* INDIAN WET LANDS & FUTURE SUPRATIM KARMAKAR RIVER SCIENTIST, INDIA EMAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org *
1971- H Cl¡-el l¡jp¡l nq-l Sm¡i¨¢j ¢houL p-Çjm-e HL¢V B¿¹ plL¡¢l Q¥¢š² p¡r¢la quz haÑj¡-e 154 ¢V -cn HC Q¥¢š²l Awn£c¡lz “Wetlands are areas of marsh , fen , peat land , of water oftemporary with water that is static or flowing, fresh, breakish of salt, including areas or marine water, the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six meters & may include riparian of coastal zones adjacent to the wet lands or island or bodies ofmarine water deeper than six meters at low tide lying with in the wet lands.”
United States fish and wildlife service (1979)Wet lands are lands traditional & aquaticsystems where the water table is usually at ornear the surface or the land is covered byshallow water. For purpose of thisclassification wetlands must have one ormore of the following attributes:•At last periodically, the land supportspredominantly hydrophytes.•The substrate is nonsoil and is saturatedwith water or covered by shallow water atsome time during the growing season of eachyear.•The substrate is predominantly undrainedhydric soil.
Himalayan wetlandsLadakh and Zanskar: Pangong Tso, Tso Morari, Chantau, Noorichan, Chushul and Hanlay Marshes KashmirValley: Dal, Anchar, Wular, Haigam, Malgam, Haukersar and Kranchu lakes Central Himalayas: Nainital, Bhimtal and Naukuchital Eastern Himalayas: Numerous wetlands in Sikkim, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland and Manipur, Beels in the Brahmaputra and Barak valley
Indo-Gangetic wetlands :The Indo-Gangetic flood plain is the largest wetlandsystem in India, extending from the riverIndus in the west to Brahmaputra in theeast. This includes the wetlands of theHimalayan terai and the Indo-Gangeticplains.
Coastal wetlandsThe vast intertidal areas, mangroves andlagoons along the 7500 kilometer longcoastline inWest Bengal, Orissa, AndhraPradesh, TamilNadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, MaharashtraandGujarat. Mangrove forests of theSunderbans of West Bengal and theAndaman and Nicobar Islands. Offshorecoral reefs of the Gulf of Kutch,Gulf ofMannar, Lakshwadeep and AndamanandNicobar Islands.
DeccanA few natural wetlands, butinnumerable small and large reservoirsand several water storage tanks inalmost every village in the region.
Sunderban : Climate ChangingEnvironmental Disaster Tamingthe EnvironmentalDiversity, Challenge and HumanResponse: A India-BangladeshContainBy Suppratim Karmakar,(Japan, October,2012)
INDIGENOUS TECHNOLOGY OF RAIN WATER HARVESTING AND NATIONAL WATER POLICY-A CONTEMPORARY APPROACH IN INDIANSUBCONTINENT WITH SPECIAL REFERENCES OF WORLD WATER VISION PERSPECTIVE -Supratim Karmakar [KUSET, NEPAL(IN PRESS)]
Wetland losses – a threat to ecological balance Rainfall data
The wetland loss inIndia can be dividedThe wetland loss groupsinto two broad in namely-acute and chroniclosses.
Acute wetland losses• Agricultural conversion•Direct deforestation in wetlands•Hydrologic alteration•Inundation by dammed reservoirsChronic wetland lossesAlteration of upper watershedsDegradation of water qualityGround water depletionIntroduced species and extinction ofnative biota
1990: Spatial Turbidity pattern 1997: Spatial Turbidity patternTurbidity Classification Region of Interest Kilometers Low Turbid area 0 0.35 0.7 1.4 2.1 2.8 ModerateTurbid area HighTurbid area
Area Statistics of Wetland Area during 1990, 1997, 2007 1990 1997 2007Class Name Area Area Area Area Area Area Change % (ha) (%) (ha) (%) (ha) (%) 1990–2007Wetland 961.7 33.5 424.3 14.77 356.3 12.4 -21.1EcosystemAquatic - - 182.0 6.33 203.3 7.0 7.0VegetationOther 144.9 5.0 506 17.61 329 11.45 6.45VegetationOther Land 1765.7 61.5 1760 61.29 1983.7 69.15 7.65UseTotal 2872.3 100 2872.3 100 2872.3 100 0
Tipaimukh Dam: Potential Consequences for BangladeshTipaimukh Dam at a glance: Location: Tipaimukh, Manipur, India, on Barak river, around 100 km from Jakigang, Sylhet) Length: 390 meter Height: 164 meter Cost: $1.35 billion Completion: 2012 Reservoir C: 15.9 BCM averageTipaimukh is located in Churachandpur district in Manipur state. It is in the south-western hilly region of Manipur bordering the Indian state of Mizoram.Tipaimukh means the confluence of the Tuivai and Barak rivers.The word “Tipai” is the corrupted name coined for the river “Tuivai”, and “Mukh”meaning “mouth” in Bengali.
Tipaimukh Dam: Potential Consequences for Bangladesh What Consequences for Bangladesh?: Mirror Image of Farakkah Rajshai-Khulna vs Sylhet-Dhaka Padma vs Shurma, Kushiara
Tipaimukh Dam: Potential Consequences for BangladeshPolitical ImpactGiving India the ability to full control the water through Barak River itself isdangerous as they can use it as a weapon against Bangladesh as and when necessaryThis has been done in the past using the Farakka Barrage