Study of cng and lpg based vehicle system in pune and ahmedabad


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Study of cng and lpg based vehicle system in pune and ahmedabad

  2. 2. - 2 - Acknowledgement It is always a difficult task to acknowledge all those who have been of tremendous help in an academic project of this nature and magnitude nevertheless, I have made a sincere attempt to express my gratitude to all those who have contributed to the successful completion of this project through this project report. As I present this report on Study of CNG and LPG Based System in Pune and Ahmedabad I am aware of the humanity and gratitude towards all the individuals who have so kindly offered me their time, skill, knowledge, advice, and facilities, or guidance. I am extremely grateful to Mr. Shailendra Singh Asst. Manager Marketing GSPC GAS COMPANY LTD for giving his valuable input and opportunity to develop this project and making all the resources available to me with the intention of success of this project. I would also like to thank Sanjiv Vaijanpurkar Dy. Env Engineer, GUJARAT POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD (GPCB) for his idea, advice, knowledge, and about all his support throughout this project Would also o like to express my gratitude to Mr. Chinmoy Tikader Technical Engineer, HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION (HPCL) for being in constant touch with me through E-mails and thus helping me in collecting and compiling data and preparing the report. I also take this opportunity to express my deepest gratitude to my Project Guide and our director Dr. Sharad Joshi for his constant support, guidance and encouragement and thus being a constant source of inspiration for me Last but not the least I would like to thank my parents, all the employees and all my friends who have always been a strong support during the entire course of my project and without their co-operation the completion of this project would not have been possible. Chandresh Parekh
  4. 4. - 4 - Index of Tables, Charts and Diagrams S.r. no Table / Chart Page No 1 Contribution To Air Pollution By Various Sources 4 2 Composition of CNG and LPG 5 3 Comparative study of CNG and LPG with other fuel on various emission factors 5 4 Strategies of Reduction in Emission Due to Vehicles in India 7 5 Gas Supply Grid in Gujarat 10 6 Gas Sectors in Gujarat 11 7 Plan Layout Of HPCL Mother Station 12 8 Description and Functionalities of Each element in CNG Mother Station 13 9 Typical CNG Mother Station 14 10 Comparative Chart Showing Feature Of 2 Stroke and 4 Stroke CNG Autos 18 11 Pictures Of CNG LPG Auto and CNG Dispensing Unit and LPG Fitted 2 Wheeler 19,23 13 Statement Showing Comparative Cost Analysis of CNG and Diesel Vehicle Per Km 23 14 No. of CNG Stations of Leading Oil Companies in Ahmd 24
  5. 5. - 5 - 15 No of LPG Stations in Pune and Ahmd 25 16 No. of CNG Vehicles in Ahmd 26 17 No of Vehicles Converted To LPG in Pune 27 18 Hesitation For Conversion To LPG Autos in Pune 26 19 Post Problems in CNG Autos 29 20 Hesitation For CNG and LPG Conversion in Private Vehicles 30 21 Public Response After introduction Of CNG Buses 31 22 Pre CNG and Post CNG RSPM Levels in Ahmd 32 23 Catering Level Of AMTS 33 24 Price Comparison Of Various Kits 34
  6. 6. - 6 - 1. ExecutiveSummary
  7. 7. - 7 - 1. Executive summary Automobiles are a necessary evil , while they have made living easy and convenient; they have also made human life more complicated and vulnerable to both toxic emissions and an increased risk of accidents.As we know that the petrol and diesel prices are shooting up each month, apart from this, these fuels are polluting the environment to the worst case possible by emitting harmful gases in the environment. Thus it becomes necessary to look for a better alternative than petrol and diesel which serves in terms of economy and health. The Title of the project is Study of CNG and LPG Based Vehicle System in Pune and Ahmedabad This project deals in this hot issue of CNG and LPG that can be used as a better fuel alternative in the future and thus to some extent gives all those necessary information needed to switch over to CNG and LPG based transport system in any city. Personally it has broadened my horizon in understanding the problem and helped me in suggesting few solutions for the problem. The location selected for carrying the project were the City of Pune and Ahmedabad. The duration of the project in Pune was 20 days and 25 days in Ahmedabad thus the project survey was concluded in 45 days in all. This project was divided into 2 parts, the first part included survey for LPG related details in Pune city and the second part was survey for CNG related details in Ahmedabad. Both surveys included meeting the authorities and bodies in concern like municipal corporations, state and public transport systems, oil companies etc and interviewing general public and auto drivers for their reaction on conversion to LPG and CNG in both cities. The project gave a thorough understanding about the CNG and LPG related details like; 1. Infrastructure requirements and the cost to set up the CNG and LPG transport related system 2. Response of the general public and the people involved in setting up the system 3. Understanding the functioning of different elements involved in system 4. Technical aspects related to transportation and supply of CNG 5. Pros and Cons of the system
  8. 8. - 8 - 2. ObjectiveandScopeof theProject
  9. 9. - 9 - 2. Objective & Scope of the project Title of the project Study of CNG and LPG conversion in selected cities Different objective of the project Primary objective To understand the CNG and LPG conversion system in Pune and Ahmedabad beginning from source to supply of the fuel Secondary Objective To know public acceptance level for the new system To serve the project as text book study for cities like Pune for installation of this system Scope of the project Area of operation Area of operation included interviewing the officials in oil companies, government authorities, and general public, private firms, etc. The duration of the project in Pune was 20 days and 25 days in Ahmedabad thus the project survey was concluded in 45 days in all. Location area covered Survey was conducted in city of Pune and Ahmedabad and sampling included Random and Deliberate sampling technique
  10. 10. - 10 - Theoretical Background
  11. 11. - 11 - 3. Theoretical Background Introduction Automobiles are a necessary evil , while they have made living easy and convenient; they have also made human life more complicated and vulnerable to both toxic emissions and an increased risk of accidents The rapid growth in motor vehicle activity in India and other rapidly industrializing low-income countries is contributing to high levels of urban air pollution, among other adverse socioeconomic, environmental, health, and welfare impacts. To overcome there should be emission controls and air quality management programs Air Quality Management An organized effort for achieving ambient air quality standards to minimize aesthetic, environmental and health risks A systematic planning to reduce / regulate pollutant emissions and ensuring continuous improvement Factors Contributing to Urban Air Pollution in India There are several factors that are contributing to toxic emissions, major of them in urban and sub urban which are no less to be called as Toxic Slums. Some of the factors are: High vehicular growth Burning of fossil fuel Increased industrial activity Small scale industries Urban Population growth unplanned- slums Rapid increase in vehicle miles traveled Slow increase of road coverage Traffic jams Fuel quality- adulteration Social and Economic constraints in adopting control measures
  12. 12. - 12 - Contribution to air pollution by various sources Back ground of the subject Hon ble Supreme Court of India is considering a Public Interest Litigation regarding the pollution in some cities like Delhi, Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Bangalore etc in India. Solapur and Pune have been subsequently included in the petition and directions have been given by the Apex Court to prepare Action Plans for these cities which inter-alias should include the pollution reduction strategy in those cities. In August 2003, Hon ble Supreme Court of India has issued a directive to the Union of India and the state governments to draw plans to introduce clean fuels in 11 cities apart from the existing cities of Delhi and Mumbai. These are: Bhurelal Authority has been appointed for reviewing the actions taken by the respective States/ SPCBs on the implementation of the directives of the Hon ble Supreme Court of India to control the RSPM and SPM levels in these cities Under its Project Blue Sky, GAIL has already drawn plans to implement city gas projects in the five cities of Kanpur, Lucknow, Agra, Bareilly and Pune in phases at an estimated investment of Rs. 554 crores (equivalent to 118 Million USD). INDUSTRY 25% TRANSPORT 70% OTHERS 5%
  13. 13. - 13 - With the increasing number of pollutants in Ahmedabad air and with the background of increasing trend in the use of CNG in the other parts of the world. The Hon ble Supreme Court had directed the Government of India to take initiative in promoting the use of CNG, an established clean fuel in the world and as transport fuel in Ahmedabad to control the increasing levels of ambient air pollution. What are CNG and LPG? CNG is the abbreviated form of Compressed Natural Gas. The Natural Gas has less energy density as compared to Liquid Fuel and hence it is compressed to over 200 Kg/cm² (g) pressure to make it CNG for use in the automobile sector. In its natural form it is colorless, odorless, non-toxic and non-carcinogenic. However, this natural gas is mixed with an odorant to add flavor similar to the odor of LPG from a domestic cylinder so as to facilitate detection of its leakage.: LPG is a by-product of natural gas processing or a product that comes from crude oil refining and is composed primarily of propane and butane with smaller amounts of propylene and butylenes. Since LPG is largely propane, the characteristics of propane sometimes are taken as a close approximation to those of LPG Comparative study of CNG and LPG with other fuel on various emission factors FUEL/ EMISSIONS CO2 UHC CO NOx SOx PM PETROL 22,000 85 634 78 8.3 1.1 DIESEL 21,000 21 106 108 21 12.5 LPG 18,200 18 168 37 0.38 0.29 CNG 16,275 5.6 22.2 25.8 0.15 0.29
  14. 14. - 14 - Major Benefits of CNG and LPG are: 1. Cleaner Environment due to improvement in Ambient Air Quality 2. Economical Fuel for the customers 3. Readily available Natural Gas pipeline 4. Reduction in emissions. 5. Very less carbon build-up increases life of engine parts like spark plugs. 6. Time needed Fueling is also similar to diesel or gasoline. 7. Service life of a vehicle increases with LPG. 8. Higher octane number. Need for Alternate Fuel program in India With India emerging as a global player in world market .it becomes the responsibility of a nation to be concern about its environment to have a global stand in world ecology. Some of the prime concerns for India are: 1. Rising urban pollution 2. Rising global concern for environment 3. Increasing vehicular pollution from conventional fuels 4. Rising public awareness & expectations 5. Exponential rise in pollution related diseases 6. Economics 7. Fuel security Government s role in setting up CNG and LPG based Transport System 1. State Governments support for marketing of AutoLPG and CNG 2. Allotment of additional land at existing Retail Outlets located in Govt. lands for setting up ALDS and CNG dispensing units 3. NOC for Additional Land 4. Permission to Retrofitters for marketing of Conversion Kits 5. Endorsement of RC Books of vehicles converted to Auto LPG and CNG 6. Stringent emission checks of vehicles to be enforced 7. Stringent deterrents for violators
  15. 15. - 15 - Strategies of Reduction in Emission Due to Vehicles in India Identification of Potential Traffic Control Measures Development of Criteria for Transportation Control Measures Screening of Transportation Control Measures & Selection of Measures Choosing a Base Case Analysis of Traffic Control Measures Analysis of Regional Traffic Effects Analysis and Evaluation of Changes in Regional Emissions and Air Quality
  16. 16. - 16 - 4. ResearchMethodology
  17. 17. - 17 - 4. Research Methodology Research It can be defined as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on specific topic. It is also a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge or one can say that it is systematic away to gain knowledge Type of Research Undertaken Descriptive study is a fact finding investigation with adequate interpretation .It is the simplest type of research .It is more specific than an explanatory study, as it has focus on particular aspects in the dimensions of the problem studied. It is designed together descriptive information and provides information for formulating more sophisticated studies .Data are collected by using one or more appropriate methods like observation ,interviewing and preparing questionnaire Different sources and methods of data collection 1. Questionnaire was given to public for their response on CNG and LPG system being introduced for public and private transport in Ahmedabad and Pune respectively 2. A formal Interview technique was used to get information from top executives in all well recognized private and public organization dealing with CNG and auto LPG directly or indirectly on and an informal interview or discussion technique was used in some private outlets and auto drivers and private vehicle owners 3. Observation was done at the gas stations to observe how the situation is different from that of a petrol pump and at kit installer s place.
  18. 18. - 18 - Primary and secondary data collection 1. Primary data are those which are collected afresh and for the first time and thus happening to be original in character. In the project primary data was collected through means of questionnaire to public using public transport, auto drivers and private vehicle owners 2. Secondary data are those which have been already collected by some one else and which have been already passed through process. This was collected while interviewing some officials as they handed over some statistical data directly in the form of printed copy and also through internet. Sampling Sample is the small group taken under consideration from the total group. The small group represents the total group, in the project the market segment, which was ask to be studied was Mumbai market but there was a limitation of the project to approach all the stockiest, dealers and retailers of the city. The areas selected for the sample are present further in annexure. Sample Space - Pune and Ahmedabad Samples Municipal Transport in Ahmedabad and Pune respectively General Public Private and Public organization dealing with CNG and Auto LPG directly or indirectly and an informal interview or discussion technique was used in some private outlets and auto drivers and private vehicle owners Sampling Technique - Random Sampling Contact method - Direct Interview and Observation Sample Size - Sample size LPG Autos 80 CNG Autos 75 Private Vehicles 25 General Public 25
  19. 19. - 19 - 5. DataAnalysis
  20. 20. - 20 - 5. Data Analysis Study of elements involved in CNG vehicle system As we know that implanting a CNG system in any place is not an easy task, it takes high level of planning and investment. It is not easy as installing LPG based system where the planning and investment in comparatively low. Installing a CNG system needs a proper and continuous supply, infrastructure, safety precaution, technical know how and finally awareness in people to adapt the change over Let us take an example of Ahmedabad city and try to under stand how the whole system functions from origin to engine. Supply Commissioned Under construction RoU in Progress
  21. 21. - 21 - Gas Sectors in Gujarat Companies Area Reliance LNG project / Exploratio Jamnagar, Saurashtra Essar Oil Jamnagar, Saurashtra Petronet LNG Bharuch, South Gujarat. GAIL LPG Bharuch, South Gujarat British Gas - LNG terminal Pipavav, Saurashtra Shell - LNG terminal Hazira, South Gujarat Gujarat Petronet Gas Network Vapi to Mehsana & Pipavav to Ahmedabd Wimco LPG Jamnagar, Saurashtra Jamnagar based Pipelines LPG, Crude oil, product & gas. IOC Baroda About 75 percent of India s known reserves are located in the Bombay High region and onshore and offshore regions of Gujarat. Arrival of LNG imports at Dahej have increased gas availability. HBJ pipeline originates from Hazira and runs through industrial belt of South Gujarat .State-wide gas grid under implementation. There are 2 LNG Terminals at Dahej & Hazira; this gas is at low pressure before reaching the mother station where it is compressed to 250 bars. The Gas Grid Project is 2200 km is a long pipeline with 60-70 MMCD capacity. The task of GSPL (Gujarat state Petronet limited) is subsidiary company of GSPC (Gujarat state petroleum corporation limited).GSPC purchase gas from various sources like Petronet LNG, Shell Hazira, Niko etc. GSPL is doing the transportation of these gas thru there pipelines. GSPL has one segment of pipeline called BKPL (Baroda-Kalol pipeline) which is 24" diameter. HPCL has tapped from this line with a 4" line to receive in our mother station. Pipelines are made of carbon steel seamless pipe, with polyethylene coating on it to protect it from corrosion. CNG station are as per petroleum rules 1976,gas cylinder rules 1981,NZS 5425 1980
  22. 22. - 22 - Gas Station Plan layout of HPCL mother station
  23. 23. - 23 - Legend Particular Measurement ( 00) 1. HT substation 40 * 40 2. DG foundation 30 * 62 3. Transformer room 40 * 40 4. Central stores 8.7m * 12.9m 5. AUR room 49 * 35 6. Electrical room 87 * 40 7. Cascade (1) 56 * 19 a. Cascade (2) 56 * 19 b. Cascade (future) 56 * 19 8. Compressor(1) 55 * 35 a. Compressor(2) 55 * 35 b. Compressor(future) 55 * 35 9. Odorizing unit 20 * 70 10. Office bldg 90 * 120 11. Mobile cascade filling 80 * 120 12. Car dispenser station 160 * 120 13. Bus dispenser station 160 * 120 14. Green belt Description and functionalities of each of the legend S,r. no Particulars Description 1 HT Substation High Tension Substation (power received at 11000 KV at that yard) 2 DG Foundation It is foundation of generator is being used at power failure 3 Transformer Room Indoor type transformer has been kept in that room. It steps down 11000 KV to 440 volt 4 Central Stores Store room of spares used at Mother Station 5 AUR Room AVR Room (Automatic Voltage regulator room ) 6 Electrical Room Electrical room has all the MCCB Panels in that room along with LDB (Lighting distribution panel, Emergency panels) 7 Green Belt It is advised form Pollution control board to have greenery in any industry or installation the maximum. Green belt is a patch of Lawn or garden. 8 Odorizing unit To ethyl mercaptan for detection CNG during leakage
  24. 24. - 24 - Typical CNG Mother Station Once the gas reaches the mother station it is then compressed to 250 Bars with the help of compressors, prior to this the gas is mixed with odorizing gas which gives the gas a typical smell, so it becomes easier to detect the gas .then the gas is transformed to fixed cascade where the gas is stored and then it is distributed to either dispensing or mobile cascade on buses to be delivered to other daughter stations On an average 325-330 kg of gas is filled in one bus and 1 bus takes 15 min to fill completely. 11(capacity) * 31(cylinders) * 50(buses) kg of CNG from HPCL mother station to daughter stations is transferred through bus cascades daily. CNG dispensing capacity in Ahmedabad is around, 2, 50,000 kgs/day. CNG dispensed (sale) at present: around 1, 50,000 kgs /day. Cascades are filled at low pressure and out at high pressure at daughter station. Fillings are done at 30 degree in cascade. Leakage is detected through whistle and surf solution. Cost of one trip of bus depends upon distance of daughter station. As we send thru Mobile cascades it is costlier than transportation thru pipeline. Average spending is Rs 1.6/Kg (HPCL)on transportation of CNG from mother station to daughter station. It varies on the distance of mother station to daughter station. Average no autos visit HPCL mother station is 1200. Vehicle can be filled upto 250m bar pr. There is no harm in it. But generally in crowdie outlets it is
  25. 25. - 25 - common observations vehicle is not filled up at 250m bar pr. because, Compressor itself supplies at pr 250 bar. Then there is must be some drop of pressure (10 bars to 15 bars) to dispenser. If no of dispenser is more and capacity of compressor is less, then it takes time to build up pressure upto 250 bars. So they are being filled up at lesser pressure. Special safety norm are to be followed in compressor area, electrical room, while filling the cascades, dispensing gas in auto and also for the auto drivers who come to station for filling their autos. Even private bus come in CNG .The bus has 130 ltr capacity tanks which gives an avg of 4 km/kg .Price of the kits is 4 lacs. Kits are bought from Bombay. Only 3 bus on an average per day visit at HPCL station. Only Rajdhani and Rajwadi transport from Ahmd to Baroda and south Gujarat visit the pump. Minimum ITI is required for operation of compressor, attending of breakdowns of dispensers. Minimum Graduate engineers are required to run a CNG station. Different people need different type of training Driveway fillers, compressor operator, fitter, electrician, supervisor, LCV drivers all can be trained through in house training program. Particulars about company owned CNG and LPG gas stations LPG gas stations - Pune 1. LPG gas stations Started 1.5 years back i.e. in 2004-05 2. Currently there are 8 LPG stations ( Solapur road -3 , Nagar road 2 , B.P 3 , Chinchwad (WIP) 3 ) 3. LPG supply is from URAN(Mumbai) through bullet tankers 4. It is requires to take care of safety precautions while transferring and dispensing the fuel 5. There Cannot be stand alone LPG station unlike CNG gas stations 6. Space required for the installation of LPG station is 18m * 20 as per norms 7. License problem for LPG gas station due to varied norms regarding space and safety 8. Setting up a LPG station costs around 50 lacs
  26. 26. - 26 - IOC LPG station - Ahmd 1. LPG gas stations Started 2 years back i.e. in 2004 2. LPG supply is from Gujarat Refinery 3. Trip cost 784 800 Rs per ton from site to LPG station 4. Safety measures as per OISD, CCOE are followed 5. It takes around 3 4 months to set up one LPG station 6. LPG vehicle gives more avg than CNG vehicle 7. Commission to retailers on Auto LPG is Rs1200/ton 8. Training is given to workers on safety and proper handling of gas 9. Machinery for LPG station is bought from L & T CNG gas stations Ahmd 1. CNG gas stations Started 2 years back i.e. in 2004 2. CNG gas stations can function as stand alone or in collaboration with other companies also. 3. Safety measures as per OISD, CCOE are followed 4. Petrol demand has reduced in Ahmd due increase CNG vehicles 5. Machinery is bought from Italy, Germany, India, New Zealand, 6. CNG tax structure (%) 12.5 % vat, 10.2 % service tax, 16 % excise duty, 3 % Octroi 7. CNG is mixed with odorizing chemical to detect smell i.e. ethyl mercaptan 8. Transferred through Pipes and bullet casket 9. Requires uninterrupted power for compressors, odorizing unit etc. 10. Petrol commission 70 paisa, CNG commission 1 Re. 11. Costing of 1 CNG station. Compressor 1cr Dispenser 20 lacs Cascade 12 lacs others 5 lacs Total ~ 1.37 - 1.50 Cr
  27. 27. - 27 - Testing / approving authorities for CNG kits and cylinders For CNG conversion kits. Automotive Research Association of India, Pune. ARAI Vehicle Research Development and Establishment, Ahmednagar Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun. For CNG cylinders. Chief Controller of Explosives, Nagpur. BIS, New Delhi. Approved CNG Kits and cylinders used For 4 wheelers : Transenergy, India. Tartarini, Italy Landi Renzo, Italy Lovato, Italy MTM s.r.l, Italy, Bedini, Italy. For 3 wheelers : Vanaz, India Sagas, India MTM s.r.l, Italy. Bedini, Italy Cylinders : Everest Kanto, India. Maruti Koatsu, India. BPCL, India. Faber, Italy Worthington, USA. Argentoil, Argentina
  28. 28. - 28 - CNG kits are the costliest amonst all the available types of kits .4 wheeler CNG kits are the most expensive (40 k) this might be one of the reasons for less of private vehicles getting converted to CNG 3 wheeler LPG kits are the cheapest. As per Vanaz of the CNG and LPG kit Dealer major problems are Line cleaning and filter cleaning related. Some other are Pick up problem, average and starting are general problem. These dealers do not give any financial assistance to customers. Mainly Maruti, Hyundai, Omni, Santro are the cars that come for conversion in both segments i.e. CNG and LPG 3 wheeler CNG kits are sold more i.e. 7 kits per day followed by LPG 4 wheeler kits i.e. 4 on avg daily whereas 4 wheeler CNG and 3 wheeler LPG kits are sold in less no. Price of 3 wheeler kit: - ~15,000 + 200(service) + 150(paper work) in cash and takes around 3 hrs for installation in auto. If taken on Loan: - 17,500 + 200(service) + 150(paper work). Employees are trained before actual installation is allowed. 1 year warranty on kits is given. Company fitted CNG autos There are 26500 CNG autos in Ahmd which include about 13,500 new CNG (OEM) rickshaws, and rest are conversion kit based. Demand of CNG auto (OEM) has increased by 2%.unfortunately there are only 2 dealers in Ahmd (Deepkamal and Manan motors) .1000 autos are sold per month. They keep Stock of 50 each 2 and 4 stroke autos. It takes 2 days of delivery, assembling of accessories at Deepkamal kits come pre fitted from company i.e. from Pune Bajaj and Waluj (Aurangabad) Comparative chart showing feature of 2 stroke and 4 stroke CNG Autos Feature 4 stroke 2 stroke Average 50-55 60-65 Start Self Kick Price 1.19 Lacs 1.35 Lacs Oil 2t Oil No Oil Kits Minda,Vanaz Minda Tech Prblem Less More Sales Less More
  29. 29. - 29 - . CNG Auto CNG Dispensing Unit LPG Gas kit fitted Auto
  30. 30. - 30 - LPG and CNG PUC CENTRE There is tremendous change in the PUC centers as compared to previous which were easily manipulated. After the introduction of CNG in the city, to keep a regular check in the emission norms of CNG vehicles, advanced PUC centers have being introduced which are completely computerized. These machines do not allow any kind of manipulation The emissions norms are pre fed in to the computer, receipt is printed from printer only if the vehicle is following the pre fed emission norms. The cost to set up such PUC centre is comparatively high as every thing is computerized. It Costs around 1.90 lacs (gas analyzer computer, printer, fees) to set up a PUC center Revised idle emission norms for (CO) and (HC) W.E.F 1-10-04 Sr no Vehicle type Manufactured before(31 3 200) Manugactured After(31/3/20 00) Bharat stage II CNG/LPG CO% HC CO % HC CO % HC CO % HC 1 2 wheeler 2 stroke 4.5 9000 - 6000 - - - - 2 2 wheeler 4 stroke 4.5 9000 3.5 4500 - - - - 3 3 wheeler 2 stroke 4.5 9000 - 4500 - - - - 4 3 wheeler 4 stroke 4.5 9000 3.5 4500 - - - - 5 4 wheeler (petrol/CNG/LP G)(Bharat stage II) 3.0 1500 3.0 1500 0.5 750 0.5 750 Government Transport System in Ahmedabad There is only Single depot I Ahmd unlike other cities having more than 1 depot like Pune. At one stage when the municipal transport in Ahmd was thinking of privatizing the transport system, the decision taken by Bhurelal committee to convert the transport system into CNG based proved to be savior for the municipal transport, it has not given profits but shown significant reduction in losses for the Govt as a result today Ahmedabd municipal transport catering level has risen to 14% as compared to 7% before the introduction of CNG buses. A detailed study is mentioned in the following section.
  31. 31. - 31 - Since 2004-2005, today no of CNG buses of AMTS on road is 400 and above this it has placed orders for 210 more CNG buses that are likely to be on road in six months increasing the fleet to 610. In this fleet there are buses that are taken from private companies on contract basis. Daily requirement per bus is 70 kg of CNG. These buses produce an average of 5.3 Km/kg. Initially Buses were running on routes were filling is easier and the route is economical to cover up the cost of plying the buses on that route and then expand to all the routes. Talking about the GSRTC, currently there are 200 CNG buses in the State. Out of which 90 CNG buses are plying on Ahmedabad - Gandhinagar route. 50 more CNG buses are likely to be put up on Ahmedabad- Gandhinagar route in next six months to make entire fleet of 140 CNG buses on this route. GRTC has purchased these buses from Leyland Tata. The new bus costs around15.50 lac. The Old buses are scrapped at 7 lacs. GRTC had 5 biodiesel on trial base, but did not work as availability and cost were the issue of concern. All the CNG related issues are taken care by Gujarat CNG act. Some common issues related to GSRTC and AMTS 1. Buses were bought in lots to avoid the problem of delivery during purchasing 2. Preventive maintenance training given to drivers, conductors and shop floor workers 3. EURO II and EURO III STD buses are purchased 4. Special gas filling station for these buses to avoid unnecessary rush and easy accessibility to fuel.
  32. 32. - 32 - Pune is implementing the LPG system efficiently, when it comes to CNG ,after meeting one of the officials at the Swargate depot and asking him about the launch of CNG plan his views were as follows:- 1. Plan to replace buses still can run for next 4 years to buy 300 to 400 new buses 2. The plan has to be implemented in phases and not at once as it will put pressure on the authorities at financial and administrative level. 3. A proper coordinated way of planning and implementation should be amongst all the authorities and departments taking part in the project and also at the same time should be responsible for it 4. Infrastructure needs to be in place to make the plan properly functional like the depot capacity needs to increase to accommodate the new fleet of buses. 5. Technically trained Manpower should be ready . 6. The road capacity needs to be widened so that the new fleet does not make congestion on the roads. 7. This in turn will increase the fuel demand which should be met timely, for this the no of fuel station should be expanded. 8. Demands should be met with adequate and timely supply. 9. All rules and regulation should be properly drafted before the plan comes to existence. 10. New system should not add financial burden on the general public, so a well planned strategy should be made for the smooth and long running of the system 11. The authorities should be ready to bear the loss or enjoy the benefit of the new system.
  33. 33. - 33 - Statement showing comparative cost analysis of CNG and diesel vehicle per km Sr no Particulars CNG vehicle Diesel vehicle Difference 1. Capital cost in Rs(chassis and body building) 16.70 lacs 11.98 lacs +4.72 2. KMPL 5.30 5.60 -0.30 3. Fuel cost in Rs 27.57 per kg 35.53 per ltr -7.76 4. Maintenance cost in paise 97 97 0 5. Spare parts cost in paise 30 30 0 CNG and LPG in two wheelers Weight of kit, lack of space and safety issues adds to the difficulty in designing and thus retricting 2 wheeler CNG and LPG vehicles to be adopted legally. But still Many cities have already adopted it illegally like kozhikode, Bangalore (Dhanyalaksmi Bangalore) etc.Illegal installation of gas kits costs around Rs 3000 ( ACTIVA) gives an economic average of 20 paise per km. Bajaj Auto Ltd is to come up with first ever LPG based 2 wheeler .
  34. 34. - 34 - 1. No. of CNG stations of leading oil companies In Ahmd Interpretation 1. Adani been private player has 25 CNG stations whereas HPCL even though been Govt undertaking , just have 10 CNG stations which means there lies scope for private players to invest in these growing business as Govt is giving a helping hand to it. 2. The above CNG stations include mother stations, booster station and daughter stations as well. Leading Oil Companies Nos Adanis 25 HPCL 10 Total 35 No of CNG Gas stations of leading oil companies 25, 71% 10, 29% Adanis HPCL
  35. 35. - 35 - 2. No of LPG stations in Pune and Ahmd City Nos Ahmedabad 10 Pune 7 LPG stations in Pune and Ahmedabad 10 7 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Ahmedabad Pune City Nos LPG station Interpretation Ahmedabad being metro city just has 10 LPG stations on the other hand Pune having ¾ of population than Pune has 7 stations secondly Ahmedabad had implemented the system long back than Pune then too it has just got t 10 which means Ahmedabad not stressing on LPG whereas Pune emphasizing on LPG and planning to install more 10 LPG station in next 8 months,which signifies that there must be some constraint for Ahmedabad in terms of using LPG being used as Auto fuel
  36. 36. - 36 - 3. No of CNG and LPG stations in Ahmd Type Nos CNG 35 LPG 10 Total 45 Interpretations From the above graph we can say that 78% (35) of gas stations are of CNG and remaining 22% (10) is of LPG which says that CNG is being used as dominant Alternative fuel than LPG in Ahmd. We can also interpret that there may be strong infrastructural support for CNG which may not be in the case of LPG. No of CNG and LPG stations in Ahmd 10, 22% 35, 78% CNG LPG
  37. 37. - 37 - 4. No. of CNG vehicles in Ahmd Type Nos Autos 26500 AMTS Buses 400 GSRTC Buses 200 private vehicle 500 Total 27600 CNG vehicles in Ahmd 400, 1% 500, 2% 200, 1% 26500, 96% Autos AMTS Buses GSRTC Buses private vehicle Interpretation 1. 96 % of CNG vehicles are autos 2. GSRTC and AMTS i.e. Govt transport is having a slow progress as it just contributes to only 2% in total vehicles converted 3. Emphasis is not given to private vehicle conversion as it contributes to only 2%
  38. 38. - 38 - 5. No of vehicles converted to LPG in Pune Type Nos Auto: 4600 3 wheeler (goods) : 780 LMV cars: 10000 Total 15380 No of LPG vehicles in pune 4600, 30% 780, 5%10000, 65% Auto: 3 wheeler (goods) : LMV cars: Interpretation 1. No Govt transport is converted to LPG 2. 65% of vehicles are private vehicles which shows relatively good awareness amongst citizens 3. Auto conversion to LPG is not to the mark in nos (4600 only) as compared to the total of more than 10000 autos in Pune
  39. 39. - 39 - 6. Hesitation for conversion to LPG Autos in Pune Factors , Rank Nos Not enough pumps , I 28 Technical problems , II 15 No knowledgeable service centers , III 10 Loan problems , IV 7 Others , V 20 Total 80 Hesitation for LPG Autos in Pune 28 15 10 7 20 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Notenough pumps,I Technical problems,II No knowldgeabl eservice centers,III Loan problems,IV Others,V Nos Hesitation Interpretation Even though LPG serves as clean and economical fuel there are some drawbacks when it comes to application part of it like: 1. Most the complain are been received for not setting up enough pumps in the city 2. There has been some technical problems while handling LPG based autos which is second major problem faced by the owners 3. Other problems include kit problem, renting better than ownership as no maintenance tension etc
  40. 40. - 40 - 7. Post problems in CNG Autos Problems , Rank Nos Start problem , I 29 Pick up problem , II 14 Maintenance problem , II 14 Earnings reduced as no of autos increased , III 10 Others , IV 8 Total 75 Post Problems in CNG Auto 29 14 14 10 8 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Start problem , I Pick up problem , II M aintenance pro... Earnings reduced... O thers , V Problems Interpretation Even though CNG serves as clean and economical fuel there are some drawbacks when it comes to application part of it like: 1. Most the complain are been received for start up problems 2. There has been some technical problems like pick up and maintenance while handling CNG based autos which is second major problem faced by the owners 3. Other problems include finance problem, accessories are costly etc.
  41. 41. - 41 - 8. Hesitation for CNG and LPG conversion in private vehicles Factors Nos Not service and proper kit fitting , I 24 High kit price (40 K CNG, 22 K LPG) , II 15 Buy company fitted cars , III 14 Technical problem , risks , IV 7 Hesitation 24 15 14 7 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Not service and proper kit fitting , I High kit price (40 K CNG, 22 K LPG) , II Buy company fitted cars , III Technical problem , risks , IV Hesitation Interpretations As far as private vehicles are concerned, people are hesitant to convert their vehicle to LPG and CNG as they fear 1. Mainly for service and kit guarantee 2. Secondly the price is matter of concern for CNG kit as it cost around 40,000 so people are waiting it to reduce. 3. Interestingly people are aware of launch of LPG and CNG based cars and thus are hesitant to convert their vehicles to LPG and CNG which they feel it a bit risky
  42. 42. - 42 - 9. Public Response after introduction of CNG buses Response , Rank Nos Speed, punctuality I 19 Comfortable(less noise and better seats) II 14 Less breakdown III 10 others IV 7 Total 50 Public Response after introduction of CNG buses 19 14 10 7 0 5 10 15 20 Speed, punctuality I Comfortable(less noise and better seats) II Less breakdow n III others IV Public Response Interpretations People traveling in CNG buses appreciate and majority say that 1. CNG buses are speedy and thus have become punctual 2. CNG buses create less noise and give comfort feeling 3. Technically they are sound and thus have les break downs 4. Other features are ,drivers seat gets less hot, gives a mega city look, no diesel smell etc On the other hand it is has not benefited financially; has reduced losses minutely, cannot be repaired on highways as mechanic not easily available, more maintenance and frequent complains from drivers.
  43. 43. - 43 - 10. Pre CNG and Post CNG RSPM levels in Ahmd Year Level 2000 190 2001 190 2004 CNG 135 2005 CNG 125 RSPM levels in Ahmd 190 190 135 125 0 50 100 150 200 2000 2001 2004 CNG 2005 CNG RSPMLEVELS Interpretations 1. Pre CNG scenario implies that situation was very critical as RSPM m levels were as high as 190 2. Introduction of CNG has reduced RSPM levels by 34.2 % i.e. from 190 to 125 in 1 year 3. Even though LPG and CNG are both been introduced in Ahmd Majority of the effect is due to CNG from graph no 3 and 4
  44. 44. - 44 - 11. Catering level of AMTS Year % Need Catered Pre CNG 7 Post CNG 2004-05 14 Post CNG 2005-06 18 % Need catered by AMTS 7 14 18 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Pre CNG Post CNG 2004-05 Post CNG 2005-06 SCENARIO %NEEDCATERED Need Catered Interpretations 1. As e result of chart 9 the catering level of AMTS has significantly increased fro 7% to 14% (ideally for developed nations it is 45% - 50%) 2. There has been increase of 100% in the catering level 3. People have shown faith in AMTS 4. Chances of increase I nthe level is high once more of new fleet is introduced
  45. 45. - 45 - 12. Price comparison of various kits Type CNG kit LPG kit 3 Wheeler 20-23 k 12-15 k 4 Wheeler 38-42 k 15-20 k Price comparision of CNG and LPG kits 22 13 40 17 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 CNG LPG Types of kits Rsin'000 3 Wheel 4 Wheel Interpretations 1. CNG kits are the costliest 2. 4 wheeler kits are the most expensive (40 k) this might be one of the reason for less of private vehicles getting converted to CNG 3. 3 wheeler kits are the cheapest
  46. 46. - 46 - 6. Findings
  47. 47. - 47 - 6. Findings 1. There lies scope for private players to invest in this growing business as Govt is giving a helping hand to it. 2. Adani play a major role in CNG distribution in Ahmedabad 3. Ahmedabad has 35 CNG station and 10 LPG stations which shows that Ahmedabad is not stressing on LPG whereas, which signifies that there must be some constraint for Ahmedabad in terms of using LPG being used as Auto fuel and it has favorable conditions for CNG setup 4. Pune emphasizing on LPG and planning to install more 10 LPG station in next 8 months and has not come up with any CNG station yet which shows that there are constraints for Pune to start with CNG distribution and has favorable condition for LPG 5. Govt transport is having a slow progress in Ahmedabad as only 200 GSRTC buses are under CNG .This is due to less or no gas stations available in other cities. 6. AMTS has done comparatively good work in adopting CNG and has helped in reducing pollution levels to great extent. 7. Emphasis is not given to private vehicle conversion to CNG in Ahmedabad. 8. Auto drivers and private vehicle owners are still hesitant to go with CNG and LPG due to various reasons as mentioned in earlier section. 9. Citizens of Ahmd are pretty satisfied the way AMTS is functioning currently.
  48. 48. - 48 - 10. The prices CNG kits are much higher than LPG kit which is one barrier to CNG conversion 11. Cost of setting up a CNG station is much higher than LPG station. 7. Limitations
  49. 49. - 49 - 7. Limitations 1. It took long hours to meet and get information from officials. 2. Officials were hesitant to provide data or information 3. As the project has a wide scope, some of the areas had to be neglected like 4. Technical details, in depth judicial information, various aspects of pollution etc. 5. As only 1 year has passed in the implementation of the system, no clear idea was given by the auto respondents as all had bought a new autos so the fault was not visible instantly ,it will take time of another year for the real picture to come out 6. As the project duration was in the midst of rains, some time and schedule constraints were there. 7. As there was email communication between me and some of the officials , it took some time to collect information and compile it for the documentation
  50. 50. - 50 - 8. Conclusion
  51. 51. - 51 - 8. Conclusion Adopting alternate fuel is nothing but A No Escape Route for the developed and developing nations. The sooner you welcome it, the better results you achieve. The stage is set for expanding the network to other cities. The success of CNG Expansion Program would depend on many factors. The key factors being the economy of CNG vis-à-vis other conventional fuels, adherence to safety guidelines and the Government Support. Auto LPG is also launched on a large scale in the country. At the end of the day, it will be the quality of the fuel and economics which would be important parameters for the commercial success of auto fuel. The emphasis would be on fuels with lowest emissions. However, CNG is here for the time being till a better fuel is discovered offering better economics to the users.
  52. 52. - 52 - 9. Recommendations
  53. 53. - 53 - 9. Recommendations 1. Govt should encourage more private companies so that the combined efforts would bring early results 2. Policy reforms are needed to support growth opportunities for private investment 3. Both the fuels should be encouraged so as to have balanced demand and supply scenario and it does not happen that one fuel is pressurized under demand and creates rise in its prices 4. Standalone LPG should be allowed just like standalone CNG stations 5. Proper awareness should be promoted amongst the citizens so as to clear their misconception regarding use of these fuels. 6. Strict action should be taken on sale in branded and cheap kit providers 7. Citizens using gas cylinders in their vehicles illegally should be penalized severely 8. Openings of more gas station should be encouraged by Govt by loosening the legalities involved into it. 9. The road capacity needs to be widened so that the new fleet does not make congestion on the roads. 10. To encourage people, prices of these fuels should not go up drastically. 11. New system should not add financial burden on the general public, so a well planned strategy should be made for the smooth and long running of the system. 12. Review meetings should be held periodically to discus the effectiveness of the system and suggestion to make the system more efficient . 13. Study of geographical spread of CNG vehicles movement is a must analyze the peak demand at individual CNG stations 14. Involvement of local government/transport authorities 15. Genuine cylinder kits and spare parts be used for CNG vehicles
  54. 54. - 54 - 16. Development of CNG infrastructure needs to be in line with growth of CNG vehicles avoid accidents 17. Suitable codes/standards are to be in placed for CNG kit fitment, testing etc. 10. Abbreviations
  56. 56. - 56 - 11. Bibliography
  57. 57. - 57 - 11. Bibliography 1. Research methodology C.R Kothari 2. ARAI Library 3. Printed record from GPCB ,GSPC ,HPCL ,GSRTC ,PUC outlet 4. Star news 5. 6.
  58. 58. - 58 - 12. Annexure
  59. 59. - 59 - 12. Annexure Questionnaire For Autos and Private Vehicle Owners 1. Place:-___________________________ 2. Name and Type of vehicle :- Mention type in the box CNG LPG 3 Wheeler 4 Wheeler 3. Vehicle Age:- Tick the option applicable A. 6 months - 1 year B. 1 year 1.5 years C. more than 1.5 years 4. Problems:- Mention first 5 basic problems a. _______________________________ b. _______________________________ c. _______________________________ d. _______________________________ e. _______________________________ 5. Benefits:- Mention first 5 significant benefits a. _______________________________ b. _______________________________ c. _______________________________ d. _______________________________ e. _______________________________
  60. 60. - 60 - 6. Suggestions :- Technical, Administrative, Safety, Economical etc _____________________________________________________ Questionnaire For Public response on Public Transport 1. Do you travel by public transport: - Yes / no If Yes then, how frequent a. Daily b. Most of the times c. sometimes Current experience: - Good / Bad ,mention 4 features a. _______________________ b. _______________________ c. _______________________ d. _______________________ Previous experience: - Good / Bad ,mention 4 features . a. _______________________ b. _______________________ c. _______________________ d. _______________________ 2. Suggestions( if any ): -_____________________________________
  61. 61. - 61 -
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