A+Guided By:- Presented By:-Mass Info Vision Pvt. Ltd. Miss Suprabha sahooRourkela, Odisha, India Mayubhanj, Odisha, India
Computer is a electronics machine made withelectronics devices which accept the data as input,process the data based on instruction given &produce the output on the output device.The main advantages of computers is its storagecapability. which can store data & timely retrieveas & when required.
Processing unit Control unitinput output Arithmetical & logical unit Storage unit
Input:- This the process of computer accepting the data instruction through input device. Example:- keyboard, scanner processing :- This the process of performing of lesion such as arithithmatical & logical operation based on set instruction given. Processing Unit:- It consists of two parts control unit & Arithmetical & Logical Unit. The control unit control the flow of data from various input output devices & internal component. ALU performing data processing. Example:- processor
Output:- The process data from CPU which is in the form of machine level language will be converted into user under stable language & then feed to the output device. Storage Unit:- The storage unit is used to store data & information permanently for future retrieval.
The system unit is the core of a computer system. Usually its a rectangular box placed on or underneath your desk. Inside this box are many electronic components that process information. The most important of these components is the central processing unit (CPU), or microprocessor, which acts as the "brain" of your computer. Another component is random access memory (RAM), which temporarily stores information that the CPU uses while the computer is on. The information stored in RAM is erased when the computer is turned off. Almost every other part of your computer connects to the system unit using cables. The cables plug into specific ports (openings), typically on the back of the system unit. Hardware that is not part of the system unit is sometimes called a peripheral device or device.
Processor is the brain of the brain of the computer. Data processing & execution of datas is perform in it.
TRANSISTOR:- It is the basic component of microprocessor. Transistors are act as on/off switch inside the microprocessor.
Clock is the internal component of microprocessor which measures the speed at which the microprocessor executes the instruction . This is called clock speed. Clock speed is measured in terms of MHz or Ghz.
An IC is an electronic device in which large circuit is suppressed into a small circuit. An IC consists of transistor, register, & other elements. Integrated circuit
The resistors are the local storage area of microprocessor. The resistor holds the datas while the microprocessor works on a task.
It is the component of the microprocessor that helps the microprocessor that t helps the microprocessor to communicate with the rest part of the computer.
It is kwon as primary cache memory. It is built inside microprocessor. The sizes is up to 8 to 64 kb
It is known as the secondary cache memory. It is a separate chip on the motherboard. The sizes is up to 2 MB to 3 MB
The branch prediction unit is responsible for branching the instruction.
The microprocessor works on the following 4way:-1.Fetch:-Fetch is the process of loading the instructionto be executed from the computer memory.PREFETCHING:-Pre fetching is the process of loading the nextinstruction to be executed.
2. DECODE:- Decode is the process of transferring the data into a coded form that can be understood by the microprocessor.3.EXECUTE:- process the data , perform arithmetical & logical operation.4.STORE:- Store the result of execution in the computer memory or resistor
startFetch the instruction Decode into binary form execute store end
1. Core to duo2. Dual core3. Core to guard4. Core to extreme5. Intel Pentium pro6. Intel Pentium Xeon
static RAM(SRAM) dynamic RAM (DRAM) Fast Page Mode Dynamic RAM(FPMDRAM) Extended Data Out RAM(EDORAM) Synchronous Dynamic RAM(SDRAM) Dual Data Rate SDRAM(DDRSDRAM) Ram bus Dynamic RAM(RDRAM) Dual data Rate Dual Data Rate2 Video RAM
The classification of Ram into different area & identifying which process in CPU should be allocated to which memory area is known as memory mapping.
Extended Memory Area 64kbHigh memory Area 384kb Primary ReservationUpper Memory Area 640kbConventional Memory Area
Computers almost always contain a small amount of read- only memory that holds instructions for starting up the computer. Unlike RAM, ROM cannot be written to. Types of ROM PROM(programmable read-only memory): A PROM is a memory chip on which you can store a program. But once the PROM has been used, you cannot wipe it clean and use it to store something else. Like ROMs, PROMs are non- volatile. EPROM (erasable programmable read-only memory): An EPROM is a special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to ultraviolet light. EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory):An EEPROM is a special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to an electrical charge.
Your computer has one or more disk drives—devices that store information on a metal or plasticdisk. The disk preserves the information evenwhen your computer is turned off. Hard disk driveYour computers hard disk drive storesinformation on a hard disk—a rigid platter or stackof platters with a magnetic surface. Because harddisks can hold massive amounts of information,they usually serve as your computers primarymeans of storage, holding almost all of yourprograms and files. The hard disk drive isnormally located inside the system unit.
PLATTERS: Platter is a circular, metal disk that is mounted inside a hard disk drive. Several platters are mounted on a fixed spindle motor to create more data storage surfaces in a smaller area. The platter has a core made up of aluminium or glass substrate, covered with a thin layer of Ferric oxide or cobalt alloy. On both sides of the substrate material, a thin coating is deposited by a special manufacturing technique. This, thin coating where actual data is stored is the media layer.
Each platter is broken into thousands of tightly packed concentric circles, known as tracks. These tracks resemble the structure of annual rings of a tree. All the information stored on the hard disk is recorded in tracks. Starting from zero at the outer side of the platter, the number of tracks goes on increasing to the inner side. Each track can hold a large amount of data counting to thousands of bytes.
Each track is further broken down into smaller units called sectors. As sector is the basic unit of data storage on a hard disk. A single track typically can have thousands of sectors and each sector can hold more than 512 bytes of data. A few additional bytes are required for control structures and error detection and correction.
Sectors are often grouped together to form Clusters. Generally size of cluster is 4 kb
The heads are an interface between the magnetic media where the data is stored and electronic components in the hard disk. The heads convert the information, which is in the form of bits to magnetic pulses when it is to be stored on the platter and reverses the process while reading. Each platter has two read/write heads, one mounted on the top and the other one at the bottom. These heads are mounted on head sliders, which are suspended at the ends of head arms. The head arms are all fused into a singular structure called actuator, which is responsible for their movement.
Spindle motor plays an important role in hard drive operation by turning the hard disk platters. A spindle motor must provide stable, reliable, and consistent turning power for many hours of continuous use. Many hard drive failures occur due to spindle motor not functioning properly
Hard disk is made with an intelligent circuit board integrated into the hard disk unit. It is mounted on the bottom of the base casting exposed to the outer side. The read/write heads are linked to the logic board through a flexible ribbon cable.
Jumper:- It is a small piece of Plastic & metal that is used to connect & remove hardware devices from computer.
CD and DVD drives:-Nearly all computers today come equippedwith a CD or DVD drive, usually located on thefront of the system unit. CD drives use lasers toread (retrieve) data from a CD; many CDdrives can also write (record) data onto CDs. Ifyou have a recordable disk drive, you can storecopies of your files on blank CDs. You can alsouse a CD drive to play music CDs on yourcomputer.
Floppy disk drive:-Floppy disk drives store information on floppydisks, also called floppies or diskettes.Compared to CDs and DVDs, floppy disks canstore only a small amount of data. They alsoretrieve information more slowly and are moreprone to damage. For these reasons, floppydisk drives are less popular than they used tobe, although some computers still includethem.
A mouse is a small device used to point to andselect items on your computer screen. Allowsthe entry of data and executes programs.
A keyboard is used mainly for typing text into your computer. Like the keyboard on a typewriter, it has keys for letters and numbers, but it also has special keys: The function keys, found on the top row, perform different functions depending on where they are used. The numeric keypad, located on the right side of most keyboards, allows you to enter numbers quickly. The navigation keys, such as the arrow keys, allow you to move your position within a document or webpage.
The Basic Input/output System controls the computer’s basic operations and is responsible for starting up the computer and hardware. Its most important role is to load the operating system.
Some of the other common tasks that the BIOS performs include: Check the CMOS Setup for custom settings Load the interrupt handlers and device drivers Initialize registers and power management Perform the power-on self-test (POST) Display system settings Determine which devices are bootable
A monitor displays information in visual form, using text and graphics. The portion of the monitor that displays the information is called the screen. Like a television screen, a computer screen can show still or moving pictures. There are two basic types of monitors: CRT (cathode ray tube) monitors and the newer LCD (liquid crystal display) monitors. Both types produce sharp images, but LCD monitors have the advantage of being much thinner and lighter.
A printer transfers data from a computer onto paper. You dont need a printer to use your computer, but having one allows you to print email, cards, invitations, announcements, and other material. The two main types of printers are inkjet printers and laser printers. Inkjet printers are the most popular printers for the home. They can print in black and white or in full color and can produce high-quality photographs when used with special paper. Laser printers are faster and generally better able to handle heavy use.
Scanner is a device which is used to convert the Analog data to digital data. Means Hard copy to soft copy.
Speakers are used to play sound. They can be built into the system unit or connected with cables. Speakers allow you to listen to music and hear sound effects from your computer.
To connect your computer to the Internet, you need a modem. A modem is a device that sends and receives computer information over a telephone line or high-speed cable. Modems are sometimes built into the system unit, but higher-speed modems are usually separate components. The main function of modem is to convert analog data to digital data & vice versa.
This transfers data between all of the computer’s components: the human nervous system. It is the main circuit board that incommoded processor slot, RAM slot , Extension slot , PCI slot, Serial port, parallel port, connectors for keyboard & mouse etc.
Firewire is also known as IEEE 1394. It is basically a high performance serial bus for digital and audio equipment to exchange data. The technology preceded USB but yet is faster than any current USB port. Often used for transferring digital video to the PC straight from a digital camera. The FireWire header onboard means you can install a FireWire port on your machine.
Now the most common slot for Graphics cards, the PCI Express 16x slots provides 16 separate lanes or data transfer. PCI express 1.0 slots offer a data transfer rate of 250MB/s the second generation of PCI express (PCI Express 2.0) offers twice the data rate at 500MB/s. Currently in development is PCI Express 3.0 which offers 1GB/s of data transfer.
Like the PCI Express 16x above the 1x slot uses exactly the same system but only has a single lane of serial data transfer. These slots are used for expansion cards that do no require the same amount of data transfer that a graphics card requires. You will usually find components such as tv tuners, network cards and sound cards make use of the PCI Express 1x slot.
The Motherboards chipset can be described as what sets it apart from other boards in its category. Different chipsets contain different features and components. A chipset is a number of integrated circuits built onto the board to provide specific functions e.g. one part of the chipset may be an onboard component such as a modem or sound chip. Other parts may be used to control the CPU functions.
The standard ATX power connector, the cable for this will be coming from the PSU, a clip is normally provided to make sure you get them in the correct order. As a tip, dont try to push too hard if its stuck, check to see that it is in the correct way, I have seen plenty of power connectors where the pins have pushed out some of the connectors, these can be difficult to get back into place, so its best to be careful.
All the CPU "sockets look very similar, however they are different in the way they have different amount of pins and in different layouts. There are currently two major CPU socket types PGA and LGA. PGA or Pin Grad Array uses a system of pins on the CPU and holes on the socket to line up and hold a CPU in place. The introduction of the ZIF (Zero Insertion Force) socket for PGA types allowed the CPUs to be lined up without any pressure on the CPU until a level is pulled down. LGA or Land Grid Array uses a system of gold plated copper pads that make contact with the motherboard. It is very important to read your motherboard manual to discover what types of CPUs you motherboard supports as most motherboards are aimed at a specific type of CPU.
DIMMs are by far and away the most used memory types in todays computers. They vary in speeds and standards however and they need to match up to what your motherboard has been designed to take. The four standards of DIMMs being used at the moment are SDR (Single Data Rate), DDR (Double Data Rate), DDR2 and DDR3. The speeds of memory can vary between 66Mhz to 1600Mhz.
Not available on all motherboards, but some allow direct control of the motherboard via simple buttons. Power switch, error checking, CMOS clearing, passwords and more features can be accessed directly on the motherboard on some models.
When we talk about chipsets you mainly only ever hear about the North bridge. Even those into PC technology have a hard time naming the south bridges without looking them up. Names like Nforce 2 and KT600 are North bridges. The South Bridge does an important job as well. It handles things like the PCI bus, onboard Network and sound chips as well as the IDE and SATA buses.
Serial ATA or more commonly seen as S-ATA is a new way of connecting your Hard Drives to your PC. S-ATA drives have the capability of being faster than the IDE counterparts and also have smaller thinner cables which help with the airflow of the system. S-ATA hard disks are fast becoming the norm for hard drive technology. Current motherboards feature both IDE and S-ATA connectors to facilitate all types of storage hardware.
As well as having USB ports on the rear of the motherboard, motherboard manufacturers often add a couple of USB headers so you can connect optional cables for extra USB ports. These cables are often supplied and you only need to add them on if you need the extra connectivity. USB 2.0 replaced USB 1.1 as a much faster solution. It is backwards compatible meaning all USB 1.1 devices will work in these new USB 2.0 ports.
The battery gives the board a small amount of power in order to store some vital data on your machine when the power is off. Data stored is that like the time and date so you dont have to reset them every time you boot the machine up. Motherboard batteries are usually long lasting Lithium batteries. Removing this can reset all the data on your machine including the BIOS settings, however not replacing this correctly can lead to irreparable damage to the motherboard. Only remove the battery if it is dead or if you cant have access any other way to resetting the data on your machine by use of the clear CMOS jumper or something similar.
The PCI bus (not PCI express) is now an older technology and although the PCI slots are still available, they have decreased in number and are being replaced by the PCI Express 1x slots. Its unlikely that you will get a motherboard without a PCI slot at the moment due to the fact that a lot of components still use the standard PCI slot. It would be awkward to upgrade to a system without PCI slots as it may mean upgrading more components than you would like to,
More simple than the IDE connector you only have to remember to get the red line to pin 1 of the connector and the red line to pin 1 on the floppy drive, This port is only to be used with floppy drives. You may not have a floppy controller on your motherboard as its slowly being phased out as more people are using writable CDs and DVDs to transfer data, to store data and to use as boot up discs.
he connector to which you will insert an IDE cable (supplied with motherboard) IDE cables connect devices such as hard disks, CD Drives and DVD Drives. The current 4 standards of IDE devices are ATA 33/66/100 and 133. the numbers specify the amount of data in Mb/s in a max burst situation. In reality there is not much chance of getting a sustain data rate of this magnitude. Both the connectors and devices are backwards compatible with each other, however they will only run at the slowest rated speed between them. All IDE cables will come with a red line down one side, this red line is to show which way it should be plugged in.
The “Peripheral Component Interconnect” is a high-speed connection to adding devices to a computer including SCSI cards, video, sound, modems, and other PCI devices.
It transfers data from the computer to the monitor. 3-D cards are necessary for games.
A card installed in a computer that unable the computer to communicate a network. All NIC implement a networking standards called Ethernet Every client & server must have a network interface card in order to be a part of network.
The Universal Serial Bus Port allows for the connecting of many external devices to the computer.
IDE/ATA/PATA:- 40 nos Floppy Disk Drive:- 34 nos AT:-12 nos ATX:- 20+4 nos USB(Universal Serial Bus):- 9 nos VGA(Video Graphic Array):- 15 nos Parallel port:- 26 nos Serial port:- 9 nos
Firmware is a combination of software and hardware. Computer chips that have data or programs recorded on them are firmware. These chips commonly include the following: ROMs (read-only memory) PROMs (programmable read-only memory) EPROMs (erasable programmable read-only memory) Example :- BIOS
A computers power supply (SMPS) converts electricity received from a wall outlet into DC current amounts that are needed by the various components of the system.
Power Connector - ATX power supplies use a single 20 or 24 pin (on newer versions) to connect to the system board. Some motherboards require an additional 4, 6, or 8 pin auxiliary power connector. Power connectors are keyed to make sure that the connector is plugged in properly.
SATA Connectors - SATA hard drives use a special 15 pin power connector. This connector supports 3.3, 5, and 12 volt devices. Make sure your power supply has one of these or you can get a Molex to SATA adapter if it doesnt.
Molex Connectors - These connectors are used for connecting IDE hard drives, DVD and CD drives, and other devices that require 5 or 12 volts of power. These are keyed to prevent plugging them in upside-down, however, it is possible to do and will cause serious problems/damage to the system.
Mini Connectors - These connectors also supply 5 or 12 volts, but are basically only used to connect floppy drives. These are even easier to plug in upside-down.
An Uninterrupted power supply is essentially a back-up battery to power electronic gadgets like Computer in the event of a power failure. If it happens, the Gadget will draw power from the UPS and will run the load for a prescribed time depending on the capacity of the battery. The change over time from the mains to battery power is a fraction of a second, so that the computer will not shut down. This is essential to protect the data in the computer. Basically there are two types of UPS. These are Offline UPS and Online UPS.
Online UPS on the other hand uses an Inverter which always on to give sine wave AC in the output socket. The incoming AC is first converted into DC by a transformer to charge the battery as well as to give power to the inverter transformer. The inverter transformer converts the DC to AC continuously to power the load. If power fails, the battery backup circuit switches on and takes the load. Online UPS is more efficient than the Offline UPS and uses a “Constant duty Inverter”. It also has a “Static bypass” system that transfers the load to the AC power if the inverter system fails. The advantage of the Online UPS is that, it clean up the AC waveform by converting it into DC then reconverting this DC to fresh AC.
Off line UPS passes the input AC to the output sockets if the AC power is available. It always monitor the voltage level in the mains, and if there is a voltage drop or mains failure, it switches on the inverter to give AC power to the device until the mains supply returns to normal. The switch over time from AC to inverter AC is less than five mili seconds so that the functioning of the gadget is not affected.
Surge:-when current is flowing more than 220 volt it iscalled surge.Brownout:-when current is flowing less than 220 volt it isCalled Brown out.Blackout:-When current does not flowing through thedeviceLine Conditioner:-Always supplies exact voltage to the device.UPS:-always supplies constant voltage of 220 vplt.
This is the signal generated by the powersupply after the completion of its internal test& send to the motherboard to indicate that thepower is ready for use. With out receiving thatsignal motherboard will not start.
Bus is a group of electrical conductors running parallel to each other carrying charge from one point to another with in the computer. Bus can be copper tresses on ckt board or wires in a cable. The no of parallel wires in a bus is called bus width. If the bus connect the main processor with the computer memory then it is called system bus or front side bus. If the bus connect input output device then it is called I/O Bus.
With increase in processing speed of modern day processor . There is an increase in heat generation Which can cause the permanent damage of computer. To cool the processor from being heated Heat sinks are used. There are two type of Heat sink:- Passive Heat Sink:- The cooling device which is used to cool the processor & does not have any moving part is called Passive Heat sink. Active Heat sink:- It is also called CPU fan. It is enhancement to the passive heat sink. Active heat sink contain a small fan that is blows Directly into the heat sink metal.
Serial communication In telecommunication and computer science, serial communication is the process of sending data one bit at a time, sequentially, over a communication channel or computer bus. Parallel communication In telecommunication and computer science, parallel communication is a method of conveying multiple binary digits (bits) simultaneously.