Mark McMaster's Presentation

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Assessment of Wild Fish From
Canadian Areas of Concern
for Fish Health and
Reproductive Alterations

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Mark McMaster's Presentation

  1. 1. Assessment of Wild Fish From Canadian Areas of Concern for Fish Health and Reproductive Alterations M. McMaster National Water Research Institute Burlington, Ontario, Canada
  2. 2. Beneficial Use Impairments· restrictions on fish and wildlife consumption· tainting of fish and wildlife flavor· degradation of fish and wildlife populations· fish tumors or other deformities· bird or animal deformities or reproduction problems· degradation of benthos· restrictions on dredging activities· eutrophication or undesirable algae· drinking water restrictions, or taste and odor problems· beach closings· degradation of aesthetics· added costs to agriculture or industry· degradation of phytoplankton and zooplankton· loss of fish and wildlife habitat
  3. 3. Reproductive Effects Identified at Jackfish Bay AOC Detailed studies at the Jackfish Bay AOC (bleached kraft mill discharge) identified reproductive effects in white sucker exposed to effluent
  4. 4. Are Similar Effects present at other AOCs? Reproductiveeffects were not looked at when sites were listed.
  5. 5. Jim Sherry, Scott Brown, Joanne Parrott, MarkHewitt, Derek Muir, National Water ResearchInstitute, Environment CanadaAlice Dove, Scott Painter, Melanie Neilson,Ecosystem Health Division, Environment Canada -Ontario RegionLiard Shutt, Canadian Wildlife Service, NationalWildlife Research Centre, Environment CanadaD.V. Chip Weseloh, Kim Fernie, Pamela Martin,Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada-Ontario Region
  6. 6. Assessment of Effects in Wild FishFollow EEM approach where 20 males and 20 females of two species captured:  Examination of gonad development, egg size, fecundity, expression of secondary sexual characteristics  Measurement of circulating Vtg, reproductive steroid hormone levels and thyroid hormones  Determination of steroid and thyroid biosynthetic capacity  Liver mixed-function oxidase  Histology of endocrine and other tissues (gonads, thyroid, liver)  Liver tumours, deformities and other anomolies  Contaminant concentrations in blood, muscle  Binding of liver and SPMD extracts to endocrine receptors
  7. 7. JFB reassessed in 2006 using these endpoints –Tumour data is in cue for processing
  8. 8. Reproductive Effects Identified at Jackfish Bay AOC Detailed studies at the Jackfish Bay AOC (bleached kraft mill discharge) identified reproductive effects in white sucker exposed to effluent
  9. 9. 170 1 2 km Moberly Lake Jackfish Lake N Sawmill Creek Blackbird Creek bleached 17 Kraft mill 17 Jackfish Bay Terrace Bay, ON Lake Superior
  10. 10. Effects Of Pulp Mill Effluent Exposure On White Sucker Ovary Size Reference Site Pulp Mill Effluent Exposed
  11. 11. EFFECTS OF PULP MILL EFFLUENT EXPOSURE ON GONADOSOMATIC INDEXG.S.I. (% Body Weight) 20 8 15 6 10 4 2 5 0 0 Male Female Mountain Bay (Reference) Jackfish Bay (BKME Exposed)
  12. 12. Effects Of Pulp Mill Effluent Exposure On Lake Whitefish Testes Size Reference Site Pulp Mill Effluent Exposed
  13. 13. WHITE SUCKER ARE SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC Nuptual Tubercles Are Abundant In Sexually Mature Males
  14. 14. EFFECTS OF PULP MILL EXPOSURE ON NUPTUAL TUBERCLES 20 Mountain Bay (Reference) 15 Jackfish Bay (BKME EXPOSED)# Of Fish 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Tubercle Index
  15. 15. DELAYED SEXUAL MATURITY IN PULP MILL EXPOSED FISH 100Proportion Of Sample (%) Jackfish Bay(BKME) 80 Mountain Bay (Reference) 60 40 20 0 <5 6 7 8 9 10 Age (Years)
  16. 16. EFFECTS OF PULP MILL EFFLUENT ON FEMALE WHITE SUCKER STEROIDSSteroid Hormone Titre (ng/mL) Vitellogenic Pre-Spawning 1.6 30 1.4 25 1.2 20 1 0.8 15 0.6 10 0.4 0.2 5 0 0 E2 Testosterone E2 Testosterone Mountain Bay (Reference) Jackfish Bay (BKME EXPOSED)
  17. 17. In Vitro Steroid Hormone Determination Remove Ovary; 10 Follicles/Well 1 2 3 4 5 6 A B C DRadioimmunoassay (RIA)To Determine Steroid Production
  18. 18. 2,500 Reference 2,000Circulating Pulp Mill Steroid 1,500 1,000 * (pg/mL) 500 0 * 80 Basal 60 In Vitro Steroid 40 * * 20 0 17 B-Estradiol Testosterone
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