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Power Crisis in India The supply of adequate, yet affordable electricity is a continuing challenge because expansion of supply, and adoption of cleaner technologies. In recent years, these challenges have led to a major set of continuing reforms and restructuring. Still, the gap between electricity supply and demand continues to grow; India is now importing coal as well as natural gas to keep up with energy consumption. Energy demand is increasing dramatically due to rising incomes, industrialization, urbanization and population growth. The demand will increase by a factor of two over the next 20 years
Indian Railway Rail transport is a commonly used mode of long-distance transportation in India Indian Railways has more than 64,015 kilometers of track . It has the world’s fourth largest railway network The total number of railway stations in India is estimated to be between 7,000 and 8,000. Railway consumes 2% of total available electricity in the country. It is 20% of the total shortfall in the country.
Regenerative braking Regenerative braking: The Delhi Metro saved around 90,000 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) from being released into the atmosphere by regenerating 112,500 megawatt hours of electricity through the use of regenerative braking systems between 2004 and 2007. It is expected that the Delhi Metro will save over 100,000 tons of CO2 from being emitted per year once its phase II is complete through the use of regenerative braking. But efficiency of regenerative braking is about 31%. So a better solution is required.
Working The train is approaching a station at a velocity of 70km/hr (20m/s) . At a distance of 200m from the intersection the bogie(s) gets detached. The detached portion is then decelerated at 1.2m/s2 for a distance of 140m and then moves at a constant speed of 8m/s till it reaches the intersection. This ensures a time gap of 20sec at the intersection (switch) between last bogie of the train and detached bogie. After the detached portion enters the loop line it can be taken by the rear engine to the station.
When the train arrives, a bogie and an engine (Engine C ) attached to the rear end are already waiting at the station in the loop line. When the train is at a certain distance (release distance) from the switching junction, the Engine C starts. Then the Engine C is accelerated and decelerated for a fixed time such that it goes and attaches to the train at some distance( Meeting distance).
Bogie arrangement This train shall have all coaches of same class (either sleeper, AC or general as per the requirement), 1 pantry car at the beginning and a metro engine at the end. All the bogies are designated as per the stations at which they shall be discarded Passengers need to move once from the attached bogie to their respective destined bogie. To help with their luggage movement, an interlockable, extendable, luggage trolley shall be provided to them at the starting bogie which is locked into a groove in the bogie.
Once they move on to their destined bogie, They need not worry about when their station approaches. As their station approaches, their bogie gets discarded and brought to the platform by the metro engine where 1)they can get down peacefully 2)there will be no inflow of passengers 3)they can take their own time not to miss any luggage 4)No Tension at all
Why a metro engine at back It achieves required velocity at the given amount of time. Even though it’s maximum velocity is limited, that is sufficient for us. Using any other heavy engine would not be cost effective It has a part of it in which passengers can sit When bogie is discarded, it brings the bogie to station with out using much energy As we may fix limit for number of bogies to be attached/detached per station. This engine suffices our requirement.
Coupler The Scharfenberg (Schaku) coupler is one of the most commonly used types of fully automatic coupling. Its use is generally restricted to mass transit systems. The Schaku coupler makes the electrical and also the pneumatic connections and disconnections automatic. Small air cylinders, acting on the rotating heads of the coupler, ensure the Schaku coupler engagement, making it unnecessary to use shock to get a good coupling. Joining portions of a passenger train can be done at very low speed (less than 3.2 km/hr in the final approach), so that the passengers are not jostled about. Maximum tonnage is 1,000 tons
Damper The velocities of the train and approaching bogie will be slightly different.So a shock absorber will be provided to minimise the impact during attachment. Following type of shock absorber is well suited for our purposes. Heavy Duty Shock Absorbers(Model No. HD A(3X2)) - HD Series Shock Absorbers from KONI-Enidine. http://www.koni-enidine-rail.com/HDmain.html
Energy saved When a train stops at a station its kinetic energy is lost into heat. The train is then accelerated back to its operating speed. If the train doesn't stop we are saving this kinetic energy. Hence, energy saved/bogie/station = ½ mv2 where, m = 60 tons v = 20m/s
Energy Saved/Bogie/Station: 12MJ In an intermediate station like Kharagpur where approximately 80 trains pass each day, and 20 bogies per train, total energy saved would be = 12*80*20 = 19200MJ This is equivalent to the electrical energy produced from about 2.7 tons of coal in a thermal power plant. Energy saved product would save energy for more than 3000 persons per day.
Additional advantages Time saved : 2 to 3 hours in a long journey. Space conservation : Very less space is required for the platform. Tension of passengers - People may come any time but before the departure time and just sit and relax in the compartment. Efficiency – number of stations can be increased without increasing travel time.
Useful addons Periscope Magnetic shock absorber… Alarm Regenerative braking system
Brake application The driver has placed the brake valve in the "Application“ position. This causes air pressure in the brake pipe to escape. The loss of pressure is detected by the slide valve in the triple valve. Because the pressure on one side (the brake pipe side) of the valve has fallen, the auxiliary reservoir pressure on the other side has pushed the valve (towards the right) so that the feed groove over the valve is closed. The connection between the brake cylinder and the exhaust underneath the slide valve has also been closed. At the same time a connection between the auxiliary reservoir and the brake cylinder has been opened. Auxiliary reservoir air now feeds through into the brake cylinder. The air pressure forces the piston to move against the spring pressure and causes the brake blocks to be applied to the wheels. Air will continue to pass from the auxiliary reservoir to the brake cylinder until the pressure in both is equal. This is the maximum pressure the brake cylinder will obtain and is equivalent to a full application. To get a full application with a reasonable volume of air, the volume of the brake cylinder is usually about 40% of that of the auxiliary reservoir.
Brake release The driver has placed the brake valve in the "Release" position. Pressure in the brake pipe is rising and enters the triple valve on each car, pushing the slide valve provided inside the triple valve to the left. The movement of the slide valve allows a "feed groove" above it to open between the brake pipe and the auxiliary reservoir, and another connection below it to open between the brake cylinder and an exhaust port. The feed groove allows brake pipe air pressure to enter the auxiliary reservoir and it will recharge it until its pressure is the same as that in the brake pipe. At the same time, the connection at the bottom of the slide valve will allow any air pressure in the brake cylinder to escape through the exhaust port to atmosphere. As the air escapes, the spring in the cylinder will push the piston back and cause the brake blocks to be removed from contact with the wheels. The train brakes are now released and the auxiliary reservoirs are being replenished ready for another brake application.
Specifications for valve Type – Resilient Butterfly valve (by electrically controlled actuators) With one opening one outlet, normally closed Temp range - below 300 degree centigrade Pressure range- 4 atm to 9 atm Size- Diameter 2 cm to 5 cm Price range - 2000 to 5000 rupees.
Modification An electrically controlled valve will be attached at the opening of the the auxiliary reservoir in each bogie. The rear end engine driver will control this valve and in turn control the brake operation.