Professional Standards MovementThe professional standardsmovement began in 1957when the Soviet Union’slaunch of Sputnik. This createduncertainty in the minds ofAmericans in the educationalsystem in the United States.Americans felt as though theeducational system was toblame which brought aboutnumerous initiatives over thepast 50 years.
National Defense Education Act of 1958• Provided the country with defense oriented personnel• Gave financial assistance through government sponsored loan programs who enrolled at colleges and universities• The NDEA focuses on the basics math, science, and foreign languagesNational Defense Education Act of 1958." American Decades. 2001.Retrieved November 08, 2011 from Encyclopedia.com:
Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA 1965)• April 11, 1965 President Lyndon B. Johnson signed ESEA into law• Congress called ESEA “Johnson’s War on Poverty”• Establishes high standards and accountability• Closes gaps between students by providing fair and equal opportunities to achieve an education• Provided funds are for professional development, instructional materials, resources to support educational programs, and parental involvement promotion Elementary and Secondary Education Act. 1965. Public Law 89-10 April9/ll, 1965
National Assessment of Educational Progress has two goals: * Compare student achievement in each state and other jurisdictions * Track changes in achievement of 4th, 8th, and 12th grade students over time in math, reading, writing, sciencehttp://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/
A Nation at Risk: The Imperative For Educational Reform• National Commission on Excellence in Education wrote A Nation at Risk in 1983• Renewed emphasis on the "Five New Basics“• The commission made 38 recommendations, across 5 categories• Content: 4 years of English; 3 years of mathematics; 3 years of science; 3 years of social studies; and one-half year of computer science for high school students.• Standards and Expectations: four-year colleges should raise admissions standards and standardized tests of achievement• Time: School districts and State legislatures should lengthen school days to 7-hours and the school calendar from 200- to 220-day school year.• Teaching: Salaries for teachers be competitive and market-sensitive as well as performance- based• Leadership and Fiscal Support: The Federal government will provide fiscal support for student programs for gifted and talented, socioeconomically disadvantaged, minority and language minority , and handicapped students• Compliance with Civil Rights http://www2.ed.gov/pubs/NatAtRisk/index.html
President George W. Bush signed NCLB into law January 8, 2002Extension of Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965Aimed at improving the performance of every public schoolProvides parents with more choices in their childrens educationRequires all states to set high standards of achievement
References• “The National Defense Education Act (NDEA) financial assistance National Defense Education Act of 1958." American Decades. 2001. Retrieved November 08, 2011 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2- 3468301841.html• Kasper, B. B. 2005. Educational reform 1983-1994: New ideas or the rebirth of Quintilians ideologies? American Educational History Jounal 32:175-182• Elementary and Secondary Education Act. 1965. Public Law 89-10 April 9-ll, 1965• http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard• Watras, J. 2004. Philosophic conficts in American education, 1893-2000. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc• Kessinger, T. A. (2011). EFFORTS TOWARD EDUCATIONAL REFORM IN THE UNITED STATES SINCE 1958. American Educational History Journal, 38(1/2), 263-276• U.s. constitution online . (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.usconstitution.net/const.html• Lac, A. (2010). Predicting position on teaching creationism (instead of evolution) in public schools. The Journal of Eductional Research, 103(4), 253. Retrieved from http://proquest.umi.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/pqdweb?index=8&did=2119405591 &SrchMode=2&sid=2&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD &TS=1318179191&clientId=48377
References Continued• Steven D. Schafersman, Teaching morals and values in the public schools: a humanist perspective; March, 1991• Gardner, Roy, Cairns, Jo, Lawton, Denis; Education for Values: Morals, Ethics and Citizenship in Contemporary Teaching, 2003• Edwin S. Gaustad, ed., A Documentary History of Religion in America (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1982), pp. 259- 261• UCSC. (n. d.). Title IX/Sexual Harassment Office. www2.ucsc.edu/title9-sh/titleix.htm