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Training need identification

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  • 1. A PROJECT REPORT ON TRAINING NEED IDENTIFICATION FOR SUDAL INDUSTRIES LTD; AMBAD NASIK. IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF MASTER IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION UNIVERSITY OF PUNE BY ASHWIN.B.BANSOD M.B.A. (2005 2007) GUIDED BY MR. J.K.SHINDE (SUDAL) MRS. VANDANA GOTE (VIM) VISHWAKARMA INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT, PUNE. 48
  • 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I It is my pride and prejudice this morning to write a few words of Acknowledgement for those who helped me while I worked on the project of 'TRAINING NEED IDENTIFICATION' .I wish to express my gratitude to them whose help and guidance has been most valuable while working on the Project. My earnest and hearty thanks to the Director Dr. Sharad Joshi of B.R.A.C.T. Vishwakarma Institute of management, Pune and Prof V.M GOTE (Project Guide) for giving me this chance to work on the project. I am also thankful to the management and staff for their co-operation. I must also mention many thanks to the HRD Officer J. K. SHINDE of SUDAL INDUSTRIES L.T.D and Mr. K .N .DULLA (Commercial manager), for permitting me to work in such a big organization and allowing me to do project work on "TRAINING NEED IDENTIFICATION". It would have been impossible for me to complete my project without their help, co-operation and guidance. The above-mentioned persons are truly outstanding, so once again my warmest personal regards to them. If by mistake someone is left out, let my gratitude be conveyed to them all. In short to work on the project was entirely a new phenomenon for me. Yours faithfully, ASHWIN .B. BANSOD
  • 3. PREFACE The master of business administration on (MBA) syllabus pune university includes a mandatory requirements, a summer project by the students in organization for 60 days. In pursuance of this requirement this project Training Needs Identification for managerial staff has been undertaken . The human force is the primary important force to accelerate and generate successful operations of an industry or establishment. It is the man who stand behind the machine and is expected to obtain the desired result therefore human resources is an important factor which cannot be ignored in the progress of quality and values of human beings in the success of industrialization. The constant and need based training and development of human resources are necessary measures to impart in periodically and systematically to enhance efficiency and productivity.
  • 4. Chapter No Title Page No. I Introduction 1 Executive Summary 2 Introduction 3 Selection Of Topic 4 Objectives & Methodology II Company Profile 1 Introduction 2 Technology 3 Technical Assisstance 4 Promoters Background 5 Production Capacity 6 Quality Assurance 7 Market & Technology 8 Product Mix & Market 9 Research & Development 10 Future 11 Value III (Identification Of Training Needs) 1 Training Meaning & Concept 2 Principles Of Training 3 Need & Purpose Of Training 4 Steps In training Programme 5 Types In Training 6 Determining Training Needs 7 Process Of Identifying Training Needs 8 Reasons Of Identifying Training Needs
  • 5. 9 Reasons Of Conducting Training Need Assessment 10 Conducting Need Assessment 11 Hindrances In Training 12 How To Make Training Effective 13 Benefits Of Employee Training IV Data Presentation, Analysis & Interpretation Of Data 1 Steps Of Identification Of Training Needs At Sudal Industries 2 Data Collection & Interpretation 3 Findings 4 Pie Chart Showing Percentages Of Types Of Training 5 Graph Showing Training Need Identification For Technical, Informative, Behavioural, Need Based, Quality Awareness, General Training V Conclusion VI Suggestions VII Bibliography VIII Annexure
  • 6. Executive Summary There are new techniques and methodology of human resource development adopted by many companies which train the workers and managers to make them able to cope with these changes. One of the practice among them is training of managerial and supervisory staff which helps to increase organizational efficiency and effectiveness. The title of the project is TRAINING NEED IDENTIFICATION for SUDAL INDUSTRIES LTD. I have chosen this company because they are fast growing in their respective sector. They don t have any competitors in the near by areas. From the past few years balance sheet it is known that there is considerable increase in their net income. I chose this project because it was known that company did not conduct regular training sessions for their staff as well as for employees. So it was important to bring this fact of training need and importance to training to the notice of the company. The production work of the company is carried out at ambad industrial area in nashik. Whereas head office is at nariman point Mumbai. They have branch offices at pune, vadodara and bangalore. The duration of the project was 60 days. In which I came to know actual woking of various operations of the company. Practical knowledge was achieved. The project was carried out by preparing a questionnaire in which the staff had to identify which training need according to them is not given to them. As well as discussion programme was also conducted.
  • 7. 2 A-2 Introduction to ISO/TS 16949:2002 requirement 3 N-1 Inspection and testing. 4 N-2 Maintenance of machine 5 N-3 Handling of instrument 6 N-4 Machine operation 7 J Fire fighting 8 L Housingkeeping.(5s) 1) SEMI SKILLED AND NON QUALIFIED OPERATOR 2) SKILL AND QUALIFIED OPERATOR 3) GOOD KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE PERSON 4) IDEAL PERSON / SUCCESSFUL EXPERIENCE PERSON
  • 8. SKILL MATRIX DEPT-DIE SHOP SR.NO OPERATOR NAME A-1 A-2 N-1 N-2 N-3 N-4 J L 46) R.N. PAWAR 47) B.G. WAGHCHAURE 48) D.B.JADHAV 49) A.R.PATIL 50) P.V.KIRANGE 51) S.N.SINGH 52) V.B.THAKARE 53) JAGDISH SINGH 54) SAMPAT SAHANI 55) B.P. BARADE 56) S.M. JAGTAP 57) B.M.SURYAWANSHI 58) H.N.SINGH YADAV 59) D.D.SHINDI 60) C.S.SHAJI 61) B.D.MORE 62) D.V.PAWAR 63) D.S.AHIRE
  • 9. INTRODUCTION In this modern business environment organization are in an increasing day by day the organization need to optimize their traditional resources for achieving success in today s competitive environment. Liberalization, privatization and globalization has brought in considerable change in market condition as well as change in social, economic and technology spheres which further enhance the challenges to human resources management. There are new techniques and methodology of human resources development adopted by the introduction of multinational companies which train the workers and managers to make them able to cope with these changes one of the practices among them is training of the managerial and supervisory staff in the latest technique this methodology has been widely accepted for increasing management competence which ultimately increases the organizational efficiency and effectiveness.
  • 10. SELECTION OF THE TOPIC Selection of the topic is one of the important jobs before starting with the project work. It is difficult to decide which topic should be selected so that it would be beneficial for both the Organization as well as myself so as to gain maximum practical knowledge. Human factor is one of the most valuable asset of any organization therefore, Management has to take initiative to develop employees skills, Knowledge, ability, attitude, competencies, Efficiencies so as to strengthen its human resource. Training & Development activities are the main mechanism through which individual goals & aspirations can be integrated with organizational goals, Such integration's can be achieved only when training & development is linked with organizational requirements, which should be carried out in a systematic manner. Taking into consideration all these points the topic selected is "TRAINING NEED IDENTIFICATION" as my project title in SUDAL INDUSTRIES L.T.D. Training is a cardinal tool by means of which the competency of the employees can be developed to survive in the world of cut-throat competition. In the present scenario, it is the most important requirement of every organization to have well trained employees and therefore it is one of the crucial activities of prime importance in the company.
  • 11. OBJECTIVES The objectives of the project are as follows: 1. To identify the training needs of staff in SUDAL INDUSTRIES LTD. 2. To understand different training needs and the ratio in which they are divided. 3. To identify technical training and the area in which most of the staff require training. 4. To identify functional training and the area in which most of the staff require training. 5. To identify informative training and the area in which most of the staff require training. 6.To identify behavioural training and the area in which most of the staff require training. 7.To identify quality awareness training and the area in which most of the staff require training. 8. To identify general training and the area in which most of the staff require training.
  • 12. METHODOLOGY Methodology is the process of collecting the information, which helps to find out the solution to the topic selected by the researcher. Researcher helps to study and find out new techniques with the proper process. It is a systematic way of presenting information. In order to collect the required information for the project, the following methods are adopted Questionnaire. Library works. Discussions. Questionnaire:- The officers were given the form to be filled giving the details about the training needs they want to undergo so as to enhance their competence and meet the organizations objectives with improved techniques. The 'Identification Of Training Needs' form is given to the appraise and is asked to indicate-the training needs to be filled in the form supplied to them. The needs should be such which they consider that they really lack of that knowledge and it is going to help the employee in improving himself and would also help in improving the performance thus helping the Organizations to achieve the objectives. With such method the training needs were identified. Survey (Data collection) :- The questionnaire survey was conducted for the training need identification for the staff of SUDAL INDUSTRIES LTD. Total number of employees in SUDAL INDUSTRIES LTD. Workers - 64 Casual - 60 Staff - 64 Trainees - 6
  • 13. The questionnaire survey covered the training need identification for 64 staff employed in the plant. Library works: - For preparing the project report, various books were referred which were available in both, the college library as well as company's library which proved to be of great help to me. Many books were referred so as to get the various processes and methods of identifying the training needs. The books such as Personnel Management by C.B.Mamoria, Personnel Management & Industrial Relations by S.A.Chunawalla, R.Shrinivasan, M.D.Patel, Identifying Training Needs by Tom Boydell & Malcolm Leary, Evaluating Training by Peter Bramley, Training Needs in Public Enterprises by T.L.Sankar, S.Ravishankar, R.K.Mishra, A.S.Sastry and also Magazines such as Human Capital helped me a lot to collect the information and use while working with the project. Discussions:- There used to be interactive sessions with the HRD officers from time to time which showed me the way to carry the project successfully. There used to be interactive sessions also with the project guide. He saw many key aspects of the project work. He gave me very careful constructive help, which helped me a lot and showed me a way through all the difficulties and complete the project. Group discussions were also carried whenever there used to be any difficulty in the project report.
  • 14. COMPANY PROFILE Of SUDAL IND. LTD. INTRODUCTION: Sudal Industries Limited is a Public Limited Company engaged in manufacture of Aluminium Extrusions since 1980. The company is promoted and professionally managed by its Chairman & Managing Director - Mr.Shriram C.Chokhani and Joint Managing Director Mr.Sudarshan S.Chokhani. It is assisted at Corporate Office by Vice President (Accounts & Finance) & C.F.O. - Mr. Mukesh V.Ashar, Vice President (Corporate Services) - Mr. Kiran G. Inamdar & Manager (Marketing) - Mr. S.D. Shah and at Plant, Nashik (Maharashtra), by Vice President (Operations) - Mr.S.Ghosh & Sr. Manager (Operations) - Mr. G. Varghese and Manager (Central Sales & Mktg.) - Mr. R.M. Shah, and Commercial Manager - Mr. K.N. Dulla. TECHNOLOGY The Company has a team of 36 qualified & experienced Engineers and many of them have been trained abroad at Reynolds (Europe) Limited, a world renowned Aluminum Company, as also those are exposed to latest extrusion technology by attending Extrusion Technology seminars organized by Aluminum Extrusion Council, USA. The Company has established a quality management system that is in compliance with the International Quality System Standard ISO 9001 and QS 9001 - 2000 and ISO / TS 16949: 2002 certified by The TUV CERT certification Body for QM Systems of RWTUV Systems, Gmbh as per copy enclosed. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE FROM REYNOLDS (EUROPE) LTD: Sudal has received Technical Assistance from M/s. Reynolds (Europe) Limited, a part of Reynolds International Inc., a subsidiary of Reynolds Metal Company, U.S.A. and one of the worlds' largest producers of Aluminum and its varied products.
  • 15. PROMOTERS BACK-GROUND: Mr.Shriram C.Chokhani is having 40 years experience in the field of Aluminium, Non-ferrous Metals, Alloys, and Extrusion. He is the Past President of All India Extrusion Mfgrs Association, Past President of Engineering Association of India (now Confederation of Indian Industry CII) and Past Vice President of Nashik Industries & Mfgrs Association (NIMA). Presently he is on the Managing Committee of Indian Merchants' Chamber, Member of Confederation of Indian Industry, Nasik one and Convenor (Taxation & Economic Affairs Panel of CII - Nashik Zone). Mr.Sudarshan S.Chokhani is also having more than 35 years of experience" in the Industry. He is Past Vice President of Aluminium Association of India, Past Vice President of Nashik Industries & Mfgrs' Association (NIMA), Past President of Aluminium Dealers Association. Presently he is on the Governing Council of Aluminium Association of India, Member - WR Council of Indo, German Chamber of Commerce and Managing Committee Member of Indian Merchants Chamber. PRODUCTION CAPACITY AND PLANT & EOUIPMENTS: The present annual capacity of the Plant is 5900 + 3000 Tons per Year and is equipped with Schloemann Siemag Extrusion Press of 1650 Tons + 900 Tons from SPM Controls with all other allied equipment as per list enclosed. It also has its own Remelt Shop, Die Shop and Quality Assurance Lab with Spectrometer of Jarrel Ash, USA and other Testing Equipment. QUALITY ASSURANCE: With backing of such required Machinery, qualified Engineers and R & D wing, Sudal's supply is of Quality Extrusions which bear testimony to its products due to which it enjoys the continued patronage of leading and large Industrial Consumers.
  • 16. Sudal's more than 25 years of dedicated service to the customers has enabled it to earn the trust as a reliable extruder of Quality Extrusions, timely supply, at economical price. Right from the inception in 1980, Sudal observes total commitment to exercise rigid quality control during the entire production stage of Aluminum Extrusions and these meet the exacting standards of leading Industrial Consumers. MARKET &. TECHNOLOGY: Sudal is also approved & registered / certified by the Director General of Quality Assurance - Ministry of Defence, Govt. of India, Research & Development Unit recognized by Deptt of Science & Technology, Govt. of India 1, Directorate General of Supplies & Disposals, Defence, Director General of Ordnance Factory-Ambajhari, Nagpur, Research & Development Organization, Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd., National Thermal Power Corporation of India (NTPC), Central Organization for Railway Electrification (CORE), Allahabad, Western Railways, RDSO, Lucknow, R & D Organization (DRDO) Armament R & D Estt. (ARDE) & Ministry of Defence (DGQA, DGSOD & DRDO), GRID Corporation of Orissa Ltd., BHEL, Ordnance/Vehicle Factories, Integral Coach Factory, BEML, etc. Sudal is approved and certified by Bhaba Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Aeronautical Development Agency, Hindustan Aeronautics and Aeronautical Development Authority, Bharat Heavy Electric Ltd (BHEL). The Company has indigenized various items for Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Indian Oxygen Limited, Hewlett Packard, etc. Sudal have also received an award for The Competition's first place Industrial winner in the Professional Category, of the International Aluminum Extrusion Design Competition from Extrusion Technology for Aluminum Profiles Foundation for end-cap for uranium rod holders used inside nuclear reactors PRODUCT MIX & MARKET: Sudal is already having more than 7112 dies of different shapes and different end uses which it manufacturers in various alloys similar to 6063, 6061, 6082, 6101, 6351~
  • 17. 6066, 1050, 1100, 2014 etc. and is regularly adding more dies and alloys according to customer's specifications. Sudal serves leading Industrial users in various end use such as Architectural, Transport & Automobile, Electrical, Electronics, Consumer Durables like Refrigerator Tubes, Typewriters, Luggage, Furniture Systems, Easy to make Homes, Heat Sinks, Railway Coaches and Track Electrifications, Project Contractors, RDEE / Defence, Heat Exchanger Tubing, Irrigation Tubing s, Pump Body Extrusions, Airways, Shipping, etc. Sudal is privileged of serving to sophisticated and esteemed well established and Multinational Customers in OE Market. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT: Sudal is registered as a Research & Development Unit recognized by Department of Science and Technology, Government of India. Sudal is a member of Aluminium Association of India, Engineering Export Promotion Council, Confederation of Indian Industry, Indian Non-Ferrous Metal Manufacturers Association, Indo-German Chamber of Commerce, Indo-American Chamber of Commerce etc. FUTURE: Sudal has already. gone into Downstream and Value Added Products i.e. Automotive Components, Architectural Systems, Transportation Systems and Anodizing. ,Sudal is also planning to add, value to their Extrusion by going into ready-to-use Extrusions by supplying the same in cut-to-size and wherever necessary machining and carrying out further operations thereon, for which wherever necessary, Sudal will add the balancing equipment and, at opportune time, a larger press as well. With Sudal's Marketing Strength, dedication for customers' satisfaction and customer delight, and with its devoted: qualified and experienced Manpower, the Company looks to the future with confidence to be one of the leading' Extruders out of
  • 18. Secondary Extruders in India. Sudal is also having offices at Bangalore, pune and Vadodara (Baroda).
  • 19. VALUES:- SUDAL is committed to:- 1. Employ honesty, openness & integrity in all relationship with fellow employees, customers, suppliers, all business associates and Shareholders and obtain their involvement. 2. Continuous improvement. 3. Exceed customer expectation. 4. Stock-holders satisfaction. 5. Social responsibility.
  • 20. TRAINING MEANING & CONCEPT Training involves learning, but it is rather more than that. Training implies learning to do something and, when it is successful, it results in things being done differently. Much of what people learn during their lives is a result of unplanned experience. Although this can be powerful, it is not a very efficient way of learning. If what is to be learned can be described than activities can be planned that will facilitate learning by making it easier and quicker. Within organizations, the investment in training is intended to result in increased effectiveness at work. Training can be defined as: "A process which is planned to facilitate learning so that people can become more effective in carrying out aspects of their work". Training includes activities like- on-the.- job learning, team development, action learning and performance management as well as courses. DEFINATION: According to juices "The term training is send to indicate the process by which the aptitude, abilities & skills of the employees to perform specific job are increased" According to Flippo "Training is an act of increasing the knowledge & skills of an employee for doing a particular job"
  • 21. PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING Since training is continuous process it consumes time and entails much expenditure, it is necessary that a training programme should be prepared with great thought and care, for it should serve the purpose of the establishment as well as the needs of the employees. Certain general principles need to be considered while organizing a training programme. For example, 1. Trainees in a work organization tend to be most responsive to training Programmes when they feel the need to learn, i.e., the trainee will be more eager to learn training if training promises answers to problems or needs of an employee. The individuals who perceives training as the solution to problems will be more willing to enter into a training programme- than will the individual who is satisfied with his present performance abilities. 2. Learning is more effective where there is reinforcement in the form of rewards and punishments i.e., individual do things that give pleasure and avoid things that give pain. In other words, after an action, if satisfier is received, the action will be repeated. If no satisfaction is received, the action will not be repeated. 3. In the long run, awards tend to be more effective for changing behavior and increasing one's learning than punishments. 4. Rewards for the application of learned behavior are most useful when they quickly follow the desired performance. 5. The larger the reward for good performance following the implementation of learned behaviour, the greater will be the reinforcement of the new behaviour. 6. Negative reinforcement, through application of penalties and heavy critical following inadequate performance, may have a disruptive effect upon the learning experience of the trainee than positive reinforcement.
  • 22. 7. Training that requests the trainee to make changes in his values, attitudes and social beliefs, usually achieves better results if the trainee is encourage to participate, discuss and discover new, desirable behaviour norms. 8. The trainee should be provided with 'feedback' on the progress he is making in utilizing the training he has received is to improve his performance, he must I) Know what aspect of his performance is not upto par; 2) Know precisely what corrective actions he must take to improve his performance. The feedback should be fast and frequent, especially for the lower level jobs, which are often routine and quickly completed. 9. The development of new behaviour norms and skills is facilitated through practiced and repetition. Skills are practiced often are better learned and less easily forgotten. 10. The training material should be made as meaningful as possible, because if the trainee understands the general principles underlying what is being taught, he will probably understand it better than if he were just asked to memorize a series of isolated steps. The National Industries Conference Board, U.S.A., state some other principles like the following: 1) The purpose of the training is to help meet company objectives by providing opportunities for employee's at all organizational levels to acquire the requisite knowledge, skills and attitude; 2) The first step in training is to determine needs and objectives; 3) The objectives and scope of a training plan should be defined before its development is begun in order to provide a basis for common agreement and co- operative action;
  • 23. 4) The techniques and process of a training programme should be related directly to the needs and objectives of an organization; 5) Training is properly the responsibility of anyone in the management in the determination of training needs and in the development, administration. conduct and follow-up of training plans; 6) The purpose behind the training of personnel is to assist line management in the determination of training needs and in the development,administration, conduct and follow-up of training plans; 7) To be effective, training must use the tested principles of learning; 8) Training should be conducted in the actual job environment to the maximum possible extent.
  • 24. NEED AND PURPOSE OF TRAINING The need and purpose of training can be explain as under : To increase productivity and performance To increase quality of work and output To help the organization to fulfill its future personnel need. To improve organizational climate To reduce the rate of accidents To improve health and safety Optimized use of available resources To reduced manpower obsolescence and absenteeism Reducing grievances
  • 25. STEPS IN TRAINING PROGRAMME Training Programmes are a costly affair, and a time consuming process. Therefore, they need to be drafted very carefully. Following steps are considered necessary I. DISCOVERING OR IDENTIFYING TRAINING NEEDS (THROUGH ORGANIZATIONAL OPERATIONS MANPOWER ANALYSIS, ETC.) 2.GETTING READY FOR THE JOB 3. PREPARATION OF THE LEARNER (CREATE DESIRE AND PREPARE ACCORDINGLY) 4. PRESENTATION OF OPEKATIONSAND KNOWLEDGE (APPLICATIONS OF TRAINING TECHNIQUES) 5.PERFORMANCE TRY-OUT 6.FOLLOW-UP (REWARDS AND FEEDBACK)
  • 26. 1.Discovering or Identifying Training Needs: A training programme should be established only when it is felt that it would assist in the solution of specific operational problems. The most important step, in the first place, is to make a thorough analysis of the entire organization, its operation and manpower resources available in order to find out "the trouble spots" where training may be needed. It should however be noted that training is not a cure-all. For example, if the efficiency of an employee is low, or he cannot get the job done, it may be due to faulty raw materials and equipment's or not getting their timely supplies, or a defective engineering design, or tax supervision. If that is the case, these problems should be rectified. Identification of training needs must contain three types of analyses Organizational analysis, operations analysis centers primarily upon the determination of the organization s goals. Its resources as they relate to the organizational goals establishes the framework in which, training needs can be defined more clearly. Operations analysis focuses on the task or job regardless of the worker must do - the specific worker behaviour required - if the job is to be performed effectively. Man analysis reviews the knowledge, attitudes and skills of the incumbent in each position and determines what knowledge, attitudes or skills he must acquire and what alterations in his behaviour he must make if he is to contribute satisfactorily to attainment of organizational objectives. William Berliner and William McLarney say that discovering training needs involves five tasks: a) Task Description Analysis 1. List the duties and responsibilities or tasks of the job under consideration, using the Job Description as a guide. 2. List the standards of work performance on the job.
  • 27. b) Determining Training Needs 3. Compare actual performance against the standards. 4. Determine what parts of the job are giving the employee trouble - where is he falling down in his performance? 5. Determine what kind of training is needed to overcome the specific difficulty of difficulties. 2. Getting Ready for The Job: Under this step, it is to be decided who is to be trained - the newcomer or the older employee, or the supervisory staff, or all of them selected from different departments. The trainer has to be prepared for the jobs, for he is the key figure in the entire programme. 3. Preparation Of The Learner: This steps consists: 1) In putting the learner at ease (so that he does not feel nervous because of the fact he is on a new job); 2) In stating the importance and ingredients of the job, and its relationship to work flow; 3) In explaining why he is being taught;
  • 28. 4) In creating interest and encouraging questions, finding out what the learner already knows about his job or other jobs; 5) In explaining the 'why' of the whole job and relating it to some job the worker already knows; 6) In placing the learner as close to his normal working position as possible; and 7) In familiarizing him with the equipment, materials, tools and trade terms. 4. Presentations Of Operations and Knowledge This is the most important step in a training programme. The trainer should clearly tell, show, illustrate and question in order to put over the new knowledge and operations. The learner should be told of the sequence of the entire job, and why each step in its performance is necessary. Instructions should be given clearly, completely and patiently.There should be on key points and one point should be explained at a time. For this purpose, the trainer should demonstrate or make use of audio-visual aids and should ask the the trainee to repeat the operations. He should also be encouraged to ask questions in order to indicate that he really knows and understands the job. 5.Performance Try Out:- Under this, the trainee is asked to go through the job several times slowly, explaining him each step. Mistakes are corrected &if necessary some complicated steps are done for the trainee first time. Then the trainee is asked to do the job gradually building up skill and speed. As soon as he does the job in a right way he is put on his own , but not abandoned. 6.Follow-up :- This is undertaken with a view to testing the effectiveness of training efforts its consist in
  • 29. a) Putting a trainee "on his own". b) Checking frequently to be sure that he has followed instructions and c) Tapering off extra-up until he is qualified to work with normal supervision. It is worth remembering that, if the learner hasn't learnt, the teacher hasn't taught. NOTE: These steps are being used in training programmes at SUDAL INDUSTRIES LTD.
  • 30. TYPES OF TRAINING 1. OFF-THE-JOB METHODS : Off the job training simply mean that training is not a part of every day job Activity. The actual location may be in the company classrooms or in places, which are own by the company or in universities, or associations, which have no connections with the company. These methods consist of: a) Lectures; b) Conferences; c) Group discussions; d) Case studies; e) Role playing; t) Programme instructions; g )T- group training h) Business Games i ) Sensitivity Training a) LECTURES (CLASS ROOM INSTRUCTIONS): Lectures are regarded as one of the simplest ways of imparting knowledge to the trainees, especially when facts, concepts or principles, attitudes, theories and problem solving abilities are to be taught. Lectures are formal organized talks by the training specialist, the formal superiors or other individual specific topics.
  • 31. The lecture method can be used for very large groups, which are to be organized within a short time, thus reducing the cost per trainee. It can be organized rigorously so that ideas and principles relate properly. Lectures are essential when it is a question of imparting technical or special information of a complex nature they are usually enlivened with discussions, film shows, case studies, role playing and demonstrations. Audio-visual aids enhance their value." The lecture method is not dead as some would believe." In the hands of able lecturers, and for certain kind of purposes and participants, it may turn out to be more interesting and effective than any other methods. b) CONFERENCES DISCUSSION METHOD : This method involves a more or less carefully planned meeting with a specific purpose and goal. Though this method is used for a variety of objectives it has proven particularly suitable for acquiring and understanding conceptual data and for the development or modification of attitudes. The conference can be an effective training device for a person who is either a conference member or the conference leader. As a participant he learns from others by comparing his opinions with theirs. He learns to respect others view and realizes that there is more than one workable approach to a problem. His views are subject to interrogation by others, and he in turn can question theirs. Conference training requires trainees to contribute something. It is not therefore, a device for novices. c) GROUP DISCUSSIONS (SEMINAR) : This is an established method for training. A seminar is conducted in many ways - It may be based on a paper prepared by one or more trainees on a subject selected in consultation with the person in charged of the seminar. It may be a part of study or related to theoretical studies or practical problems. The trainees read their papers, and this is followed by a critical discussion. The chairman of the seminar summaries the contents of the papers and the discussions which follow their reading.
  • 32. It may be based on the statement made by the person in charge of the seminar or on a document prepared by an expert, who is invited to participate in the discussion. A person in charge of the seminar- distributes in advance the material to be analyzed in a form of required readings. The seminar compares reactions of the trainees, encourages discussions, defines the general trends and guides the Participants to certain conclusions. Valuable working material may be provided to the trainees by actual files. The trainees may consult the files and bring these to the seminars where they may study in detail the various aspects, ramifications and complexities of a particular job or work. d) CASE STUDIES: The basic principle underlying case study is that managerial understanding and competence can be best attained through the study, contemplation and discussion of concrete cases, rather than through other methods of training. This method was developed in HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL and is one of the first deviations from the standard teaching method in that teacher or trainer is not the source of knowledge. Instead, learning occurs through participation, discussion and problem analysis. In the case study method the objectives of finding the correct solution is replaced by the objective of using facts effectively and of developing a convincing rational for a decision. A complex situation typical of real life problem is presented to a small group, which becomes the theme of discussion. This method provides for learning by doing. Since cases are generally based upon real experiences and problem situations, they create high interest among trainees. They are excellent for developing analytical thinking and increasing problem solving ability. e) ROLE PLAYING:
  • 33. It is widely used for human relations and leadership training. In this method trainees are required to place themselves into a simulated situations and play the roles assigned to them. They are generally provided with either written or oral descriptions of situations and the role they are to play. Typical role playing situations are manager conducting an interview, supervisor discussing a grievance with an employee, salesman making presentation to a purchasing agent, supervisors conducting an appraisal interview with an employee, etc. In role-playing, trainees sometimes overdramatise and overact, putting more emphasis on acting than problem solving. Trainees sometimes recent role playing, thinking it is childish. Instructor has to tackle the situation carefully by orienting the players before hand so that they accept role playing as legitimate training experience. f) PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION TEACHING BY THE MACHINE METHOD): - Programmed Instructions involved a sequence of step, which are often set up through the central panel of an electronic computer as guides in the performance of a desired operation or series of operations. It incorporates a pre-arranged, proposed or desired course of proceedings pertaining to the learning or acquisition of some specific skills or general knowledge. A Programmed Instruction involves breaking information down into meaningful its and then arranging these in a proper way to form a logical and sequential learning programme or package. In such a programme, knowledge is imparted with that: use of a textbook or teaching machine. The programme involves: Presenting questions, facts or problems to the trainee to utilize the information given; and the trainee instantly receive feedback (and sometime reward or penalties) on the basis of the accuracy of his answers. g) T-GROUP TRAINlNG: This usually comprises, association, audio-visual aids, and planned reading programs. Members of a professional association receive training by it in new technique
  • 34. and ideas pertaining to their own vocations. Through a regular supply of professional journals and informal social contacts or gatherings, members are kept informed of the latest development in their particular field. Audio-visual aids records, tapes and films are generally used in conjunction with other conventional teaching methods. Planned and supervised reading programs are conducted. Technical publications and the latest journals are kept in the library for the use of the trainees. h) BUSINESS GAMES: In this method, teams of trainees are formed to meet, discuss and arrive at decisions concerning such subject as production planning, research and development, sales forecasting, inventory control and other such activities. These games can be relatively simple, permitting rapid decision-making to be effected, or extremely complicated, entailing long and detailed analysis of trends in costs, sales and inventories. More over, the requirement that decisions be made as a team provides the trainee. the experience of working in small group. The business games are used for a variety of reasons, the primary one being the opportunity to learn from experience without paying the price that would result from wrong decisions made in real life. Business games are used today for quite serious purposes, they are exciting and powerful educational tools with numerous applications in problem solving research managerial decision making and testing and selection. i) SENSITIVITY TRAINING: One of the training methods that has caught attention of business people is something called "Sensitivity Training". As the name. itself suggests, its purpose is to make people more sensitive to themselves and to others. It attempts to create awareness how, consciously and unconsciously they influence others and vice versa. The importance it has gained as one of the management development techniques is because of the assumption that a manager can perform more effectively in a team if he has greater sensitivity to others. Some executives are of the opinion that sensitivity training largely
  • 35. failed to fulfill the real objectives yet there are others who feel such a training could be highly successful in the overall development of managers. Both the views are partially correct. The training method is still to gain ground in India. This is mainly because of lack of awareness on the part of the managers to appreciate its usefulness to them. Most of the articles written by clinical psychologists and behavioural scientists on this subject are often found to be highly technical; making it too difficult for layman to understand what sensitivity training is all about. In sensitivity training, one deviation from the formal training is that procedure and method of training is highly "unconventional". The main rationale of sensitivity training is the belief that "all men are the product of their cultures. From the culture, men absorb concepts and values concerning themselves and their relationship with others,"
  • 36. 1) ON-THE-JOB TRAINING: This is a basic system, which must be utilized to some degree by all organizations. Here, the trainee is put on the job itself and a supervisor corrects his errors as they occur. The main advantages of this method are: a) It strongly motivates the trainee to learning; b) It is a real situation and not at all critical. The main limitation in this technique is that its success depends upon the immediate supervisor to a great extent. This means that in case of on-the-job training, personnel department has a great responsibility for making a good, effective teacher out of every supervisor. 2) VESTIBULE TRAINING: Here, the trainees use the same type of equipment, materials and machinery and follow the same type of procedure, which they would use if they were doing the task on the actual work place. In other words, in vestibule training an attempt is made to duplicate as nearly as possible the actual material equipment and conditions found in real work. But unlike on-the-job training the training area is actually away from work place in vestibule training. Vestibule training permits the instructor to arrange other kinds of learning conditions as may be necessary, such as immediate of reinforce, accurate feed back of knowledge and results, etc. there is ample opportunity for practice and repetition. Learning sequence can progressively be arranged in order of difficulty. The training method is particularly appropriate where a large number of employees are to be trained at the same time for the same kind of work. Depending upon the complexity of the job to be learnt, training programme may last for a few days a several months. The most obvious disadvantage of vestibule training is the high cost of
  • 37. providing duplicate equipment that is used solely for this training. Such a set up may be more costly if only a few workers are in the programme at one time. 3) JOB ROTATION: Job rotation is a frequently used training method in industry. The major objective of job rotation is to broaden an employee's exposure as well as experience in the organization. The basic principle underlying job rotation is that, if the trainee is rotated periodically from one job to another, he will gather more experience concerning skills and knowledge. The advantages of a planned job rotation are a) it provides a general background; b) it demonstrates the nature and significance of management principle, since the rotated man will find that he can transfer learning from one job to another; c) training takes place in practical situation; d) competition can be stimulated among the rotating trainees; and e) it stimulates a more co-operative attitude by exposing a man to the other fellow's problems and viewpoints. The primary disadvantage of this method is that productive work may suffer because of sudden disruption caused by the change of job. Secondly, the amount of knowledge required during such a small period of time is also questioned.
  • 38. 4) DEMONSTRATIONS AND EXAMPLES ( LEARNING BY SEEING): In the demonstration method, the trainer describes and displays something, as when he teaches an employee how to do something by actually performing the activity himself and by going through a step-by-step explanation of "Why" and "What" he is doing. Demonstrations are very effective in teaching because it is much easier to show a person how to do a job than to tell him or ask him to gather instruction from the reading material. Demonstrations are often used in combination with lectures, pictures, text material, discussions, etc. Teachings by example are effective in mechanical operations or inter personal relationships, for job duties and responsibilities, for informal group standards, supervisory expectations, and the like. .Demonstrations are particularly effective in the training for acquisition of skills; but their usefulness is limited when it is a question of training management personnel. In a demonstration, the emphasis is primarily on know-how, the principles and theory of a job must, therefore, be taught by some other method. 5) SIMULATION: Simulation is a technique, which duplicates, as nearly as possible, the actual conditions encountered on a job. The vestibule training method or the business game methods are examples of business simulations. Simulation techniques have been most widely used in the aeronautical industry. Trainee interest and employee motivation is both high in simulation exercises because the actions of a trainee closely duplicate real job conditions. This training is essential in cases in which actual on-the-job practice might result in a serious inquiry, a costly error, or the destruction of valuable material or resources. It is for this reason that the technique is a very expensive one.
  • 39. 6) APPRENTICESHIP: For training in crafts, trades and in technical areas, apprenticeship training is the oldest and the most commonly used method, especially when proficiency in a job is the result of a relatively long training period of 2 years to 3 years for persons of superior ability and from 4 years to 5 years for others. The field in which apprenticeship training is offered is numerous and range from the job of a draughtsman machinist, a printer, carpenters, weavers, fitters, jewellers, diesinkers, engravers and electricians. A major part of training time is spent on-the-job productive work. Each apprentice is given a programme of assignments according to a pre-determined schedule, which provides for efficient training in trade skills. The merits of this method are: a) A skilled work force is maintained; b) Immediate returns can be expected from training; c) The workman ship is good; d) The hiring cost is lower because of reduced turnover and lower production costs; The loyalty of employees is increased and opportunities for growth are frequent.
  • 40. DETERMINING TRAINING NEEDS In order to determine the training needs of an organisation the HRD manager should seek information on the following points: (a) Whether training is needed? (b) Where training is needed? (c) Which training is needed? (a) Whether training is needed? Early hints that training is necessary probably result from problems such as: Standards of work performance not being met accidents excessive scrap frequent need for equipment repair high rate of transfer and turnover too many low ratings on employee evaluation reports many people using different methods to do the same job excessive fatigue. fumbling. struggling with the job bottlenecks and deadlines not being met. Various sources from which evidence of training needs may be gathered are as follows: 1. Informal observation 2. Performance Appraisals S. Suggestion system 4. Group discussion 6. Questionnaire to trainees or to supervisors
  • 41. 6. Morale surveys 7. Tests 8. Interviews with union officials 9. Selection or exit interviews 10. Analysis of reports relating to costs. Turn over, grievances etc. 11. Employee counselling. In many organisations the determination of training needs is predominantly done through observations. One common method for recording observations s the check-list oftraln1ng needs. It provides for indicating by a "yes" or "no" check whether or not each check-list statement has been observed by the employee whose training needs are being determined. (b) Where Training is needed? Once the need for training has been established in terms of the gap between the current and desired level of proficiency of each Individual the second step lies in stating the areas needing training. Areas needing training are generally broken down Into: Knowledge for the person who does not know. Skill for the person who knows but cannot do. Attitude for the person who does not care (for Instance. the attitude toward safety. authority, etc) Habits for the person who knows, can do, cares but Just has not made the desired behaviour part of his daily routine. Understanding for the person who Is not properly motivated to accept what he is told. The result hoped for Is the removal of the
  • 42. person's tendency to block, delay or fall to co-operate with certain people. The three major skills which the employees of any organisation need to successfully discharge their duties are: the conceptual skill, the human relations skill and the technical skill. Conceptual skill deals with ideas, technical skill with things and human skill with people. The conceptual skill refers to the ability of an employee to take a broad and farsighted view of the organisation and its future, his ability to do abstract thinking, his ability to analyse the forces working in a situation, his creative and innovative ability. and his ability to assess the environment and change taking place in it. The technical skill is the employee's understanding of the nature of Job he has to perform. It refers to his knowledge and proficiency in any type of process or technique. Human relations skills the ability to Interact effectively with people, and to build team work at all levels. The relative need of an employee for conceptual skill increases and for technical skill decreases as he moves to higher levels In the organisational hierarchy, His need for human skills, however, remains consistently the same at all levels. (c) Which training is needed: After determining the need for and the area of training manager must finally decide the method of training. Generally the methods which are used for training operatives are different from those used for managers.These have been discussed in one of the following sections
  • 43. THE PROCESS OF IDENTIFYING TRAINING NEEDS The effectiveness of the training function is heavily dependent upon effectiveness of processes used to identify training needs. This is the first critical step on the road to competence development and performance enhancement. First we assess the performance of the person, then based on the performance gaps we identify the training needs. It is no surprise that when an organization is in trouble, the training budget is the first one to get eliminated. Training does not seem to be fulfilling any significant purpose. Faulty training needs identification is at the core of this' problem. The organizational game plan is a rich source of training needs. Training is the medium through which the power of technology shifts can be harnessed. Training needs evolved not only out of competence gaps, but also competence strengths. Training has to be focused not only on filling competency gaps but also on enhancing competency strengths. Training departments generally focus all their efforts on filling competency gaps rather than enhancing already existing competency strengths.
  • 44. REASONS OF IDENTIFYING TRAINING NEEDS In most of the organizations today resources are scarce and have to be used carefully time is of the essence, and trainers of all kinds are required to justify their position and account for their activities. Whether you are involved in training as a full time professional or as a practicing manager with responsibility for training and developing your staff, the same disciplines apply. Training that is ill directed and inadequately focused does not serve the purposes of the trainers, the learner, or the organization. It aims to provide trainers with the frame work, tools, techniques, processes, and skills to take appropriate first steps in designing and implementing efficient, effective, timely and productive training for those who need it most. It emphasizes the importance of building a good foundation by clearly and precisely identifying and analyzing the needs that the training will address. Identification of Training Needs (ITN), if done properly, provides the basis on which all other training activities can be considered. Although requiring careful thoughts and analysis, it is a process that needs to be carried out with sensitivity: people's learning is important to them, and the success of the organization may be at stake. It is important to know exactly what you are doing, and why, when understanding ITN. The return on the investment you make in fully understanding what ITN is all about will make it well with worthwhile. A Needs Assessment is a systematic exploration of the way things are and the way they should be. These "things" are usually associated with organizational and/or individual performance.
  • 45. REASONS FOR CONDUCTlNG TRAINING NEED ASSESSMENT The need assessment serves to identify the gaps, & considers if training can solve the problem. The assessment is part of a planning process focusing on identifying & solving performance problems. > To determine what training is relevant to your employees' jobs. > To determine what training will improve performance, > To distinguish training needs from organizational problems, and > To link improved job performance with the organization goals & bottom line. The term need assessment & need analysis are interchangeable, but they have the same meaning & purpose, to assess & analyze. The primary purpose of the training need assessment analysis process is to ensure that there is a need for training & to identify the nature of the content of the training program. Conducting an assessment is a way to collect information that can be used to decide that type of development will be perceived as relevant & useful. Assessment enables conservation to take place that questions what skills & knowledge is required to be more effective. It is important that we view training or performance improvement efforts as a "system" not a "silo". Our efforts to improve one part of the organizational system will affect other jobs in the workplace environment. The need assessment process is an important first step I the development of training programme to performance improvement initiatives. A need assessment provides an opportunity to consult with a variety of people in the organization. The information collected, ideas generated, & the conversations that take place when people discuss their work lives lend enthusiasm to the process. The data collected-whether obtained through interviews, observations, focus groups, and performance data, questionnaires or tests- can clarify issues & provide a focus on performance.
  • 46. CONDUCTING NEEDS ASSESSMENT "GAP" ANALYSIS. The first step is to check the actual performance of our organizations & our people against existing standards, or to set new standards. There are two parts to this: Present competencies:- We must determine the current state of skills, knowledge, and abilities of our current &/or future employees. This analysis also should examine our organizational goals, climate, & internal & external constraints. Desired competencies:- We must identify the desired or necessary conditions for organizational arid personal success. This analysis focuses on the necessary job tasks/standards, as well as the skills, knowledge & abilities needs to accomplish these successfully. It is important that we identify the critical task necessary, & not just observe our current practices. We also must distinguish our actual needs from our perceived needs, our wants. The difference the "gap" between the current & the necessary will identify our needs purposes, & objectives. What are we looking for? Here are some questions to ask, to determine where HRD may be useful in providing solutions: Gaps:- Is their problem in the organization, which might be solved by training or other HRD activities? Impending change. Are there problems which do not currently exist but are foreseen due to changes, such as new processes & equipment, outside competition, &/or changes in staffing? Opportunities- Could we gain a competitive edge by taking advantage of new technologies, training programs, consultants or suppliers?
  • 47. Strengths:- How can we take advantage of our organizational strengths, as opposed to reacting to our weakness? Is their opportunity apply HRD these areas? New directions:- Could we take a proactive approach, applying HRD to move our organizations to new levels of performance? For example, could team building & related activities help improve our productivity? Mandated training:- Are there internal or external focuses dictating that training &/or organization development will take place? Are there policies or management decisions, which might dictate the implementation of some program? Are there governmental mandates to which we must comply? IDENTIFY PRIORITIES The first step should have produced a large list of needs for training & development, career development, organisation development, &/or other interventions. Now we must examine these in view of their importance to our organisational goals, realities, & constraints. We must determine if the identified needs are real, if they are worth addressing, and specify their importance & urgency in .view of our organisational needs & requirements. For example Cost-effectiveness:- how does the cost of the problem as compares to the cost of implement a solution? In other words, we perform a cost- benefit analysis. Lega1 mandates:- Are there laws requiring a solution? (For example, safety or regulating compliance.) Executive pressure:- does top management expect a solution? Population:- are many people or key people involved? Customers:- What influence customer specifications & expectations generate? If some of dour needier of relatively low importance, we would do better t devote our energies to
  • 48. addressing other human performance problems with greater impact and greater value. IDENTIFYING CAUSES OF UNDER PERFORMANCE Now that we have prioritized & focused on critical organizational & personal needs we will next identify specific problem areas & opportunities I our organization. We must know what our performance requirements are, if appropriate solutions are to be applied. We should ask two questions do every identified need. Are our people doing their jobs effectively? So they know how to do their jobs, & our organizations both for the current situation & in preparation for the future. IDENTIFY POSSIBBLE SOLUTIONS If people are doing their jobs effectively, perhaps we should leave well enough alone (" If it can't broke don't fit it."). However, some training and/or other interventions might be called for if sufficient importance is attached to moving our people & their performance into new directions. But of our people are not doing their jobs effectively: Training may be the solution: If there is a knowledge problem. Organization development activities may provide solutions when the problems not based on a lack of knowledge & is primarily associated with systematic change. These interventions might include strategic planning, organization restructuring, performance management & / or effective team building. We will look at these solutions including training and development and organization development, in future training and development and organizational development, in future articles in this series.
  • 49. HINDRANCES IN TRAINING 1) Different Learning Styles and Preferences: Different people have different learning styles. They have their own styles of learning. They learn in different ways and generally they also have some idea of what work is best for them and therefore what are the areas in which they need learning. This should be taken be taken into account for identifying their training needs which becomes a big barrier in identifying the training needs as considering each and every individuals learning styles and preferences is very difficult and would also not help in making the training programme successful. 2) Attitudes to Training: The attitude towards training vary according to peoples, precious experience and perhaps the training culture of the organization. 3) Training is Punishment: Training is given to those persons who are lacking behind in some of the areas i.e., Training is seen as remedial activity for those whose performance is seen as 'below par' or 'not up to the stretch'. If this is a predominant attitude in the organization than people will be reluctant to admit to a need for training, because this implies there is something wrong with them and due to this it may also affect their work which would make more problems for the organization and it would be difficult for the organization to cope with such a situation. 4) Training is a Price: Some of the people see training reward reserved for them due to some wrong impressions. If the reward is an offer for the training, people will be over anxious to have their need for this training Identified. In such a case even if they do not need any
  • 50. training in the particular area they will ask for it just for the sake of reward and which becomes one of the barrier in identifying the training needs. 5) ITN is a job for Experts (Normally Training or HR Professional): Some of the peoples assumption is that Identification of Training needs is done only for the experts or for the HR professionals and here is that only they should be involved. Due to such type of assumptions it becomes very difficult to brush up the mind of such people. So it becomes obstacle in ITN. 6) Only managers know what is going on in the organization similarly, here the assumption is that only they know their staff, so attracting and HR experts should be kept out. 7) Sincere management sees training as necessary for others but not for them. Suggesting that they too may need training might not be acceptable, and has to be handled differently. That is, with great tact and care. 8) Only sincere management knows enough about what is going to be appropriate what the organization needs? If this really were true, now -come many people in the organization (and outside) it to have a more accurate picture of what is actually happening? Indeed there is a rule of thumb that says that the 'lower' you go in the organization, the greater the understanding of what is needed!
  • 51. HOW TO MAKE TRAINING EFFECTIVE? Action on the following lines need to be initiated to make training practice effective: 1. Ensure that the management commits itself to allocate major resources and adequate time to training. This is what high-performing organisations do. For example, Xerox Corporation, in the US invests about $ 300 million annually, or about 2.5 per cent of its revenue on training. Similarly, Hewlett-Packard spends about five per cent of its annual revenue to train its 87,000 workers. 2. Ensure that training contributes to competitive strategies of the firm. Different strategies need different HR skills for implementation. Let training help employees at all levels acquire the needed skills. 3. Ensure that a comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists. and training and retraining are done at all levels on a continuous and ongoing basis. 4. Make learning one of the fundamental values of the company. Let this philosophy percolate down to all employees in the organisation. 5. Ensure that there is proper linkage among organisational, operational and individual training needs. 6. Create a system to evaluate the effectiveness of training.
  • 52. THE BENEFITS OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING How Training Benefits The Organisation Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes towards profit orientation Improves the job knowledge and skill at all levels of the organization Improves the morale of the workforce Helps people identify with organizational goals Helps create a better corporate image Fosters authenticity, openness and trust Improves relationship between boss and subordinate Aids in organizational development Learn from the trainee Helps prepare guidelines for work Aids in understanding and carrying out organizational policies Provides information for future needs in all areas of the organization Organization gets more effective decision-making and problem-solving skills Aids in development for promotion from within Aids in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyality, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and manager usually display Aids in increasing productivity and/or quality of work Helps keep costs down in many areas, e.g. production, personnel, administration, etc. Develops a sense of responsibility to the organization for being competent and knowledgeable Improves labour-management relations Reduce outside consulting costs by utilizing competent internal consulation Stimulates preventive management as opposed to putting out fires Eliminates suboptional behaviour (such as hiding tools) Creates an appropriate climate for growth, communication Aids in improving organizational communication
  • 53. Helps employees adjust to change Aids in handling conflict, thereby helping to prevent stress and tension Benefits to the individual which in turn ultimately should benefit the organization Helps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solving Through training and development, motivation variables of recognition, achievement, growth, responsibility and advancement and internalized and operationalised Aids in encouraging and achieving self-development and self-confidence Helps a person handle stress, tension, frustration and conflict Provides information for improving leadership, knowledge, communication skills and attitudes Increases job satisfaction and recognition Moves a person towards personal goals while improving interactive skills Satisfies personal needs of the trainer and trainee Provides the trainee an avenue for growth and a say in his/her own future Develops a sense of growth in learning Helps a person develop speaking and listening skills; also writing skills when exercise are required Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks Benefits in personal and human relations intragroup and intergroup relations and policy implementation Improves communication between groups and individuals Aids in orientations for new employee and those taking new jobs through transfer or promotion Provides information on equal opportunity and affirmative action Provides information on other government laws and administrative policies Improves interpersonal skills. Makes organizational policies, rules and regulations viable.
  • 54. Improves morale Builds cohesiveness in groups Provides a good climate for learning, growth, and co-ordination Makes the organization a better place to work and live. Designing Training and Development Programme Every training and development programme must address certain vital issues- (i) who participates in the programme? (ii) Who are the trainers? (iii) what methods and techniques are to be used for training? (iv) what should be the level of training? (v) what learning principles are needed? (vi) where is the programme conducted?
  • 55. Steps in training programme Who are the trainees? Who are the trainers? What methods and techniques? What should be the level of training? What principles of learning? Where to conduct the programme?
  • 56. IDENTIFICATION OF TRAINING NEEDS IN SUDAL INDUSTRIES LTD After going through all the theoretical part about training and Identifying Training Needs, we came to know about the various methods of, Identifying Training Needs. We adopted one method for this which follows the under given steps. These Steps are as follows: Steps in Identifying: Training Needs FILLING APPRAISAL FORMS IDENTIFYING TRAINING NEEDS CATEGORlSATION OF TRAINING NEEDS PREPARATION OF TRAINING PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTING TRAINING PROGRAMME FEEDBACK
  • 57. Step 1: Filling Appraisal Forms The employees are supplied the Identifying Training Needs form in the format shown below. The employees are supposed to fill up this form and is required to submit the form to the HRD officer within the prescribed time. The employee is required to function the top five needs in which he feels the training is necessary. The employee is also required to mention the name, department as well as the token no. so that while designing the tari11ing programme it would be easy to frame the programme department wise. Step 2: Identifying Training Needs The needs can be identified very easily as the employees are directly asked to mention the training needs in the form given to them. So the training needs can easily get identified and then can also be sorted and categorized. Step 3: Categorization of Training Needs Once the training needs are identified they need to be sorted of. So the identified training needs are sorted first. Then after sorting the needs they are categorized into different types for example- technical, computer, quality, materials etc. Finally when the categorization is over them the data gathered is now ready to form the training programme. Step 4: Preparation of Training Programme After the training needs are properly categorized they need to be properly programmed. Taking into consideration all the categories of the training needs the programmes are funned accordingly. They programmes are framed in such a manner so that the employees would be comfortable with that programme as well as the there is no waste of time and money which would ultimately result in loss to the organization or effect the productivity. So taking into consideration all these things the programme is funned. Finally when the training programme is ready, it now needs to be implemented.
  • 58. step 5: Implementation Of Training Programme The training programme is prepared in a proper way. Now, after the preparation of the training programme it is very necessary they it should be implemented successfully. For implementation of the training programme it is necessary that it should be implemented at the proper times so that the time set up for the training programmes would be suitable for the trainer as well as the trainee. The conditions set during the training should favorable and proper so that the trainee would feels more interested while receiving the training. All these factors needs to be considered while implementing the training programme. Step 6: Feedback Last but not the least is the feedback. Without feedback none of the programme would be said to be performed successfully. It is very necessary to take the feedback from the employees who have received training at regular intervals. Once training is given to the employees it should be examined at regular intervals whether the employees are able to use the techniques and knowledge which was given during the training and is the employee really able to improve himself Therefore for examining whether the training programmes were implemented properly or not and how far the training programmes are successful, it is necessary to take the feedback. Feedback is taken from those employees to make the forthcoming training programmes more effective. The concerned body takes these steps at regular intervals so as to fulfill the training needs and thus organizational goal can be achieved.
  • 59. DATA COLLECTION AND INTERPRETATION Questionnaire survey was conducted for the staff in Sudal Industries Ltd. The staff were given the form to be filled in giving the details about the training needs they want to undergo so has to enhance there competence and meet the organization objectives with improved techniques. Total no. of employees Workers 64 Casual 60 Staff 64 Trainees 6 The survey covered the training need identification of staff members. The need identification revealed mainly the following areas of training. 1. Technical training 2. Informative training 3. Behavioural training 4. Functional training 5. Quality awareness training 6. General training
  • 60. FINDINGS OF TRAINING NEED IDENTIFICATION Training for development of staff in SUDAL Industries is as follows 1. TECHNICAL Agin furnace operation Manufacturing process Automation, dies Advance tool correction Market research & segmentation 2. INFORMATIVE I.S.O. 9001-2000 Seminar on energy conservation Market knowledge Product introduction 3. BEHAVIOURAL Communication Time management Leadership Personality development Stress management
  • 61. Presentation skills Performance checking 4. FUNCTIONAL Internal/External auditor training Maintenance of machines Inspection & Testing Machine operation Accounts department Planning C.R.M. 5. QUALITY AWARENESS Productivity quality system Quality assurance M.S.A. S.P.C. / F.M.E.A. P.P.A.P. / A.P.Q.A. T.P.M. / T.Q.M. Six sigma
  • 62. 6 GENERAL First aid and safety training House keeping & 5s training Fire extinguisher Industrial progress
  • 63. DATA COLLECTION AND INTERPRETATION Questionnaire survey was conducted for the staff in Sudal industries. The staff were given the form to be filled in giving the details about the training needs they want to undergo so has to enhance there competence and meet the organization objectives with improved techniques. Total no. of employees Workers 64 Casual 60 Staff 64 Trainees 6 The survey covered the training need identification of staff members. The need identification revealed mainly the following areas of training. 7. Technical training 8. Informative training 9. Behavioural training 10. Functional training 11. Quality awareness training 12. General training
  • 64. FINDINGS OF TRAINING NEED IDENTIFICATION Training for development of staff in SUDAL Industries is as follows 6. TECHNICAL Agin furnace operation Manufacturing process Automation, dies Advance tool correction Market research & segmentation 7. INFORMATIVE I.S.O. 9001-2000 Seminar on energy conservation Market knowledge Product introduction 8. BEHAVIOURAL Communication Time management Leadership Personality development Stress management Presentation skills Performance checking 9. FUNCTIONAL Internal/External auditor training Maintenance of machines
  • 65. Inspection & Testing Machine operation Accounts department Planning C.R.M. 10. QUALITY AWARENESS Productivity quality system Quality assurance M.S.A. S.P.C. / F.M.E.A. P.P.A.P. / A.P.Q.A. T.P.M. / T.Q.M. Six sigma 7 GENERAL First aid and safety training House keeping & 5s training Fire extinguisher Industrial progress
  • 66. This document was created with Win2PDF available at http://www.daneprairie.com. The unregistered version of Win2PDF is for evaluation or non-commercial use only.

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