Transport policy in India and UK


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How the institutions at different policy making levels make and influence transport policy

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Transport policy in India and UK

  1. 1. HOW THE INSTITUTIONS AT DIFFERENT POLICYMAKING LEVELS MAKE AND INFLUENCE TRANSPORT POLICY Presentation By Surajit Bhattacharya MSc. Transport Planning Principal difference between UK and INDIA 1
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Map of UK Map of INDIA England, Scotland and Noth. Ireland 28 States and 7 Union territories Geographic area-243,610 SQK(Wikipedia) Geographic area- 3,287,263SQK (Wikipedia) Population 2001- 58.8 million (Wikipedia) Population 2001- 1.02 billion (Census IND) 3 3
  4. 4. OVERVIEW OF THE UK SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT The United Kingdom is a - Parliamentary democracy - A king or queen is the head of state - Prime minister is the head of central government. - The people vote to elect Members of Parliament (MPs) - Unitary system of government, meaning a system where power is held in the centre. - Although some powers have been devolved to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Governments in the UK: Central Government - (Directly elected) Regional Government - (Only London RDA Elected.The nine regional government offices are to be abolished as part of plans to devolve power to local authorities, Local Government - (Directly Elected) Source: 4 4
  5. 5. OVERVIEW OF THE INDIAN SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT INDIA is a - Parliamentary democracy - President who is the head of state - Prime minister is the head of central government. - The people vote in elections for Members of Parliament (MPs States in India - have their own elected governments - whereas Union Territories are governed by an administrator appointed by the president. - The states' chief ministers function in the same way in Assembly as the prime minister is responsible to parliament. - Each state also has a presidentially appointed governor. Governments in INDIA Central Government - (Directly Elected) State Governments - (Directly Elected) Local Governments – ( Directly Elected) Urban Local Bodies for urban areas and Panchayat for rural areas (by 73rd and 74th Constitutional amendment in 1992) Source: 5 5
  7. 7. PRE ELECTION POLICY MAKING INITIATIVE BY POLITICAL PARTIES Source: Source: Source: Source : In Great Britain In India 7
  8. 8. POST ELECTION POLICY MAKING INITIATIVE BY POLITICAL PARTIES In Great Britain In India In India as well the congress led coalition government at centre has National Common Minimum Programme of the Government of India (PM’s Speech). The coalition agreement in the UK has the transport portion of the agreement containing elements of both parties’ manifestos ( Butcher, L 2011). 8
  9. 9. UK CENTRAL GOVERNMENT VS INDIA –FOR TRANSPORT POLICY 9 UK –Department of Transport INDIA- Ministries Source: Source: 1 2 3 4 5 6 9
  10. 10. POLICY MAKING –AT NATIONAL LEVEL UK Transport policy is mainly, made by the team of transport ministers, led by the Secretary of State for Transport in UK. The Department for Transport (DfT) is the lead Government department on this subject . Other departments play a role in some policy areas - Treasury (setting budgets and taxes) - Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (environmental policy) - Communities and Local Government (planning policy) - Home Office (road traffic and other transport-related offences and the licensing of wheel clampers) ( Butcher, L 2011). Though DfT makes transport policy for the whole of the UK but there are some areas where European Union legislation takes precedence or where power has been devolved. 10
  11. 11. POLICY EXAMPLE FOR THE UK 1. 1998 White Paper 2. 2007 White Paper 3. 2011 White Paper Source : 4. Localism Green paper 11
  12. 12. INSTITUTIONS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS IN THE UK – TRANSPORT POLICY Source: Who is responsible for transport in UK, Melia, S. Black Board 12
  13. 13. INFLUENCE OF OTHER GOVERNMENT INSTITUTION ON TRANSPORT IN UK Budget and Taxes Environmental Policy Planning Policy transport-related offences 13
  14. 14. POLICY MAKING –AT NATIONAL LEVEL INDIA In India there are six central government ministries responsible for the framing of transport policies as under: Ministry of Unban Development -Urban Transport Ministry of Railway - Railway Transport Ministry of Civil Aviation - Aviation Ministry of Road Transport & Highways - Road Transport Ministry of Shipping - Shipping Ministry of Rural Development - Rural Roads Other departments play a role in policy areas Planning Commission - National Policy Guidelines for 5 year Plan (Ex-12th 5 year Plan) Ministry of Finance - Budget and taxation (except railway, rail budget is separate) Ministry of Environment & Forest - Environment Policy State Governments -State Policy Proposal 14 14
  15. 15. POLICY EXAMPLE FOR INDA National Urban Transport Policy Railway White Paper Planning Commission policy Planning Commission policy Source: Source: Source: 15
  16. 16. Public Works Department State road & state Highways Dept of Urban Devmt. For new development Dept. of Transport Licensing (Motorised Vehc.) , State Bus sev. National Urban Transport (within City) Inland and Internation al Shipping Interstate Rail transport and suburban railways in 4 mega cities Aviation domestic and international Inter State Highway Transport INSTITUTIONS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS IN INDIA – TRANSPORT POLICY Level 1- Central Government Ministries Level 2- State Government Departments Rural Roads City Roads, City Parking, Licensing of Non Motorised Vehicles Level 3-Urban/ Rural Local Bodies 16
  17. 17. INFLUENCE OF OTHER GOVERNMENT INSTITUTION ON TRANSPORT IN INDIA National Policy Guideline Budget Taxation Environmental Policy State Policy Transport State Governments of India 17
  19. 19. FINANCING TRANSPORT PROJECT Funding of Transport projects mainly by Central government except in some occasion by Local government subject to arrangement of finance. Special schemes of National importance are financed by Central Government like High Speed Rail (HSR). Funding of Rail, Aviation, National Highways, Sea Ports and schemes under 5 year plan (Capital Investments in nature) are financed by Central Govt. State transport projects are financed by respective State Governments and also that of Local Bodies. Special schemes announced by Central Government are financed by them like Jawahal ala Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) Great Britain India 19
  21. 21. PRINCIPAL DIFFERENCES Policy Making National Level One Institution i.e Department of Transport is responsible for Rail, Road, Aviation and Shipping. Policy Making at Regional Level Regional Government at regional level. Three key overarching bodies in each region (outside of London) are the Government Office, the Regional Assembly and the Regional Development Agency Institutions Influencing Policy - Treasury, Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Communities and Local Government and Home Office influence Transport Policy. Policy Making National Level Six different Central Government Ministries are responsible for Transport Policies apart from the State Government. Policy Making at State Level As state transport is state subject, state transport policies are framed by State Governments and that of Local Bodies Institutions Influencing Policy - Planning Commission, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Environment and State Governments at National Level. Great Britain India 21
  22. 22. PRINCIPAL DIFFERENCES Finance and Funding Transport Projects are mainly Financed by the Central. Finance and Funding Those which are Central Government subjects with in Transport sector are financed by Central Governments Planned expenditure (Capital Investment in nature are also financed by Central Government approved by Planning Commission and National Development Council. Great Britain India 22
  23. 23. CONCLUSION 23
  24. 24. CONCLUSION Multiplicity of Institutions in India in the transport sector compared to a few in the United Kingdom. Process of financing in India is very complex compared to that in the United Kingdom. Many a time State Policies are not aligned with that of Central Government as state transport is a State subject and more dependant on political atmosphere. Better coordination between same party being in Centre and State Government India. As the at the completion of the five year plan the, projects under Plan Expenditure become States Project and are then put under the Non Plan Expenditure. Because ever increasing of such projects, States have little to initiate new projects. 24
  25. 25. REFERENCES Butcher, L. (2011) Transport policy in 2011: a new direction? Research Paper 11/22, House of Commons, pp. 1-57 India. Planning Commission (2011) Low Carbon Strategies for Inclusive Growth India: Government of India. India. Ministry of Railway (2009) White Paper On Indian Railways India: Government of India. India. Planning Commission (2012) Faster, Sustainable and More Inclusive Growth: India Government of India. Melia, S. (2011). Transport Administration, Who is Responsible for Transport in the UK? Available from: [Accessed 27 April 2012]. India. Ministry Urban Development (2010) Institutional Framework for Urban Transport India: Government of India. Singh, S. (2005) Review of Urban Transportation in India. Journal of Public Transportation. Vol. 8,. (no.1), pp. 79-97 TRL, Transport Research Laboratory (2010) UK transport policy – update (2008– 2010). Crowthorne House, Nine Mile Ride, Wokingham, Berkshire, RG40 3GA 25
  26. 26. Department of Transport (2012) [Accessed 27 March 2012]. Department of Communication & Local Government (2012) [Accessed 27 March 2012]. Department of Environment Food and Rural Affairs (2012) [Accessed 27 March 2012] Government of West Bengal (2012)/ [Accessed 31 March 2012] H M Treasury (2012) [Accessed 27 March 2012] Home Office (2012) [Accessed 27 March 2012] Kolkata Municipal Corporation (2012)/ [Accessed 31 March 2012] National website of India (2012) [Accessed 30 March 2012] National Website The UK (2012) [Accessed 30 March 2012] Ministry of Railway (2012) [Accessed 29 March 2012] Ministry of Civil Aviation(2012) [Accessed 29 March 2012] Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (2012) [Accessed 29 March 2012] Ministry of Shipping (2012) [Accessed 29 March 2012] Ministry of Urban Development (2012) [Accessed 29 March 2012] Ministry of Rural Development (2012) / [Accessed 29 March 2012] Ministry of Environment and Forest (2012)/ [Accessed 30 March 2012] Planning Commission (2012) [Accessed 30 March 2012] 26