From Exhibit 12-3: The graphic rating scale was originally created to enable researchers to discern fine differences. Theoretically, an infinite number of ratings is possible if participants are sophisticated enough to differentiate and record them. They are instructed to mark their response at any point along a continuum. Usually, the score is a measure of length from either endpoint. The results are treated as interval data. The difficulty is in coding and analysis. Graphic rating scales use pictures, icons, or other visuals to communicate with the rater and represent a variety of data types. Graphic scales are often used with children.
Meaning of Scaling
Scaling describe the procedures of assigning of
numbers 0r symbols (i.e., quantitative measures) to
subjective abstract concepts (or properties of objects)
This can be done in two ways viz.,
1. Making a judgement about some characteristic of
an individual and then placing him directly on a scale
that has been defined in terms of that characteristic.
2. Constructing questionnaires in such a way that the
score of individual’s responses assigns him a place on
Scaling involves creating a continuum upon which
measured objects are located.
These scale –point positions are so related to each
other that when the first point happens to be the
highest point, the second point indicates a higher
degree in terms of a given characteristic as compared
to the third point and the third point indicates a
higher degree as compared to the fourth and so on.
Numbers for measuring the distinctions of degree
in the attitudes/opinions are, thus, assigned to
individuals corresponding to their scale-positions.
Scaling has been defined as a “procedure for the
assignment of numbers (or other symbols ) to a
property of objects in order to impart some of the
characteristics of numbers to the properties in
In nominal scale the numbers serve only as labels or
tags for identifying and classifying objects.
The ordinal scale is a ranking scale in which numbers
are assigned to objects to indicate the relative extent
to which the objects possess some characteristic.
In interval scale numerically equal distances on the
scale represent equal values in the characteristic
The ratio scale possesses all the properties of the
nominal, ordinal, and interval scales. It has an
absolute zero point.
A nominal scale is the simplest of the four scale types and
in which the numbers or letters assigned to objects serve
as labels for identification or classification.
Males = 1, Females = 2
Sales Zone A = Islamabad, Sales Zone B = Rawalpindi
Drink A = Pepsi Cola, Drink B = 7-Up, Drink C = Miranda
Ordinal measurements describe order, but not relative
size or degree of difference between the items measured.
In this scale type,the numbers assigned to objects or
events represent the rank order (1st
,etc) of the entities
A likert scale is a type of ordinal scale and may also use
names with an order such as:
❖ “Bad”, “medium” and “good”
❖ “very satisfied”, “satisfied”, “neutral”, “unsatisfied”,
Example of an ordinal scale:
The result of a horse race, which says only which
horses arrived first, second, or third but include no
information about race times.
Another example is military rank; they have an
order, but no well defined numerical difference
Examples of Ordinal:
Career Opportunities = Moderate, Good, Excellent
Investment Climate = Bad, inadequate, fair, good, very good
Merit = A grade, B grade, C grade, D grade
A problem with ordinal scales is that the difference between
categories on the scale is hard to quantify, ie., excellent is better
than good but how much is excellent better?
An interval scale is a scale that not only arranges objects
or alternatives according to their respective magnitudes,
but also distinguishes this ordered arrangement in units of
equal intervals (i.e. interval scales indicate order (as in
ordinal scales) and also the distance in the order).
Temperature Scale in Fahrenheit
Interval scales allow comparisons of the differences of magnitude
(e.g. of attitudes) but do not allow determinations of the actual
strength of the magnitude.
A ratio scale is a scale that possesses absolute rather than
relative qualities and has an absolute zero.
Temperature on the Kelvin Scale
Interval scales allow comparisons of the differences of magnitude
(e.g. of attitudes) as well as determinations of the actual strength
of the magnitude.
Scale Classification Bases
The number of assigning procedures or the scaling
procedures may be broadly classified on the following
Degree of subjectivity
Number of dimensions
Scale construction techniques
Under it a scale may be designed to measure
characteristics of the respondent who completes it or
to judge the stimulus object which is presented to the
In respect of the former, we presume that the stimuli
presented are sufficiently homogeneous so that the
between stimuli variation is small as compared to the
variation among respondents.
In the latter approach, we ask the respondent to
judge some specific object in terms of one or more
dimensions and we presume that the between-
respondent variation will be small as compared to
the variation among the different stimuli presented to
respondents for judging.
Under this we may classify the scales as categorical
Categorical scales are also known as rating scales.
These scales are used when a respondent scores some
object without direct reference to other objects.
Under comparative scales, which are also known as
ranking scales, the respondent is asked to compare
two or more objects.
Degree of subjectivity:
With this basis the scale date may be based on
whether we measure subjective personal preferences
or simply make non-preference judgements.
In the former case , the respondent is asked to
choose which person he favours or which solution
he would like to see employed, whereas in the latter
case he is simply asked to judge which person is
more effective in some aspect or which solution will
take fewer resources without reflecting any
Number of dimensions:
In respect of this basis, scales can be classified as
‘ unidimensional’ and ‘multidimensional’ scales.
Under the former we measure only one attribute of
the respondent or object, whereas multidimensional
scaling recognizes that an object might be described
better by using the concept of an attribute space of
‘n’ dimensions, rather than a single-dimension
Scale construction techniques:
Following are the five main techniques by which
scales can be developed.
Item analysis approach
It is an approach where scale is developed on ad hoc
basis. This is the most widely used approach. It is
presumed that such scales measure the concepts for
which they have been designed, although there is
little evidence to support such an assumption.
Here a panel of judges evaluate the items chosen for
inclusion in the instrument in terms of whether they
are relevant to the topic area and unambiguous in
Item analysis approach:
Under it a number of individual items are developed
into a test which is given to a group of respondents.
After administering the test ,the total scores are
calculated for everyone.
Individual items are then analyzed to determine
which items discriminate between persons or
objects with high total scores and those with low
Cumulative scales or Louis Guttman’s scalogram
analysis, like other scales, consist of series of
statements to which a respondent expresses his
agreement or disagreement.
Factor scales are developed through factor analysis or
on the basis of intercorrelations of items which
indicate that a common factor accounts for the
relationships between items.
An important factor scale based on factor analysis is
✸ Semantic Differential(S.D), and
✸ Multidimensional Scaling.
Scale construction Techniques
Arbitrary approach - scales on ad hoc basis
Consensus approach- panel of judges evaluate
Item analysis approach- individual items into test
Cumulative scales - ranking of items
Factor scales – inter correlation of items
Important Scaling Techniques
The important scaling techniques often used in the
context of research specially in context of social or
business research are as follows:
The rating scale involves qualitative description of a
limited number of aspects of a thing or of traits of a
These ratings may be in such forms as “like-dislike”,
“ above average, average, below average” etc.
There is no specific rule whether to use a two-points
scale, three-point scale or scale with still more points.
In practice, three to seven points scales are generally
used for the simple reason that more points on a scale
provide an opportunity for greater sensitivity of
Graphic rating scale
The graphic rating scale is quite simple and is
commonly used in practice. Under it the various
points are usually put along the line to form a
continuum and the rater indicates his rating by
simply making a mark (such as ✔ ) at the appropriate
point on a line that runs from one extreme to the
The following is an example of five-points graphic
rating scale when we wish to ascertain people’s liking
or disliking any product:
Itemized rating scale:
The itemized rating scale(also known as numerical
scale) presents a series of statements from which a
respondent selects one as best reflecting his
Suppose we wish to inquire as to how well does a
worker get along with his fellow workers?
In such a situation we may ask the respondent to
select one, to express his opinion, from the following:
He is almost always involved in some friction with a
He is often at odds with one or more of his fellow
He sometimes gets involved in friction.
He infrequently becomes involved in friction with
He almost never gets involved in friction with fellow
Selected Itemized Rating Scales
Definitely Probably Probably will Definitely will
will buy will buy not buy not buy
LEVEL OF AGREEMENT
Strongly Somewhat Neither Somewhat Strongly
agree agree agree disagree disagree
Very Good Neither good Fair Poor
Good nor bad
Completely Somewhat Not very Not dependable
Dependable dependable dependable at all
Very Somewhat Not very Completely
stylish stylish stylish unstylish
Completely Somewhat Neither satisfied Somewhat Completely
Satisfied satisfied nor dissatisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
Extremely Expensive Neither expensive Slightly Very
Expensive nor inexpensive inexpensive inexpensive
EASE OF USE
Very easy Somewhat Not very easy Difficult to use
to use easy to use to use
Extremely Very Somewhat Slightly Not bright
Bright bright bright bright at all
Very Somewhat Neither Somewhat Very
Modern modern modern old-fashioned old-fashioned
There are two generally used approaches of ranking
Method of paired comparisons
Method of rank order
Method of paired comparisons:
Under it the respondent can express his attitude
by making a choice between two objects, say
between a new flavour of soft drinks and an
established brand of drink.
But when there are more than two stimuli to
judge, the number of judgements required in a
paired comparison is given by the formula:
Where N=number of judgements
n=number of stimuli or objects to be judged.
Obtaining Shampoo Preferences
Using Paired Comparisons
Instructions: We are going to present you with ten pairs of
shampoo brands. For each pair, please indicate which one of the two
brands of shampoo you would prefer for personal use.
Recording Form: Jhirmack Finesse Vidal
Jhirmack 0 0 1 0
0 1 0
Vidal Sassoon 1 1 1 1
Head & Shoulders 0 0 0 0
Pert 1 1 0 1
Number of Times
3 2 0 4 1
A 1 in a particular box means that the brand in that column was preferred over
the brand in the corresponding row. A 0 means that the row brand was
preferred over the column brand. b
The number of times a brand was preferred is
obtained by summing the 1s in each column.
Paired Comparison Selling
The most common method of taste testing is paired comparison. The
consumer is asked to sample two different products and select the one
with the most appealing taste. The test is done in private and a minimum
of 1,000 responses is considered an adequate sample. A blind taste test for
a soft drink, where imagery, self-perception and brand reputation are
very important factors in the consumer’s purchasing decision, may not be
a good indicator of performance in the marketplace. The introduction of
New Coke illustrates this point. New Coke was heavily favored in blind
paired comparison taste tests, but its introduction was less than
successful, because image plays a major role in the purchase of Coke.
A paired comparison taste test
Comparative Scaling Techniques
Rank Order Scaling
Respondents are presented with several objects
simultaneously and asked to order or rank them
according to some criterion.
It is possible that the respondent may dislike the brand
ranked 1 in an absolute sense.
Furthermore, rank order scaling also results in ordinal
Only (n - 1) scaling decisions need be made in rank
Preference for Toothpaste Brands
Using Rank Order Scaling
Instructions: Rank the various brands of toothpaste in order of
preference. Begin by picking out the one brand that you like
most and assign it a number 1. Then find the second most
preferred brand and assign it a number 2. Continue this
procedure until you have ranked all the brands of toothpaste in
order of preference. The least preferred brand should be
assigned a rank of 10.
No two brands should receive the same rank number.
The criterion of preference is entirely up to you. There is no
right or wrong answer. Just try to be consistent.
Brand Rank Order
1. Crest _________
2. Colgate _________
3. Aim _________
4. Gleem _________
5. Macleans _________
6. Ultra Brite _________
7. Close Up _________
8. Pepsodent _________
9. Plus White _________
10. Stripe _________
Preference for Toothpaste Brands Using Rank Order