maintain its velocity forever. In case of pioneer 10 the relativistic distance it should have crossed in 31 yearsstarting with 12.56 Km /sec initial velocity comes to be 12,235,945,740 Km which is 12.56 multiple of 974,199,600 seconds (aprox). 12 billion km travelled by pioneer10 (as noted from Wikipedia) has deviated slightly from its relativistic value mainly because of unexplained acceleration known as pioneer anomaly. Relativisticallyspeaking even in the presence of gravity where universe is expanding its relativistic orbital velocity should not have slowed down at all. What is this gap? This is a gap ofscale moving across space time. If the scale factor to be 1 somewhere near to centre of Milky Way galaxy then by the time we reach earth trajectory this sale factor we seegot increased near to 1000(derived later). This may be called Expansion Scale Factor. Because of this reason even if we corrected Newtonian g by relativistic g thedifference did not answer everything as this difference yet to be scaled up by 1000(derived later) times as it escapes earths trajectory and result is the exact answer topioneer anomaly. But for light this relativity radius will be 300,000,000 year which is highest radius of relativity horizon at any point of time. Beyond 300,000,000 lightyear distance whatever we see through telescopes is a virtual image of reality delayed by just another 300,000,000 year even if the object may be billion years away fromus. This is Relativity Boundary. When this boundary is crossed the present light cone converges into pasts and image depicts the real position.Derivation of Singularity ValueLet’s assume the universe was in its totality, singularity was broken by big bang and (x) number of galaxies was created, entropy after big bang (1/x), initial velocity justafter big bang was (x), big bang acceleration (x), rest mass of any galaxy (x/2), big bang expansion lasted for time (x), Required time for light to reach the nearest galaxyfrom the big bang central galaxy(x),
Rest Energy of any galaxy just after big bang = m.v2=x.x2=x3 ------ (1)(Not ½.m.v2 as there was no gravity, there was no interaction, everything was running one-way)Energy of first galaxy got light after big bang =1/2.m.c2=x/2.c2 -------- (2)(Not m.c2 as there was no light, a complete half of the mass was needed to create light energy)Comparing 1, 2, above:X/2.c2= x3 OR c=√2.x -------- (3)Required time for light to reach the nearest galaxy from the big bang central galaxy(x)Distance crossed by light from the big bang central galaxy c.t=√2.x2 -------- (4)Velocity of nearest galaxy from the big bang central galaxy after big bang expansion=v=u+ft=x+x2=x(x+1)Distance crossed by nearest galaxy from the big bang central galaxy s=u.t+1/2.f.t2=x. x(x+1) +1/2.x.x2 OR s= x2(x+1 +1/2.x) -------- (5)Comparing 4, 5, above:√2.x2= x2(x+1 +1/2.x)x= (√2-1)/ (1+1/2)=.41/1.5=0.273 ~ 0.276Derivation of Expansion Scale FactorWe know gases expand in proportion of 1/273 with the increase of energy, does this have any connection to the universal expansion i.e. is the universe expanding samefashion. The answer will be yes there is a deep connection that is why a singularity value derived from some known universal laws shows numerical similarity leaving afactor meaning of which yet to be understood. Comparing Singularity Value with Charles constant 1/273 we get 1000 which is our (earthly scale) today’s expansionScale Factor. We should not misunderstand this exact value of 1000 as arising from decimal system itself. We have taken two intervals since the origin of the universe asunder Newtonian mechanics we need U1 to determine the position of any object relativistically we need U1 and U2 further if we accelerate this constantly thenmaintaining Galilean/Newtonian inertia or Einstein’s equivalence principle the object will maintain constant speed, further if we put more mass into the balloon then thedots on the balloon starts receding and the scale changes. 273 and 1000 can be seen as latitude and longitude of our position in the universe where 273 represents thethree dimensional space coordinate and 100 represents the time coordinate. Elsewhere in the universe it is different as the scale they are operating is different so also thenumerical value of the nature constants. Nothing remains numerically constant except the law. Einstein realized this when he said "as far as the laws of mathematics saidrefer to reality, they are not certain; and as far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality." Here are some other astonishing numerical confirmations ofpresence of such expanding relativity scales.
1. If we product today’s expansion 273 by singularity .276 we get Numerical part of the Hubble’s Constant i.e. 75 i.e. 273*.276=75 2. SQRT(Hubble’s Constant/(1+singularity))*(1+singularity) gives numerical value for Acceleration due to gravity(g) i.e. SQRT(73/(1+.276))*(1+.276) =9.82 3. Acceleration due to gravity*(1+singularity) gives numerical value for Average Velocity of Stars/ Escape velocity i.e. 9.82/(1+.276)=12.53 4. Singularity/Speed of light gives numerical value for pioneer anomaly i.e. .276 /300000000= 9.2E-10 or Singularity* pioneer anomaly= Speed of lightIt may be hard to accept the crude mathematics but such kind of scalar adjustments can arise as nature obeys the underlying universal laws also in God’s dimensionlessworld (see below the god’s way) this kind of normalization is not at all illogical.[GOD created this universe but it was not working. Then he thought, if I cut into pieces it may work. He did so in time (x) with perfection and full concentration so that nothing waswasted. He didn’t count it how many pieces (x) he made but it was his sense of equity that every piece was equal, he was so concentrated that when he finished with last piece in his handand saw to his surprise (his divine touch got everything x) that some kind of entropy (1/x) (due to destruction of absolute rest i.e. absolute zero) were taking all the pieces away from himas well as from themselves at unknown speed (x), at unknown acceleration (x).Then he decided to catch all those pieces with one piece remaining in hand. He lighted its rest mass (1/2x)with energy (1/2x).c2 so that it can light up the first piece travelling with rest energy x.x2, from (1/2x).c2= x.x2 i.e. c=√2.x he saw, after time (x) at distance √2.x2= x2. (1+x+x/2) thefirst piece got lighted.]Derivation of Time since OriginHaving derived the singularity, now we can interpolate and extrapolate to find out other nature constants. At the Universal level we have we know precisely the followingconstants 1. Speed of light c 2. Gravitational constant G 3. Acceleration due to Gravitational free fall gAlso we know Charles ratio for expansion of Gas on increase in energy (pressure remaining constant) 1/273, Today’s Expansion Scale Factor (1000)We can derive time since origin t= G/g.c2. (Reciprocal of Charles Ratio). (Expansion Scale Factor) =6.673*10-11/9.80*2997924582*273*1000= 1.65583E+11 i.e. 166billion yearsComparison: 166 billion years/13.7 billion years=12.04 i.e. Average velocity of Stars in our galaxy, thus 13.7 billion years is the best estimate for age of Milky WayGalaxy not the age of the universe.
Derivation of Radius of the UniverseFrom s=u.t+1/2.f.t2Where u =singularity value of .276, c= Present speed of light, f= 1/c (Present speed of light) & t= time since origin 1.66E+11Radius of the Universe= 45,978,018,926,667 i.e. 46 trillion light yearsComparison: 46 trillion light years /46 billion light years =1000 i.e. expansion Scale Factor.Note: Annexure showing the Timeline of the Universe and changes in nature constants are provided at end of the book.
The origin and fate of the universeThe origin of the universe and fate of the universe remains very debatable. Perhaps these two remain unsolved unless we encounter any one. However from our today’sobservation we can interpolate and extrapolate to make out a picture. Today we are seeing the galaxies are moving away from each other, does not necessarily mean thatthey were all together in past; of course it means that the gap must have been less, then also not necessary same number of galaxies as today, most may have got createdrecently and got position in the front seats then also our picture remains in the same observation frame. Today’s expansion is happening because of today’s events, if wego back to time then by default we will see the first picture of universe was smooth and even, without any gravity, perfectly stable. But this stability how long it last,particles with its quantum fluctuation came into action and created relative hot filaments and cold plasma zones almost maintaining the same smoothness throughout theuniverse and gravity came into existence and the journey started. So it was a very slow process, I believe not like “the whole universe in a peanut”, “10−35 to10−34 seconds after big bang”, “inflation after big bang”. Why hypothetical inflation field, when particles obeys “Uncertainty Principles” and they create dark andlight bars in a double slit experiment. By nature particles gather and create disturbances like waves. If we compare the initial quantum fluctuation with a double slitexperiment then by evolution of time we can see our universe as parallel hot and cold zones similar to dark and light bars in a double slit experiment. Hot being the spacefilament along their respective space time spiral axis and cold being the plasmas super imposed on the filaments. Although there was no necessity at all (Quantumfluctuation can create a spark as trees in vicinity can set the miles of trees on fire in a jungle), Big Bang theory could have been accepted as multiple isolated events in asmall space with small mass involved at a relative slow pace, which resulted small anisotropies which were corrected by gravity thereafter. It cannot be a theory of totaluniverse as still we have mass, space-time, which remain untouched by Big Bang as apparent from the homogeneous nature of the universe. The hypothetical inflationfield came out to make up the gap of scales which we could not grasp properly. May be CMB gave us an accurate value for observable universe which is 46 billion lightyears, But question arise when the universe is expanding how could the speed of light remain constant same as at the time of big bang. Today we see light travels at300000000 (approximate) meters/ sec, it was not the same speed it was travelling just after so called big bang as matter was denser, gravity was stronger. The speed oflight was 1000 scales lower than today with respect to today’s diluted time. If we multiply 46 billion light years by thousand then we get 46 trillion light years the correctradius of the universe, everything will come into this, and if future telescopes can reach this distance then it will not see any galaxy receding faster than light. Leastmassive Stars which can shine for trillions of years will not be excluded from the picture. The picture will be continuous without having any horizon problem thehypothetical inflation field will vanish as the expansion itself will look straight line and big bang will look like a tiny quantum fluctuation, Dark matter and Dark energywill vanish as the basic laws property of inertia, laws of motion, special and general relativity, mass- energy conservation etc… will explain everything. Then correct age ofthe universe thus calculated shall be 166 billion years (see the derivation). We need to correct the ratio 46 billion /13.7 billion =3.35 to 46trillion/166 billion=277 so thatit do not contaminate our other results. Perhaps Big Bang was accepted to answer all the non questions of singularity into one singularity but unfortunately it put us intocycle of false. Our life could have been simpler if we had followed Conservation of mass and energy by heart. Realistically Conservation of mass and energy togethercannot happen unless mass and energy are conserved independently. Mass contain some energy, to make the atomic structure, to form the mass. Energy cannot come tolight unless some atomic structure is destructed. So there is a common area between them, rests are their individuality. Mass cannot be converted into energy and Energycannot be put into mass. Higgs boson can explain how matter obtains mass but creating heavy Higgs boson out of nothing sounds impossible. Any transaction happensin common area i.e. zero point energy which is freely available in the space in the form of gravitational potential. So mass can be released to some atomic energy, lightenergy which again working with time can bind some unstructured mass back into the system. The initial amount of mass and energy are both conserved neither cannotbe created nor cannot be destructed. So we can say when a supernova takes place all the baryons free them to a further place but light goes to catch them again.Conservation of mass and energy along with bottom line and top line singularity limits alone is enough to carry on the mega galactic show like a recycled water fountainforever. Galaxy will take birth, recede from each other, one day without being able to recede, will break into pieces and recycle once again to run the show. One obviouspossibility from so called Big Bang model may be, now we are going through divergence, after the first Half- life (Not less than 198 billion years i.e. not before 32 billion
years/ convergence will start, after the second Half- life our universe will go through a reverse process (Big Crunch/ Big freeze) perhaps this time Olber’s paradox willcome true, night sky would be as bright as day. But we have seen that CPT symmetry is not followed in nature as thought of. The reverse process cannot restoreeverything back to the same position as now. Beyond this swap point it will be absolutely uncertainty, nothing matches our reality today. But we are in reality and thereis no illusion about it. Also then what could be the purpose of gravity taking our galaxy away in a controlled manner as if giving our galaxy a safe exit so that anothergalaxy can enter and the cycle goes on, why the nuclear fusions are self controlled, why not blowing up everything at one go so that galaxies recede at speed near to thespeed of light (theoretically not impossible), why the universe looks so smooth every direction, why speed of light is highest speed limit, why density of the universe donot fall below the critical density, why alpha fine structure constant is so fine. Eternal space time sounds more appropriate and confirms our observation. It can bedirectly derived from Special Relativity. Nothing can travel faster than light, in other words nothing (any object or any subsequent light) can travel a distance longer thanthe Universe (the whole object or the first light). Galaxies will continue to recede for ever there will be no big crunch, but any galaxy before it goes back to its origin (theeternity of space time) it will donate some of its light (energy) and gravity (black hole mass) gravity to a new born galaxy. When Einstein thought of a static universe,conserving mass-energy, momentum he was dynamically right. But when Hubble saw the universe is expanding, we made a mistake; we couldn’t grasp the relative size ofthe universe as we cannot follow the story when we enter late at cinema hall but towards the end we can make it out, also we didn’t check it with special relativity. Theacceleration was so clear and obvious that we didn’t give a thought that this acceleration could be relative to our relative space (the galaxies from which we receding) ourrelative time (the time we came to existence), the universal truth being the day this relative acceleration stops is the final day for our galaxy, but other galaxies willcontinue receding with acceleration and we the people of earth may or may not get any place there in that new galaxy, neither physics cannot answer this nor this shouldbe its subject.To think of an eternal universe, we need to clear about the Hubble observed accelerated expansion first. It’s so badly hammered into our mind that we forget the essenceof relativity. This accelerated expansion is not exceptional. This is also relative to the finite life our galaxy. Galaxies are the building block of the universe and all theseblocks were not build same time. Before 10-35 seconds the quantum mathematics breaks that do not mean all those galaxies share same time of birth. Even amonghuman twins one has to be older by a few seconds. The correct way to understand is to take a single galaxy and then multiply it with the expansion rate. This way youcan renormalize the singularity of all galaxies back to eternity of the whole universe. The Universe is finite and eternal with 66 trillion light year radius and maximum198 billion year life cycle of matter and antimatter phase. Don’t be confused that universe has an age, 198 billion year is the cosmic time limit any galaxy may survivefrom birth singularity to death singularity and, 66 trillion light year radius is the cosmic time limit any galaxy may travel in this time again don’t be confused this as allthe space time. The universe is floating on the infinite space for eternal time. Our universe is matter dominated i.e. everything we see are matters antimatters whichsymmetrically arise are not found anywhere unless a dying star or collapsing galaxy sends some signature showing they exist. In fact they exist in disguise just into thematter deep into the atom. Why neutrons are neutron not proton although lots of property are identical except one, the charge. In fact neutrons are anti proton coupledwith positron i.e. anti electron neutralizing them for survival. If it was not like this then variety of elements we see on earth could not have formed in a star, a star couldnot have run the nuclear reaction in a self sustained manner. Exchanging, Sharing among proton, antiproton, electron, anti electron for survival of each other goes well.But it has a limit when mass gets heavier the star explodes and the antimatter takes over matter and forms a neutron star. Similarly in case of a galaxy when all its stars arereduced to neutron stars or black hole the galaxy get reduced to an antimatter galaxy but they don’t look for a matter galaxy to annihilate. They remain in this big freezeuntil their energy goes below the zero point energy which triggers the big bang explosion and then start over again. Collectively the universe does not go complete bigbang or big freeze phase when the first half life is over 4% galaxies remain out of the big crunch event horizon and the second half life some other 4% galaxies remain outof the big bang event horizon, thus neither energy do not get completely light off nor mass completely stocks out and the cycle continues.
A- Antimatter Singularity value330, scale factor 1200 The Universe is finite and eternal with 66 trillion light year radius and maximum 198 billion year life cycle of matter and antimatter phase. It operates in ever increasing scale from one phase to another phase. Our position on the earth is located at 46 trillion light year space and 166 billion year time coordinate. That means we the people of earth are left with just another 32 billion year (earthly scale) time and we have to travel a mere 20 trillion (earthly scale) light year path to hit the antimatter singularity. This journey is going to be very quick relative to our past journey. Believe it or not earth’s tilted angle of 23.5B- Big Bang Singularity value degree with its axis pointing this fact silently. Last Big bang singularity occurred around 166 billion year back. 13.7 billion year.273, scale factor 1 as accepted multiplied the velocity of star 12.04 gives 166 billion light years. Also the established radius of 46 billion light year multiplied 1000 the present scale factor gives 46 trillion light years the correct radius. Perhaps the scale went wrong, space time remained independent variable emerging out of interaction between mass & energy. Big Bang happened and happening continuously in tiny region of space in south aligned to earth South Pole. Then it spread across north at ever expanding rate. There is No Dark force behind this expansion it’s just physics of changing scale not yet grasped properly. Before Big Bang Singularity it was Antimatter Universe, with the Big Bang Singularity the first Matter Galaxy was formed. Then its light energy triggered the multiplier event, since then numbers of galaxies are getting multiplied to billions maintaining the scale gap. Sounds like string theory, but it’s not Multiverse. The countless extra dimensions can be renormalized and Multiverse can be scaled down to Multi galaxy with every galaxy having its own event horizon maintaining the critical density ratio or space time curvature just close to 1 so that galaxy structure forms. If every galaxy has space time closed inside the event horizon then where from its getting nuclear fuel, what are those hundreds of images sent by Hubble from deep space. Let us not forget the probabilistic nature of quantum events, quantum entanglement. It is those ordinary matters getting injected into galaxy filaments through its central black hole supplying the fuel for the whole galaxy. Also It is those photons perfectly entangled to source objects coming out from the galaxy through the open end of the galaxy filaments so that we can see real time relativistic picture of the universe. These photons energy energizing fresh ordinary matter so that their gravity pulls the galaxy & the galaxy flies along its own light path just like Spiderman flies. The black holes remain connected the filaments just like Axon & Dendron in nerves. Gravity works both locally & universally. But unlike local planetary gravity where antigravity is nil the universal gravity & antigravity almost cancels each other in equal distance leaving a torque or curl and the space time don’t go flat again, the stars in outer discs do not slow down, the scale changes & it continues. 4% error occurs in this process which is corrected by supernova, gamma ray burst, merger, demerger of galaxies all has been detected by telescopes. If we cancel dark energy & dark matter, apply the correct scales to the ordinary matter then majority of problems are solved. Time will come when the stock of finite mass will go below half i.e. after the half life of the universe things will happen opposite way. But day comes after the night; this phase also will not stay forever. 4% exceptional Neutron stars will burst and initiate another big bang. Now the question remain do we have the privilege, or are our position is something special violating Copernican principle. It will be premature to guess anything like that. A- Antimatter Singularity value 330, scale factor 1200 B- Big Bang Singularity value .273, scale factor 1
The Universe in the light of Applied Revised Gravitational lawsWith variable ga/Ga model of Newton’s law of universal gravitation the antigravity (ga) force comes from the gravity itself but it works opposite direction of gravity (Ga).A precondition to this model to work is constant supply of the fuel i.e. matter but as per Big Bang model the creation of matter has stopped after being separated fromantimatter from matter-antimatter primordial soup and cooled down gradually. If roughly the same amount of matter were there yesterday then why today gravity isstronger resulting the galaxies spread away. The only explanation is that fused particles of ordinary baryonic matter (including Higgs boson) spread all across the spacewere less dense maintaining gap more than planks length between the particles so that gravity can be avoided. Now by the passage of time they are coming closer formingnebulae or inter stellar material. These are denser and attract gravity. Answer to the question why they are coming close now is to meet the demand of fuel coming fromnearest galaxies, do they have brain of course not but they follow gravity and special relativity they maintain the ga/Ga balance. As the matters are getting denser, so thetension on the space, so the attractive gravity, so the release of tension, so the repulsive gravity, back and forth… back and forth… and thus universe cannot be static itmust be expanding. Friedman mathematically proved so from Einstein’s General relativity. So the construction deconstruction processes are happening all within thesame universe, same galaxy, and same time but in different zone hot filament zone and cold plasma zone. There is absolutely no necessity to create Multiverse, extradimensions to hold that. Any such idea can easily knock down by gravity alone to our well known idea of the universe. By way of analyzing the spectrum of the lightcoming from hot zone we know fusion of hydrogen atom to helium atom is going on in hot zone. In cold zone nothing similar is actually happening, but it’s fully underthe control of gravity. As we have seen earlier that space works like a perfect reflector, it makes it a perfect white body too reflecting all incident rays completely anduniformly in all directions, this is why light can travel great distances in space. But its emissivity is slight less than one as space is not empty but contains fused particles(including Higgs boson) at very low density. As the radiation from a galaxy passes through the inter-galactic space, the photons energy is absorbed by those fused particles(including Higgs boson) and they get kinetic energy. With this kinetic energy they start moving, sooner they cross the Planck’s length and now they are now in denseplasma form controlled, by gravity. This journey does not continue long as heavier elements like helium precipitate below the lighter elements like hydrogen to form ablack hole (Empty space separating inner core) and hydrogen remains in the outer layer surrounding the black hole separated by an event horizon which again is emptyspace. The volume of this two different layers i.e. inner helium core outer hydrogen layer initially do not correspond to their atomic mass as hydrogen are found in moreabundance than helium. Also because of quantum fluctuations the size of black holes differs in sizes among different zones. This difference in sizes is time driven andcreates many to many gravity i.e. the heavier zones start attracting lighter zones and heavier zones gets heavier. This way in a galaxy, first generation star formation andgalaxy formation starts simultaneously. Gravity also give birth to Antigravity which starts the lighter zones taking away from the heavier zones in the galaxy and lighterhydrogen layer taking away from heavier core in a star. But initially the antigravity being weaker than gravity, huge volume of hydrogen layers starts running towards thecore, this hot up the hydrogen layer more and more to start the nuclear fusion reaction which makes the antigravity stronger enough to take the star away from the centreof the galaxy and settle at a certain radius, certain shape ( mostly spherical ). This state is near to a state of rest as the star losses very less amount of energy orbiting thecentre of the galaxy. The smaller stars settle around a bigger star. Planets which are remnant of a cooled down star settle around a small star and a galaxy structure isformed. Sometime if the bigger star is big enough to independently run the show, it forms a smaller galaxy side by side a bigger galaxy, with support from the bigbrother. So the centre of the galaxy do not have to contain as much mass as those of billions of stars, rather being the nearest mass point for all the objects of the galaxy, ithas to maintain a critical mass to cancel the angular component of resultant torque or curl vector towards the centre of gravity of the galaxy. In continuation to the galaxystructure, the hydrogen layers very near to the centre of galaxy cannot escape gravity easily and the whole layer keeps rotating at very high speed around the centre. At thecentre of a galaxy the energy level is so huge that its gravitational waves produces radio like waves. The super massive black holes in the centre of galaxies are known asquasars. These quasars are the centre of gravity for a galaxy, all the star system and sub system travels around these. Because of huge spin the centre of the galaxyexfoliates little at centre and Relativistic jet come out along the galactic axis. The quasars also spins at a relative speed, causing the heaviest material formed in the processof nuclear fusions return back to the space through the space separating radius of the event horizon which only increases (but never decreases) from the hot core as we see
in the biological centrifuge instrument. The centripetal force also releases equivalent amount of hot gas with immense energy from the centre of the galaxy. The eruptedhot gas expands exponentially along the galactic axis and once it comes out of the centre it take different shape (most common being spiral shape for active galaxies). Thistwo- way process happens in simultaneous sequence in perfect synchronization. When the centrifugal gravity reaches its crest /troughs the spin reverses and centripetalantigravity force reaches its troughs / crest back and forth… back and forth… without changing the axis. This becomes clear when we look at the picture of a spiralgalaxy taken by Hubble’s Telescope. The same spiral we can visualize as going in and coming out only the spin reverses. As in electromagnetic field if we change both thedirection of electric/magnet they do not change the flow similarly here also there is no visible impact but the pulsar effect are detected. When the out coming hot gascools down little, it forms nebulae where further stars and other stellar formations take birth. While cooling down, the gravity starts once again getting stronger, to avoidthe gravitational collapse, huge volume of hot gas speeds up the nuclear fusion reaction and settles down to a certain orbit keeping aside its critical mass into a son blackhole. So Black Hole is not formed after death of a second generation star, but it is formed at the very birth of any active object in the universe. Yesterdays son become afather and the father becomes grandfather and so on everybody one step up….Unlike earthly father-son relation they are not short lived; black holes being the seeds foruniversal life, they both are eternal, only difference being one evolved little earlier than the other from the eternal space-time. This father-son relationship may raisequestion like, who is the grand most of all fathers. Whether he is one alone or he has some brothers too? Does today’s son visit him periodically? Actually in space timethese are non questions, as long as the galaxies are connected through space filaments they are part of the whole family. It may not be a miracle if we see that sevengalaxies orbits around a central galaxy to make a strong octet bond among the eight galaxies forming a local group, similarly a cluster of galaxies, similarly a super clusterand so on….and the Universe as whole rotating an universal black hole. The problem of missing mass as calculated by Zwicky can be solved by rotation of galaxies. Asthe galaxies are not receding at its own will, they have very less control on their velocity, path. Which path they choose if it is decided by gravity then it is not impossiblethat gravity will give them mostly curved path as seen elsewhere among the stars. But our telescopes have not seen any such path. In presence of tunnel vision ourtelescope cannot clearly detect the path of a galaxy as it appears to be clear in case of a star in a galaxy, where the spirals itself shows the path. But galaxies have tomaintain far greater distances among them relative to the strength of their gravity. This huge space between two galaxies makes it impossible to focus two galaxies tostudy their relative movement relative to their position at one frame. To make an idea of their motion from two different real positions taken from a larger distanceframes at two different times, the gap between those two times has to be very large relative to our earthy time scale. But as the early days astronomers, by just keeping aneye on the night sky generation by generation kept on adding new constellate, newer galaxies which part form of our today’s view, similarly keeping an eye on today’stelescopes for a fairly long period of time will show some movement among the galaxies, a hundred years time is too less to grasp their path. What immediately we cando, we can fix the missing mass problem by taking a component of the gravity from continuous gravity chain. We cannot isolate a galaxy from the universe to test knowngravitational laws, obvious result will be missing mass problem of a magnitude of 273 multiples relative to actual mass of the galaxy. To confirm rotation of galaxies wecan visualize Hubble’s observed recession from relativistic angle. The recession is not perpendicular but it has a sideways movement. From this sideways movement if weare able to calculate the curvature with respect to distance equivalent to estimated age of that galaxy and if this curvature eventually comes to be more than 1 then thegalaxies must be rotating to some central object not necessarily the centre of the universe but a central mass points of the filaments. If we add a few central mass pointswe shall get a spiral axis of rotation of galaxies with same spin, and there shall be as many spiral axis as the number of galaxy in the early universe. In one such spiral axisall the father and son galaxies shall appear in order of their age from outer to centre. At any point of such spiral axis the centrifugal force due to gravity and centripetalforce due to anti gravity balances each other by summing up their vector components both inward and outward space time. The intersection point of two such spiralaxis we know as Worm Hole where galaxies do some space time adjustments or gravitational correction. Now let’s see how a galaxy evolutes and why. The reason whycan be worked from variable ga/Ga model of Newton’s law of universal gravitation. Earlier we have seen that there cannot be stability of universal kind of superstructure,which also mathematically proved by Friedman from general relativity equations. The whole universe becomes unstable as it losses energy. If this energy is not refilledthen it should collapse. Where to get energy? The answer is a question itself, where from universe get energy? Yes, it is atomic energy stored in mass in E = mc2 form.Where to get fresh mass? All the available mass is allocated. A little portion can be recycled from the mass released by atomic energy in the past which are still in the
galaxy system. But the galaxy has left a bigger portion mass behind the space time as it has moved a long way in time. How to bring it back to cycle? As universe is closedand mass and energy are conserved, the space being almost smooth everywhere it serves as a buffer stock feeder for recycled mass. A Galaxy just needs light energy t tocatch it up. All the light energy it has radiated in front of space time, it’s time for them to go back into the system as mass to fill the energy gap. But still there may be gapif the energy scale it was running very high. Then that high energy itself creates suitable condition to off load the outermost disc containing giant stars. Heaviest of thesegiant stars form the centre and give birth to an associate galaxy. Further transfer takes place from the father to son as they both become stable and move on.With applied Revised Gravitational laws, the dark matter and dark energy problem can be solved, and the universal composition pie chart data need to be refreshed byreducing the dark energy slice to zero and moving equivalent dark matter to baryon matter. Now the universal composition pie chart should look good leaving areasonable difference which is responsible for the universal energy show.Sources:Concept of SingularityBible > Genesis > Chapter 1 > Verse 3And God said, "Let there be light," and there was light.Concept of Expansion Scale[Quran 32.5](Allah) Rules the cosmic affair from the heavens to the Earth. Then this affair travels to Him a distance in one day, at a measure of one thousand years of what youcount.Concept of cycle of complementary forces in natureI-Ching or "The Book of Changes"Yang is like man. Yin is like woman. Yang wouldnt grow without Yin. Yin couldnt give birth without Yang. Yin is born (begins) at Summer Solstice and Yang is born(begins) at Winter Solstice. Therefore one little circle Yin is marked on the Summer Solstice position. Another little circle Yang is marked on the Winter Solsticeposition. These two little circles look like two fish eyes. The universe is changing every day. Although it changes easily every day, it also has seasonal and annual cycles.Concept of eternity and infinity of space timeThough One, Brahman (Space time) is the cause of the many. Brahman is the unborn (aja) in whom all existing things abide. The One manifests as the many, theformless putting on forms. (Rig Veda)."Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind." Albert Einstein
Annexure showing the timeline of the universe and evolution of nature constants Accelerated Avg Speed of Radius of the Universe Expansion Velocity Light Age of the Universe in with expanding scales or of Reciprocal relative to Curvatature, year relative to in light year relative to Reciprocal Expansion Accleration Stars/ of Fine Space-time Density of Space-time in earthly Space-time in earthly of Charles Scale Hubbles due to Escape Structure in earthly the Gravitational Electrical Plank scales scales Ratio Factor Parameter gravity velocity Ratio scales Universe Constant Constant Constant - 0.273 0 0 0 1 0 0.31 0.39 0 300,000 1.000 41.18 0 0 0 1 0 0.31 0.39 0 300,000 1.000 3.4E+14 0 1.30227 0 0 0 1 0 0.31 0.39 0 300,000 1.000 3.4E+13 4.3E+13 0.04118 0 0 0 1 0 0.31 0.39 0 300,000 1.000 3.4E+12 4.3E+12 0.0013 0 0 0 1 0 0.31 0.39 0 300,000 1.000 3.4E+11 4.3E+11 4.1E-05 0 0 0 1 0 0.31 0.39 0 300,000 1.000 3.4E+10 4.3E+10 1.3E-06 1 0 0 1 0 0.31 0.39 0 300,000 1.000 3.4E+09 4.3E+09 4.1E-08 10 3 0 1 0 0.31 0.39 0 300,000 1.000 3.4E+08 4.3E+08 1.3E-09 100 27 0 1 0 0.31 0.39 0 300,000 1.000 3.4E+07 4.3E+07 4.1E-11 1,000 273 0 1 0 0.31 0.39 0 300,002 1.000 3363958 4338107 1.3E-12 10,000 2,730 0 1 0 0.31 0.39 0 300,018 1.001 336375 433808 4.1E-14 100,000 27,317 0 1 0 0.31 0.39 0 300,183 1.005 33616.2 43378.1 1.3E-15 1,000,000 274,667 0 1 0 0.31 0.39 0 301,832 1.055 3340.51 4335.07 3.9E-17 10,000,000 2,896,667 0 1 0 0.32 0.40 0 318,315 1.518 314.161 430.784 8.8E-19 100,000,000 43,966,667 0 2 0 0.39 0.50 1 483,150 4.412 19.1112 40.5135 4.7E-21 1,000,000,000 1,939,666,667 2 7 1 0.82 1.05 1 2,131,502 1.009 0.23166 2.46454 3.6E-24 1,010,000,000 1,975,896,667 2 7 1 0.82 1.05 2 2,149,817 1.852 0.00248 0.02987 2.6E-24 2,010,000,000 7,282,230,000 4 13 1 1.12 1.43 3 3,981,319 1.460 0.00131 0.00032 1.6E-25 3,010,000,000 15,921,896,667 5 19 1 1.36 1.73 3 5,812,821 1.315 0.00018 0.00017 3E-26 4,010,000,000 27,894,896,667 7 25 2 1.55 1.98 4 1.240 5.1E-05 2.3E-05 8.8E-27