Role of anthropology in Organisation behaviour

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Role of anthropology in Organisation behaviour

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  4. 4. What is an attitude and what are its components?<br /> Attitude is an evaluative statement- either favourable or unfavourable- about objects, people or events. It has three components-<br />Cognitive component- the description or belief segment- eg: “ my pay is low. ”<br />Affective component- the emotional or feeling segment- eg: “ i am angry over how little i am paid.”<br />Behavioural component- the intentional responsive segment- eg: “ i am going to look for another job that pays better.”<br />
  5. 5. What are the major job attitudes that determine an employees’ organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB)?<br />
  6. 6. Job satisfaction- a positive feeling about job, resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.<br />Job involvement- the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with a job, actively participates in it, and considers performance important to self worth. <br />Organizational commitment- the degree to which a person identifies with an organisation and its goals and wishes to maintain a membership in the organisation. It has three dimensions:<br />Affective commitment- an emotional attachment to an organisation and a belief in its values. Eg: managers’ affective commitment is very strongly related to organizational performance.<br />Continuance commitment- the perceived economic value (better salary) of continuing with an organization compared with leaving it. Here an employee is just ‘tethered’ to an employer simply because there isn’t anything better available.<br />Normative commitment- an obligation to remain with an organisation for moral or ethical reasons.<br />Perceived organisational support [ POS] – the degree to which employees believe an organisation values their contribution and cares about their well being.<br />Employee engagement- an individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work he or she does.<br />
  7. 7. Why we need to generate the above mentioned positive job attitudes?<br />
  8. 8. It increases job performance. Happy workers are more likely to be productive workers.<br />Satisfied employees would talk positively about the organisation, help others, and go beyond the call of duty in order to reciprocate their positive experiences.<br />Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction and loyality, especially frontline employees.<br />Satisfied employees will have lower rates of absence, accidents and turnover (job-leaving).<br />Satisfied employees will not indulge in deviant behaviour in the workplace (like unionization attempts, stealing at work, undue socialising, and tardiness).<br />
  9. 9.  What can managers do to raise employee satisfaction?<br />Focus on the intrinsic parts of the job such as making the work challenging and interesting.<br />Paying employees adequately.<br />Attack the source of the problem- the dissatisfaction.<br />
  10. 10. Why should managers be interested in the study of values?<br />Knowledge about employees’ values will-<br />Help us to seek job candidates who have not only the ability, experience and motivation to perform but also a value system compatible with the organisation’s. Employees’ satisfaction and performance are likely to be higher if their values fit well with the organisation.<br />Eg: A person who places great importance on imagination, independence, and freedom is likely to be poorly matched with an organization that seeks conformity from its employees.<br />
  11. 11. What are values? Why are they so important?<br />Values are the basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. In other words, they are an indivual’s interpretations of right or wrong.<br />
  12. 12. Values lay the foundation for our understanding of people’s attitudes and motivation and influence our perceptions. A person enters an organisation with preconceived notions of what “ought” and what “ought not” to be. These notions imply that a person prefers certain behaviours or outcomes over others. As a result, values cloud objectivity and rationality; they influence attitudes and behaviour.<br />If the employees’ value system is not compatible with the organisation’s, it will lead to job dissatisfaction, demotivation and conflicts within the organisation.<br />
  13. 13. Organization culture<br />Organization culture refers a system of shared meaning held by member that distinguishes that organization from other organization.. <br />Seven primary characteristics seen to capture the essence of an organization cultureare -<br />
  14. 14. 1=Innovation and risk taking:the degree to which employee are encouraged to be innovative and take risk.<br />2=Attention to detail:the degree to which employee are expected to exihibitprecision,analysis,and attention to detail,<br />3=Outcome orientation:The degree to which management to focuses on results or outcome rather than on the techniques and process used to achieve them<br />4=People orientation:The degree to which management decision take into consideration the effect of outcome on people within the organization.<br />5=Team orientation:The degree to which work activities are organized around team rather than individuals.<br />6=Aggrissiveness:The degree to which people are aggressive and competitive rather than easygoing.<br />7=Stability:The degree to which organizational activities emphasize maintaining the status Que in contrast to growth.<br />
  15. 15. Cross culture analysis<br />What are the similarities and dissimilarities between culture,<br />The expectation of thought and with the growth of civilization,people across the world started thinking and making their own ways towards leading life and hence slowly culture emerged and analysis is actually done to identify them in order to get linkof commonality between them.<br />
  16. 16. CROSS-CULTURE BEEN RANKED ON SIX DIMENSION <br />Power distance: - Describe the degree to which people in a country accept the power in institutions and organization is distributed inequality.<br />Individualism versus collectivism: - individualism is the degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than a members of group and believe in individual right above all else. Collectivism emphasizes a tight social frame work in which people expect others in group of which they are apart to look after them and project them<br />Masculinity versus femininity :- Masculinity is the degree to which the culture favor s traditional masculine role such as achievements , power and control .Femininity culture sees little differentiation between male and female roles and treats women as the equal of men in all respect.<br />Long term versus and short term orientation: this long term orientation look to the future and value thrift, persistence and tradition. In short term orientation people value the here and now.<br />Indulgence versus restraint. :- indulgence is the degree to which it is all right for people to enjoy life, have fun, and fulfill natural human desires. Restraint is the extent to which there are social norms governing the gratifications of basic human desire.<br />

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