What Is An Attitude

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What Is An Attitude

  1. 1. ATTITUDE & JOB SATISFACTION
  2. 2. What is an Attitude? <ul><li>Attitudes are evaluative statements – either favorable or unfavorable. </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes are the feelings and beliefs a person has towards a particular object, thing, place, event or another person. </li></ul><ul><li>Is a tendency to react positively or negatively in regard to an object. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Attitude Values Beliefs Intentions Behavior Cognitive- Neha got promotion Affective – I dislike supervisor Psychomotor- Looking for other opportunities Negative Attitude
  4. 4. Values <ul><li>Basic convention that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or an end state of existence. </li></ul><ul><li>Values are defined in literature as everything from eternal ideas to behavioral actions. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Values as socially or culturally accepted standards or rules of behavior <ul><li>Social versus individualistic orientations </li></ul><ul><li>Certain values are universal and absolute </li></ul>
  6. 6. 4 important aspects of attitudes <ul><li>Attitude are learned through experience </li></ul><ul><li>They predispose people to behave (respond) in certain ways ; </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes and behavior conform to a principle of consistency </li></ul><ul><li>The unfavorable and favorable manner of behaving reflects the evaluative about something </li></ul>
  7. 7. Attitudes are acquired from: <ul><li>Admires, respects or fears </li></ul><ul><li>Parents </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Authority figures </li></ul><ul><li>Peer group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group Affiliation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Attitude in Organization <ul><li>Good or bad meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Biases </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cognitive Dissonance Theory <ul><li>Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitude. </li></ul><ul><li>Arises when our behavior is at odds with our attitudes or self-concept </li></ul>
  10. 10. Dissonance Model Two inconsistent cognitions (e.g., an attitude and a counter- attitudinal behavior) State of dissonance Motivation to reduce dissonance Attitude change UNLESS Justification for counter- attitudinal behavior
  11. 11. Measurement of Attitudes <ul><li>Thurstone Scale: 1:11 </li></ul><ul><li>Favorable: Unfavorable </li></ul><ul><li>Linkert’s Scale: </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly Agree, Agree, Undecided, Disagree, Strongly disagree </li></ul><ul><li>Bogardus’s Social Distance Scale: </li></ul><ul><li>Statement on national, racial or ethnic group </li></ul><ul><li>Guttman’s Scale: </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of Dissatisfaction </li></ul>
  12. 13. Subjective Norm Attitude: Act Behavior Intent Behavior Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen) Attitudes and Behavior
  13. 14. Evaluation Behavior beliefs Normative beliefs Motivation to Comply Subjective Norm Attitude: Act Behavior Intent Behavior Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen) Attitudes and Behavior
  14. 15. Evaluation Behavior beliefs Normative beliefs Motivation to Comply Subjective Norm Attitude: Act Behavior Intent Behavior Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen) Constraints Attitudes and Behavior
  15. 16. Opinion <ul><li>Opinion is an expression of an evaluative judgment or point of view regarding a specific topic or subject. </li></ul>
  16. 17. What is Job Satisfaction? <ul><li>Spector: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ the degree to which people like their jobs” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ How people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs” </li></ul></ul>Work characteristics Job Satisfaction(s)
  17. 18. Factors Controllable by Management <ul><li>Pay </li></ul><ul><li>Fringe benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity for advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Working Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Co- workers </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Downward flow of Communication </li></ul>
  18. 19. Job Satisfaction <ul><li>Personal factors </li></ul><ul><li>No. of Dependents </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Time of Job </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Personality exclusive of intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Inherent Job Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Type of work </li></ul><ul><li>Skills required </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational status </li></ul><ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Size of the plant </li></ul>
  19. 20. Responses to Job Satisfaction Destructive Constructive Exit Voice Neglect Active Passive Loyalty
  20. 21. Perceived characteristics Job Satisfaction(s) Objective characteristics Needs/ Values
  21. 22. Perceived characteristics Job Satisfaction(s) Objective characteristics Needs/ Values Frame of Reference
  22. 23. THANK YOU

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