President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) provided federal funding and financial to individual students who studied foreign languages, specific trained areas such as mathematics and engineering. The NDEA also sought out math, science and foreign languages to be a main focus in education which is why they considered it to be “basic”. He did this to ensure the country had highly educated personal in not only the government sector but across the country as well. The thinking behind this was to make sure the country had highly intelligent personnel to defend against any threats from abroad. “The National Defense Education Act (NDEA) financial assistance National Defense Education Act of 1958." American Decades. 2001. Retrieved November 08, 2011 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3468301841.html
On April 11, 1965 President Lyndon B. Johnson, signed the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) into law. It was passed through Congress known as Johnson’s War on Poverty. This act provided education access to children in poverty areas, along with accountability for teachers for all students regardless of their economic background. All students would be able to obtain a solid academic education according to the new high standards that were set. This allows the educational gap between the middle and upper classes to be closed and the poverty children are now given a chance to succeed. Federal funds are provided to schools for educational materials, professional development, and support programs to help all students reach their goals. Elementary and Secondary Education Act. 1965. Public Law 89-10 [April9/ll, 1965].
The National Assessment of Educational Process started in 1969, and still is used today. These assessments are tracked by the National Center for Education Statistics of the U.S. Department of Education. The purpose of the assessments is to track and compare students academic progress across the country making sure each state is being accountable for the high standards that is expected in math, reading, writing, and science. These assessments are given in 4th, 8th, and 12th grades. They are voluntary for each state to participate, but if the state declines they will not be able to access the federal funding available under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965
In the report it states the average SAT scores dropped "over 50 points" in the verbal section and "nearly 40 points" in the mathematics section during the period 1963-1980. This made it difficult for the United States to compete intellectually with other students on an international basis. The report suggested reform and improved standards. There were 38 recommendations divided across 5 major categories, Content: These newly emphasized standards stated in order to graduate from high school students must have in four years of english, three years of math, science, social studies, and a half year of computer science. If a student wishes to attend college two years of a foreign language should be taken. Standards: Colleges should raise their standards for admission so high school students would know what it was like to work hard for what they wanted. Time: Lengthen the school day to 7 hour days and extend the school calendar. Teaching: recommended salaries should be paid by performance. Leadership and Fiscal Support: Federal government needs to supplement the cost for meeting the needs of gifted students as well as disadvantaged students. They must follow all of the above requirements while meeting and respecting the civil rights needs of all students and teachers. http://www2.ed.gov/pubs/NatAtRisk/index.html and Kessinger, TA. 2010. National Assessment of Educational Progress. In Hunt, T.C., J.C. Carper, T.J. Laslcy, and CD. Raisch, eds. Encyclopedia of educational reform and dissent (vol. 2), pp. 589-591. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc
The thinking behind this was to improve assessment scores continuing to close the gap between minority, foreign and economically disadvantaged. The law requires schools to take and pass yearly tests which will show how much improvement the students have made over the fiscal year. Failure to do so could result in the decrease in federal funding a state receives. The tests also show how the states curriculum alignment is being absorbed by its students holding the state, districts and teachers responsible for the outcomes. If students are enrolled in schools that fail to meet the Annual Yearly Performance the school must offer eligible children the chance to transfer to higher-performing local school, receive free tutoring, or attend after-school programs (Lac, A. (2010). Predicting position on teaching creationism (instead of evolution) in public schools. The Journal of Eductional Research, 103(4), 253. Retrieved from http://proquest.umi.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/pqdweb?index=8&did=2119405591&SrchMode=2&sid=2&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1318179191&clientId=48377).
Professional Standards MovementThe professional standardsmovement began in 1957when the Soviet Union’slaunch of Sputnik. This createduncertainty in the minds ofAmericans in the educationalsystem in the United States.Americans felt as though theeducational system was toblame which brought aboutnumerous initiatives over thepast 50 years.
National Defense Education Act of 1958• Provided the country with defense oriented personnel• Gave financial assistance through government sponsored loan programs who enrolled at colleges and universities• The NDEA focuses on the basics math, science, and foreign languagesNational Defense Education Act of 1958." American Decades. 2001.Retrieved November 08, 2011 from Encyclopedia.com:
Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA 1965)• April 11, 1965 President Lyndon B. Johnson signed ESEA into law• Congress called ESEA “Johnson’s War on Poverty”• Establishes high standards and accountability• Closes gaps between students by providing fair and equal opportunities to achieve an education• Provided funds are for professional development, instructional materials, resources to support educational programs, and parental involvement promotion Elementary and Secondary Education Act. 1965. Public Law 89-10 April9/ll, 1965
National Assessment of Educational Progress has two goals: * Compare student achievement in each state and other jurisdictions * Track changes in achievement of 4th, 8th, and 12th grade students over time in math, reading, writing, sciencehttp://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/
A Nation at Risk: The Imperative For Educational Reform• National Commission on Excellence in Education wrote A Nation at Risk in 1983• Renewed emphasis on the "Five New Basics“• The commission made 38 recommendations, across 5 categories• Content: 4 years of English; 3 years of mathematics; 3 years of science; 3 years of social studies; and one-half year of computer science for high school students.• Standards and Expectations: four-year colleges should raise admissions standards and standardized tests of achievement• Time: School districts and State legislatures should lengthen school days to 7-hours and the school calendar from 200- to 220-day school year.• Teaching: Salaries for teachers be competitive and market-sensitive as well as performance- based• Leadership and Fiscal Support: The Federal government will provide fiscal support for student programs for gifted and talented, socioeconomically disadvantaged, minority and language minority , and handicapped students• Compliance with Civil Rights http://www2.ed.gov/pubs/NatAtRisk/index.html
President George W. Bush signed NCLB into law January 8, 2002Extension of Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965Aimed at improving the performance of every public schoolProvides parents with more choices in their childrens educationRequires all states to set high standards of achievement
References• “The National Defense Education Act (NDEA) financial assistance National Defense Education Act of 1958." American Decades. 2001. Retrieved November 08, 2011 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2- 3468301841.html• Kasper, B. B. 2005. Educational reform 1983-1994: New ideas or the rebirth of Quintilians ideologies? American Educational History Jounal 32:175-182• Elementary and Secondary Education Act. 1965. Public Law 89-10 April 9-ll, 1965• http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard• Watras, J. 2004. Philosophic conficts in American education, 1893-2000. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc• Kessinger, T. A. (2011). EFFORTS TOWARD EDUCATIONAL REFORM IN THE UNITED STATES SINCE 1958. American Educational History Journal, 38(1/2), 263-276• U.s. constitution online . (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.usconstitution.net/const.html• Lac, A. (2010). Predicting position on teaching creationism (instead of evolution) in public schools. The Journal of Eductional Research, 103(4), 253. Retrieved from http://proquest.umi.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/pqdweb?index=8&did=2119405591 &SrchMode=2&sid=2&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD &TS=1318179191&clientId=48377
References Continued• Steven D. Schafersman, Teaching morals and values in the public schools: a humanist perspective; March, 1991• Gardner, Roy, Cairns, Jo, Lawton, Denis; Education for Values: Morals, Ethics and Citizenship in Contemporary Teaching, 2003• Edwin S. Gaustad, ed., A Documentary History of Religion in America (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1982), pp. 259- 261• UCSC. (n. d.). Title IX/Sexual Harassment Office. www2.ucsc.edu/title9-sh/titleix.htm