1
A
PROJECT REPORT
ON
AN ANALYSIS & COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FINANCIAL
STATEMENTS
FOR
KALYANI STEELS LTD., PUNE
SUBMITTED TO
U...
2
To Whomsoever It May Concern
This is to certify that Mr. Shetti Ketan Prakash is a bonafide student of
Vishwakarma Insti...
3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It gives me great pleasure to express my gratitude towards all the individuals
who have directly or indi...
4
CONTENTS
Sr. No. Topic Page No.
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1
2. OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE OF PROJECT 2
3. COMPANY PROFILE 3
4. THEOR...
5
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This project named An Analysis and Comparative Study of Financial Statements was
carried out at Kalyan...
6
OBJECTIVES
1. To obtain a true insight into financial position of the company.
2. To make comparative study of financial...
7
COMPANY PROFILE
The Kalyani Group is one of the leading Industrial Houses in India, having core
businesses in Steel and ...
8
Apart from Bharat Forge Ltd., the other major companies in the group are Kalyani
Steels, Kalyani Carpenter Special Steel...
9
Kalyani Sharp India Ltd. - Was established in 1986 as a joint venture between Sharp
Corporation, Japan and the Kalyani G...
10
Although the forging industry in India is the primary market for the company's
products, manufacturers of various compo...
11
The plant has been commissioned at Hospet and will generate power equivalent to
approximately 52 Million units per annu...
12
PRODUCTS
The various products of Kalyani Steels Ltd. include :
PRODUCTS
GRADES (As per Indian & Various International S...
13
ANY OTHER SPECIAL GRADES OF STEEL
AS PER CUSTOMER'S REQUIREMENTS
Primary Aluminium smelters cathode/Anode steel bars.
S...
14
1045 CK45 EN43B S45C
1055 CF53 EN9 S55C
1065 C60 EN43D S58C
1541 28Mn6 EN15 SMn420H
40Mn4 SMn433H
CARBON- Mn STEEL
SEMI...
15
SIZES :
As Cast : 120 X 120, 160 X 160 , 240 X 280 mm
: 160 mm dia,200 mm dia. ,220 mm dia.
As Rolled Rounds : 80,83,90...
16
KALYANI STEELS LTD FACILITIES:
EQUIPMENT TECHNOLOGY QUALITY BENEFITS
1. MINI BLAST FURNACE KORF TECHNOLOGIA- Lower Tram...
17
- 1 No. x 2 Strand (Pomini Group)
Bloom/Round Italy
- Bloom Caster capable of
Casting Blooms & Rounds
10/18 M radius
- ...
18
THEORITICAL BACKGROUND
MEANING OF RATIO: -
A ratio is a simple arithmetical expression of the relationship of one numbe...
19
INTERPRETATION OF RATIOS: -
The interpretation of ratios is an important factor. Though calculation of ratios is
also i...
20
LIQUIDITY GROUP:
The ratios computed under this group indicate the short-term position of the
organization and also ind...
21
TURNOVER GROUP:
Ratios computed under this group indicate the efficiency of the organization to
use the various kinds o...
22
It is calculated as, Cost of Goods Sold
Avg. Inventory
A high inventory turnover ratio indicates that maximum sales tur...
23
6) Capital Turnover Ratio: -
It is calculated as, Sales
Capital Employed
This ratio indicates the efficiency of the org...
24
2) Proprietary Ratio: -
It is calculated as, Total Assets
Owners Fund
This ratio indicates the extent to which the owne...
25
PROFITABILITY GROUP
1) Gross Profit Ratio: -
It is calculated as, Gross Profit *100
Net Sales
The gross profit ratio in...
26
OVERALL PROFITABILITY GROUP
1) Return on Assets: -
It is calculated as, Net Profit *100
Assets
Return on assets measure...
27
MISCELLANEOUS GROUP
1) Capital Gearing Ratio: -
It is calculated as, Fixed income-bearing securities
Equity Capital
A h...
28
ADVANTAGES OF RATIOS
1. Ratios simplify the comprehension of financial statements. They tell the whole
story as a heap ...
29
LIMITITIONS OF RATIO ANALYSIS
Though ratio analysis technique has got number of advantages, it attracts equal
number of...
30
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1) DATA COLLECTION
a) Primary Data: -
Primary data related to the project was collected from the d...
31
RATIO ANALYSIS
LIQUIDITY GROUP
1) Current Ratio: -
Current Ratio
1.45
1.56
1.82
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-...
32
the nature of industry. The standard Current Ratio applicable to the Indian
industries is 1.33:1.
Here the Current Rati...
33
current ratio, this is a more rigorous test of liquidity than the Current Asset Ratio
and when used in conjunction with...
34
Significance:-
This ratio measures the efficiency in the utilization of fixed assets. This ratio
indicates whether the ...
35
Significance: -
This ratio signifies achievement of maximum sales with less investment in
working capital. As such high...
36
Significance: -
This ratio indicates capability of the organization in efficient use of current
assets. This ratio indi...
37
This ratio indicates whether capital employed is turned over in the form of
sales more number of times. As such higher ...
38
A low inventory turnover may reflect dull business, overinvestment in
inventory or accumulation of absolute and unsalea...
39
Significance: -
It is a measure of financial strength of a concern. Lower the ratio greater the
security available to t...
40
Propriotary Ratio
61.38
51
56.93
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006
Financial Years
Percentage
Signif...
41
3) Capital Employed Ratio:-
Capital Employed Ratio
57.54
52.27
41.39
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-20...
42
It should be remembered that all of the financial years studied had cap
employed ratio below 65% which also suggest tha...
43
A high gross profit ratio as compared with that of the other firm in the same
industry implied that the firm in questio...
44
Significance: -
This ratio differs from the ratio of operating profits to net sales in as much as it
is calculated afte...
45
Return on Asset Ratio
3.19
8.95
17.33
0
5
10
15
20
2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006
Financial Years
Percentage
Significanc...
46
Return on Capital Employed
3.65
13.7
23.86
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006
Financial years
Percentage
...
47
Return on shareholders Fund
5.2
17.54
14.22
0
5
10
15
20
2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006
Financial Years
Percentage
Signi...
48
Capital Gearing Ratio
3.52
3.29
2.04
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006
Financial Years
Significan...
49
NOTES FORMING PART OF THE PROJECT REPORT
1. Debtors for sale of assets has not been considered which has been duly
ment...
50
CONCLUSION
The company has strong short term liquidity position as both the liquidity ratios
are favorable and apprecia...
51
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Following books were referred for carrying out the project: -
Financial Management M Y Khan/ P K Jain
Fina...
52
PROFIT & LOSS ACCOUNT FOR THE LAST 3 YEARS
2005-2006 2004-2005 2003-2004
INCOME
Sales, Gross 7546482590 9230188514 5325...
53
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEET FOR THE LAST 3 YEARS
2005-2006 2004-2005 2003-2004
1] Sources of
Funds
1) Shareholders
Funds...
54
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Comparative study of financial statements

  1. 1. 1 A PROJECT REPORT ON AN ANALYSIS & COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS FOR KALYANI STEELS LTD., PUNE SUBMITTED TO UNIVERSITY OF PUNE IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF TWO YEARS FULL TIME COURSE MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION(MBA) SUBMITTED BY KETAN P. SHETTI (BATCH 2005-07) VISHWAKARMA INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT, PUNE-48
  2. 2. 2 To Whomsoever It May Concern This is to certify that Mr. Shetti Ketan Prakash is a bonafide student of Vishwakarma Institute of Management, Pune. He has successfully carried out his summer project titled AN ANALYSIS AND COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS at Kalyani Steels Ltd, Pune. in the partial fulfillment of Masters in Business Administration course of University of Pune (2005-2007). He has worked under our guidance and directions. His work is found to be good and complete in all respects. During the period we found him hard working, sincere and loyal. We wish him all the best for his future. Prof Mahesh Halale. Dr Sharad L. Joshi. (Project Guide) (Director)
  3. 3. 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It gives me great pleasure to express my gratitude towards all the individuals who have directly or indirectly helped me in completing this project. First of all I am extremely grateful to Mr. Anant Bhave, Vice President (Accounts and Finance Project), Kalyani Steels Ltd, for providing me integrating project in finance for sixty days. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my company guide Mr. Rajiv Toye, Associate Vice President (Accounts and Finance), Kalyani Steels Ltd for his invaluable guidance during the project period which helped me in completing the project successfully. I also extent my special thanks to Mr. Anand Shirsat (Asst Personnel Manager), Kalyani Steels Ltd. I wish to express my sincere thanks to our Director Dr. Sharad Joshi and my project guide Prof Mahesh Halale for providing me valuable guidance & inputs which helped me to complete this project in true sense. I also extend my thanks to all the staff of Finance department of Kalyani Steels Ltd. for their support, which helped me a lot in completing the project. Lastly my ingenious thanks to all my colleagues and friends for their kind co- operation and help. Ketan Shetti (MBA-II)
  4. 4. 4 CONTENTS Sr. No. Topic Page No. 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 2. OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE OF PROJECT 2 3. COMPANY PROFILE 3 4. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 14 5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 26 6. RATIO ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION 27 7. CONCLUSION 46 8. BIBLIOGRAPHY 47 9. ANNEXURE 1 48 10. ANNEXURE 2 49
  5. 5. 5 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This project named An Analysis and Comparative Study of Financial Statements was carried out at Kalyani Steels Ltd to analyze and understand financial feasibility of the company in terms of liquidity, turnover, solvency, profitability etc. by using Ratio Analysis technique. I chose to do this project at Kalyani Steels Ltd because it is a leading manufacturer of Carbon and Alloy steels and an important constituent of the over $ 1.2 billion Pune based Kalyani group. The company was established way back in 1973 mainly to cater to in-house requirements of forging quality steels. Over the years the Kalyani Steels Ltd is upgrading its technology and infrastructure to justify its mission statement, Better Steel Through Better Technology . The Ratio Analysis technique is the process of identifying the financial strength and weakness of the firm by properly establishing relationship between the items of the balance-sheet and the profit and loss account because the figures recorded in the financial statements are absolutely incapable of revealing the soundness or otherwise of a Company s financial position or performance. Thus the technique of Ratio Analysis has been used which is supposed to be powerful tool for financial statements. In Ratio Analysis technique a ratio is used as a benchmark for evaluating the financial position and the performance of the firm.
  6. 6. 6 OBJECTIVES 1. To obtain a true insight into financial position of the company. 2. To make comparative study of financial statements of different years. 3. To draw the correct picture of the financial operations of the company in terms of liquidity, solvency, turnover, profitability etc. 4. To find out the reasons for unsatisfactory results.
  7. 7. 7 COMPANY PROFILE The Kalyani Group is one of the leading Industrial Houses in India, having core businesses in Steel and Steel based products, Forgings and Automotive Components. The Group s Annual Turnover is over USD 1.5 billion and has joint ventures with some of the world leaders such as Meritor, USA, Carpenter Technology Corporation, USA, Hayes Lemmerz, Germany, Faw Corporation, China etc. Bharat Forge Limited, the flagship company of the group is the 2nd largest forging company in the world and the largest domestic player with a share of 80% in axle components and engine components. Bharat Forge Ltd., the flagship company of the US $ 1.5 billion Kalyani Group, is a 'Full Service Supplier' of engine & chassis components. It is the largest exporter of auto components from India and leading chassis component manufacturer in the world. With manufacturing facilities spread over 9 locations and 6 countries - two in India, three in Germany, one in Sweden, one in Scotland, one in North America and one in China, the company manufactures a wide range of safety and critical components for passenger cars, commercial vehicles and diesel engines. The company also manufactures specialized components for the railway, construction equipment, oil & gas and other industries. It is capable of producing large volume parts in both steel and aluminium. Bharat Forge has built up a strong capability in design and engineering, including a full fledged product testing and validation facility, which gives Bharat Forge a Full Service Supply Capability - from product conceptualization to designing to manufacturing and product testing & validation
  8. 8. 8 Apart from Bharat Forge Ltd., the other major companies in the group are Kalyani Steels, Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels, Kalyani Lemmerz, Automotive Axles, Kalyani Thermal Systems, BFL Utilities, Kalyani Net Ventures, Epicenter and Synise Technologies. The Kalyani Group's vertical integration, with upstream steel making and downstream machining coupled with international competitiveness at every step, benefits our customers in terms of : World Class Technology High Quality Partnership Apart from Kalyani Steels, the 2000 cr. Pune based Kalyani Group encompasses Bharat Forge - The flagship company of the group was established in 1961. It is the largest forging company in Asia and one of the three largest and most technologically advanced commercial forge shops in the world. Bharat Forge manufactures a wide range of forgings and machined components for automotives, diesel engines, railways, earthmoving, cement, sugar, steel, coal, ship building and oilfield industries. Kalyani Brakes Ltd. - Established in 1982, when the automative revolution in India was about to take-off, Kalyani Brakes Ltd.(KBX) is today, a leading manufacturer of brakes in the country. Kalyani Brakes is a joint venture between Robert Bosch, Germany- a Fortune 500 company, and world leader in brake systems, Nippon Air Brake Co. Ltd. of Japan and the Kalyani Group. Kalyani Lemmerz Ltd. - The Kalyani Group had promoted Kalyani Wheels as a part of its diversification plan. At that time they had a collaboration with Lemmerz Werke, Germany. Subsequently, Lemmerz Werke became a joint venture partner and the new company was christened as Kalyani Lemmerz Ltd.(KLL). The company manufactures wheel rims for utility vehicles, light and heavy commercial workers and tractors.
  9. 9. 9 Kalyani Sharp India Ltd. - Was established in 1986 as a joint venture between Sharp Corporation, Japan and the Kalyani Group. It is a leading manufacturer and exporter of consumer electronic items from India. Kalyani Thermal Systems Ltd. - Established in 1979, this company specializes in design, construction and installation of custom engineered Industrial Heat Processing Systems. To stay apace with the latest technology, the company has a technical tie-up with Flinn & Dreffein Engineering Co., USA Mr. B. N. Kalyani Chairman, Kalyani Group The corporate philosophy of the Chairman of the Kalyani Group, Mr. B.N. Kalyani is, "To use our specialized skills and innovative technology to contribute to the welfare of the society. It is our intention to grow with our employees and to aid and encourage them to participate in our goals in order that they realize their full potential. Our prosperity is linked to the prosperity of our customers". Kalyani Steels Ltd. was established in 1973, to fulfill the in-house requirements of forging quality steel of the Kalyani Group. It's corporate office is in Pune. Over the years, Kalyani Steels has been continuously upgrading its technology and infrastructure. The first such technology update was implemented through a technology tie-up with AICHI Steels of Japan.
  10. 10. 10 Although the forging industry in India is the primary market for the company's products, manufacturers of various components for commercial vehicles, two-wheelers, diesel engines, bearings, tractors, turbines, railways and seamless tubes (oil sector) also form a substantial part of the company's clientele. In 1997, the Kalyani Group entered into product sharing with Mukund Ltd. to set up a new plant in the Hospet-Bellary region of Karnataka state. At present the products for the KSL are manufactured at its Hospet plant which employs a new facility using less power intensive mini-blast furnace route, provided by Tata Korf-Korf Technology of Brazil. In 1999, the KSL plant in Pune was hived off to KCSSL (Kalyani Carpenter Special Steels Ltd.). Kalyani Steels commissions its first 7.5 MW Captive Power Plant The plant to generate power equivalent to # 52 million units per annum Kalyani Steels Limited, a leading manufacturer of Carbon and Alloy Steels and a part of the over $ 1.2 billion Kalyani Group has commissioned its 7.5 MW capacity Power Plant. A company that uses blast furnaces for producing steel has set up the plant for captive consumption by using blast furnace gas generated by its mini blast furnaces. The virtue of heat content is utilized to generate electric power. The projected power requirement of the integrated steel plant is more than 120 Million units per annum. Setting up our own power plant gives us the advantage to be in a position to control costs and generate power economically. It will reduce reliance on the state electricity grid as well as bring down the input cost of steel production and increase the competitiveness of the end products.
  11. 11. 11 The plant has been commissioned at Hospet and will generate power equivalent to approximately 52 Million units per annum.
  12. 12. 12 PRODUCTS The various products of Kalyani Steels Ltd. include : PRODUCTS GRADES (As per Indian & Various International Standards) : CARBON AND ALLOY STEELS (Automobile sectors) 1. Carbon Steels A. Forging B. Boilers C. Auto 2 wheeler Cars Tractors D. Seamless tube E. Exports Transmission 2. Low Alloys A. Forging B. Auto 2 wheeler 4 wheeler C. Seamless tube 3. High Alloys A. Forging B. Auto Heavy engineering SPRING STEELS BALL BEARING STEELS
  13. 13. 13 ANY OTHER SPECIAL GRADES OF STEEL AS PER CUSTOMER'S REQUIREMENTS Primary Aluminium smelters cathode/Anode steel bars. SIZE RANGE AS CAST PRODUCTS BILLETS : 120 x 120 mm, 160 x 160 mm & 180 x 180 mm Squares BLOOMS : 240 x 280 mm, 280 x 320 mm Rectangle ROUNDS : 160, 200, 220 mm Dia Rounds AS ROLLED PRODUCTS ROUNDS : 83, 85, 100, 105, 110, 125, 130 mm RCS : 75, 95, 100, 115, 120, 125, 140, 160 mm ANY OTHER SIZE MUTUALLY AGREED. STEELS GRADES CATEGORY AISI/SAE DIN B.S. JIS 1010 CK10 EN2A S10C 1015 CK15 EN32B S15C 1025 CK25 EN3B S25C PLAIN CARBON STEEL 1035 CK35 EN8,EN8A S35C
  14. 14. 14 1045 CK45 EN43B S45C 1055 CF53 EN9 S55C 1065 C60 EN43D S58C 1541 28Mn6 EN15 SMn420H 40Mn4 SMn433H CARBON- Mn STEEL SEMI FREE CUTTING STEEL 1137,1141 EN15AM SMn443H,SUM41 1541 16MnCr5 SCR415,SUM420CHROME+MANGENSE STEEL 20MnCr5 CHROME+NICKEL STEEL 3120 15CrNi6 EN352 8620 En353,EN354 SNCM420H 4320 17CrNiMO6 EN36C,EN LOW CARBON CHROME+NICKEL MOLY STEEL 361,362,363 5130 34Cr4 EN18A,EN18C SCR435 CHROME STEEL 5140 41Cr4 SCR440 4130 25CrMO4 EN19C SCM440H 4135 34CrMO4 SCM435,SCM420 CHROME+ MOLY STEEL 4140 42CrMO4 MEDIUM CARBON CHROME+NICKEL+MOLY STEEL 4340 -- EN24 SNCM431,SNCM439 SNCM447 SAE52100 100Cr6 En31 SUJ1,SUJ2 etcBEARING STEEL SAE5160 -- EN45A SUP6,SUP9,SUP11
  15. 15. 15 SIZES : As Cast : 120 X 120, 160 X 160 , 240 X 280 mm : 160 mm dia,200 mm dia. ,220 mm dia. As Rolled Rounds : 80,83,90,100,105,110,125,130 dia. As Rolled Rounded Corner Squares (RCS) : 75 ,90,95,100,115,125,140,160& 180 mm RCS
  16. 16. 16 KALYANI STEELS LTD FACILITIES: EQUIPMENT TECHNOLOGY QUALITY BENEFITS 1. MINI BLAST FURNACE KORF TECHNOLOGIA- Lower Tramp Elements (2 Nos. x 250 Cu.M) SIDERURGICA LTDA., - Consistent input to EOF Brazil 2. ENERGY OPTIMISING KORF TECHNOLOGIA- Lower Gas Levels(N2) FURNACE SIDERURGICA LTDA., - Predictable Tapping Brazil Chemistry 3. LADLE REFINING ASEA BROWN - Chemical Homogeneity FURNACE WITH CORED BOVERI, - Narrow Hardenability WIRE INJECTION Sweden Band (2 No. x 40/45 MT) - Finer & more consistent Grain size 4. VACUUM DESAGGING ALD VACUUM - Low O2, H2, N2 levels (1 No. x 40/45 MT) TECHNOLOGY - Lower Inclusions Vacuum of 1 m bar in Germany - Improved Chemical 3 minutes Homogeneity 5. CONTINUOUS CASTING TECHINT,
  17. 17. 17 - 1 No. x 2 Strand (Pomini Group) Bloom/Round Italy - Bloom Caster capable of Casting Blooms & Rounds 10/18 M radius - 1 No. x 3 Strand Billet Caster -9/16 M radius - Fully Shrouded Casting - Low pick up of N2, O2 - Combi Electro Magnetic - Reduced level of Stirrer (Mould & Strand) segregation & more equiaxed grains - Automatic Mould Level - Avoids entrapment of Control Mould Flux resulting in lower macro inclusions - T-Shape Tundish - Reduction in inclusions due to improved floatation 6. BLOOM / INGOT BENDOTTI - Top & Bottom fired REHEATING FURNACE Italy More uniform 35 T/Hr Pusher Type, temperature Oil Fired 7. ROLLING MILL DANIELI - Strict dimensional 750mm 2-High Blooming Italy tolerances Mill
  18. 18. 18 THEORITICAL BACKGROUND MEANING OF RATIO: - A ratio is a simple arithmetical expression of the relationship of one number to another. According to Accountants Handbook by Wixon Kell and Bedford, a ratio is an expression of the quantitative relationship between two numbers . In short it can be defined as the indicated quotient of two mathematical expressions. The ratios can be expressed in 1) Percentages 2) fraction and 3) Proportion of numbers. MEANING OF RATIO ANALYSIS: - Ratio Analysis is a technique of analysis and interpretation of financial statements. it is defined as the systematic use of ratios to interpret the financial statements so that the strengths and weaknesses of a firm as well as its historical performances and current financial condition can be determined. There are a number of ratios which can be calculated from the information given in the financial statements, but the analysts has to select the appropriate date and calculate only a few appropriate ratios from the same keeping in mind the objectives of analysis. The following four steps involved in the ratio analysis: - 1. Selection of relevant data from financial statements depending upon financial analysis. 2. Calculation of appropriate ratios. 3. Comparison of the calculated ratios of the same firm in the past or the ratios developed from projected financial statements to the ratios of some other firms or the comparison with ratios of the industry to which firm belonged. 4. Interpretation of ratios.
  19. 19. 19 INTERPRETATION OF RATIOS: - The interpretation of ratios is an important factor. Though calculation of ratios is also important but it is only a clerical task whereas interpretation needs skill, intelligence and foresightedness. The impacts of factors such as price level changes, change in accounting policies, window dressing etc should be kept in mind when attempting to interpret ratios. The interpretation of ratios can be made in following ways: - 1. Intra firm comparison: - Here the ratios of one organization may be compared with the ratios of the same organization for the various years either the previous years or the future years. 2. Inter firm comparison: - The ratios of one organization may be compared with the ratios of the other organization in the same industry and such comparison will be meaningful as the various organization, in the same industry may be facing similar kinds of financial problems. 3. The ratios of an organization may be compared with some standards, which may be supposed to be the thumb-rule for the evaluation of the performance. CLASIFICATION OF RATIOS: - The ratios may be classified under various ways, which may use various criterions to do the same. However for the convenience purpose, the ratios are classified under following groups. 1. Liquidity group 2. Turnover group 3. Profitability group 4. Solvency group and 5. Miscellaneous group
  20. 20. 20 LIQUIDITY GROUP: The ratios computed under this group indicate the short-term position of the organization and also indicate the efficiency with which the working capital is being used. Commercial banks and short-term creditors may be basically interested in the ratios falling under this group. Two most important ratios may be calculated under this group. 1) Current Assets: - It is calculate as, Current Assets Current Liabilities Current ratio indicates the backing available to current liabilities in the form of current assets. In other words, higher current ratio indicates that there are sufficient assets available with the organization, which can be converted in the form of cash. A current ratio of 2:1 is supposed to be standard and ideal. 2) Liquid Ratio or Acid Test Ratio: - It is calculated as, Liquid Assets Liquid Liabilities Here liquid assets include all assets except inventory and p/p exps and liquid liabilities except overdraft or cash credit or o/s exps. Liquid ratio indicates the backing available to liquid liabilities in the form of liquid assets. The term liquid assets indicate the assets, which can be converted in the form of cash without any reduction in the value. Almost immediately whereas the term liquid liabilities which are required to be paid almost immediately. In other words, a higher liquid ratio indicates that there are sufficient assets available with the organization, which can be converted in the form of cash almost immediately to pay off those liabilities, which are to be paid off almost immediately. As such higher the liquid ratio better will be the situation. A liquid ratio of 1:1 is supposed to be standard and ideal.
  21. 21. 21 TURNOVER GROUP: Ratios computed under this group indicate the efficiency of the organization to use the various kinds of assets by converting them in the form of sales. Under this group the following classification of ratios are made. 1) Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio: - It is calculated as, Net Sales Fixed Assets A high fixed assets turnover ratio indicates the capability of the organization to achieve maximum sales with the minimum investment in fixed assets. It indicates that the fixed assets are turned over in the form of sales more number of times. 2) Current Assets Turnover Ratio: - It is calculated as, Net Sales Current Assets A high current assets turnover ratio indicates the capability of the organization to achieve maximum sales with the maximum investment in current assets. It indicates that the current assets are turned over in the form of sales more number of times. 3) Working Capital Turnover Ratio: - It is calculated as, Net Sales Working Capital A high working capital turnover ratio indicates the capability of the organization to achieve maximum sales with the minimum investment in the working capital. It indicates that working capital is turned over in the form of sales more number of times. 4) Inventory or Stock Turnover Ratio: -
  22. 22. 22 It is calculated as, Cost of Goods Sold Avg. Inventory A high inventory turnover ratio indicates that maximum sales turnover is achieved with the minimum investment in inventory. As such as a general rule, high inventory turnover ratio is desirable. 5) Debtors Turnover Ratio: - It is calculated as, Net Credit Sales Closing Sundry Debtors This ratio indicates the speed at which the sundry debtors are converted in the form of cash. However the intention is not correctly achieved by making the calculation in this way. As such this ratio is normally supported by the calculation period, which is calculated as below. a) Calculation of Daily Sales: - It is calculated as, Net Credit Sales No of Working Days b) Calculation of Collection Period: - It is calculated as, Closing Sundry Debtors Daily Sales The average collection period as computed above should be compared with the normal credit period extended to the customers. If the average collection period is more than the normal credit period allowed to the customers, it may indicate over investment in debtors which may be the result of over extension of credit period, liberalization of credit term, ineffective collection procedure and so on.
  23. 23. 23 6) Capital Turnover Ratio: - It is calculated as, Sales Capital Employed This ratio indicates the efficiency of the organization with which the capital employed is being utilized. A high capital turnover ratio indicates the capability of the organization to achieve maximum sales with minimum amount of capital employed. As such higher the capital turnover better will be the situation. SOLVENCY GROUP Ratios computed under this group indicate the long-term financial prospects of the company. The shareholders debenture holders and other lenders of long-term finance/ term loan may be basically under this group. Following ratios may be computed under this group. 1) Debt-equity Ratio: - It is calculated as, External Liabilities . Shareholders Fund Debt-equity ratio indicates the state of shareholders or owners in the organization vis-à-vis that of the creditors. It indicates the cushion available to the creditors on liquidation of the organization. A high debt-equity ratio may indicate that financial status of the creditors is more than that of the owners. A very high debt-equity ratio may make the proportion of investment in the organization a risky one. On the other hand a very low debt equity rate may mean that the borrowing capacity of the organization is being underutilized.
  24. 24. 24 2) Proprietary Ratio: - It is calculated as, Total Assets Owners Fund This ratio indicates the extent to which the owner s funds are sunk in different kinds of assets. If the owner s fund exceeds fixed assets, it indicates that a part owners fund invested in the current assets also and if owners fund are less than fixed assets it indicates that the creditors finance a part of fixed assets either by long term or short term. 3) Capital Employed Ratio: - It is calculated as, Fixed Assets *100 Capital Employed This ratio indicates the extent to which the long-term funds are sunk in fixed assets. 4) Interest Coverage Ratio: - It is calculated as, PBIT Interest Charges This ratio indicates protection available to the lenders of long-term capital in the form of funds available to pay the interest charges i.e. profits. Normally a high ratio will desirable but too high a ratio may indicate underutilization of the borrowing capacity of the organization whereas too low a ratio may indicate excessive long-term borrowings or inefficient operation.
  25. 25. 25 PROFITABILITY GROUP 1) Gross Profit Ratio: - It is calculated as, Gross Profit *100 Net Sales The gross profit ratio indicates the relation between production cost and sales and efficiency with which the goods are produced or purchased. A high gross profit ratio may indicate that the organization is able to produce or purchase at a relatively lower cost. 2) Net Profit Ratio: - It is calculated as, Net Profit after Taxes *100 Net Sales The net profit ratio indicates that portion of sales available to the owners after the consideration of all types of expenses and costs either operating or non- operating or normal or abnormal. A high net profit ratio indicates higher profitability of the business. 3) Operating Ratio: - It is calculated as, Mfg COGS + operating exps*100 Net Sales This ratio indicates the percentage of net sales, which is absorbed by the operating cost. A high operating ratio indicates that only a small margin of sales is available to meet the expenses in the form of interest, dividend and operating exps. As such low operating ratio will always be desirable.
  26. 26. 26 OVERALL PROFITABILITY GROUP 1) Return on Assets: - It is calculated as, Net Profit *100 Assets Return on assets measures the profitability of the investment in a firm. As such higher return on assets will always be preferred. However Return on assets does not indicate the profitability of various sources of funds, which finance total assets. 2) Return on Capital Employed: - It is calculated as, Net Profit after taxes+Int on Long Term Loans*100 Capital Employed Return on capital employed measure4s the profitability of the capital employed in the business. A high return on capital employed indicates a better and profitable use of long-term funds of owners and creditors. As such a high return on capital employed is preferred. 3) Return on Shareholders Funds: - It is calculated as, Net Profit after Taxes*100 Total Shareholders Funds This ratio indicates the profitability of a firm in relation to the fund supplied by the shareholders
  27. 27. 27 MISCELLANEOUS GROUP 1) Capital Gearing Ratio: - It is calculated as, Fixed income-bearing securities Equity Capital A high capital-gearing ratio indicates that in the capital structure, fixed income bearing securities are more in comparison to the equity capital in that case the Company is said to be highly geared. On the other hand, if fixed income-bearing securities are less as compared to equity capital the company is said to be lowly geared. 2) Earning Per Share: - It is calculated as, Net Profit after tax and dividend Number of equity shares o/s It is widely used ratio to measure the profit available to the equity shareholders on a per share basis. As such increasing Earning Per Share may indicate the increasing trend of current profits per equity share. 3) Dividend Payout Ratio: - It is calculated as, Dividend Per Share *100 Earning Per Share It measures the relationship between the earnings belonging to the equity shareholders and the amount finally paid to them by way of dividend. It indicates the policy of management to pay cash dividend.
  28. 28. 28 ADVANTAGES OF RATIOS 1. Ratios simplify the comprehension of financial statements. They tell the whole story as a heap of financial data is condensed in them. They indicate the changes in the financial condition of the business. 2. They act as an index of the efficiency of enterprise. As such they serve as an instrument of management control. It is an instrument for diagnosis of the financial health of an enterprise. The efficiency of the various individual units similarly situated can be judged through inter-firm comparisons. 3. The ratio analysis can be if invaluable aid to management in the discharge of its basic functions of forecasting, planning, co-ordination, communication and control. A study of the trend of strategic ratio may help the management in this respect. Past ratios indicate trends in cost, sales, profit and other relevant facts. 4. The ratio analysis provides data for inter-firm comparison or intra-firm comparison. Comparison cannot be made with absolute figures. Net profit of one firm cannot be compared with the net profit of the other firm. But the percentages of net profits can be compared to evaluate the performance. Similarly performance and efficiency of different departments in the same firm can be compared with the help of ratios. 5. Investment decisions can at times be based on the conditions revealed by certain ratios. 6. They make it possible to estimate the other figure when one figure is known.
  29. 29. 29 LIMITITIONS OF RATIO ANALYSIS Though ratio analysis technique has got number of advantages, it attracts equal number of disadvantages too. Some of important advantages are as follows: 1) The ratios of the other organization May not be readily available. 2) Different accounting policies may be followed by the constituent organization in the industry. 3) The constituent organization in the same industry may vary from each other in terms of age, location, extent of automation, quality of management and so on 4) The technique of ratio analysis may prove to be inadequate in some situation if there is difference of opinions regarding the interpretation of certain items while computing certain ratios. 5) As the ratios are computed on the basis of financial statements, the basic limitation, which is applicable to the financial statements, is equally applicable in case of the technique of ratio analysis also. Thus the ratio analysis points out the financial condition of business whether it is very strong, good, questionable or poor and enables the management to take necessary steps.
  30. 30. 30 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1) DATA COLLECTION a) Primary Data: - Primary data related to the project was collected from the discussion and interaction with the senior employees and executives in the organization from Accounts and Finance department. b) Secondary Data: - Secondary data was collected from the documents, which were in printed forms like annual reports, pamphlets, reference books based on Financial Management and through websites. METHODOLOGY FOR ANALYSIS The methodology opted for carrying out project was by way of collection of data from the company s annual reports for the past three years i.e. from 2003-2004 to 2005-2006, for the calculation of ratios. The theory related to ratios was gathered from various financial management books, which served the purpose of calculation and analysis of ratios. Further based on the above statements ratios related to liquidity, turnover, solvency, profitability and over profitability groups and miscellaneous groups have been calculated and interpreted in an intra firm comparison method. Similarly the ratios have been presented in graphical format to have clear understanding of it during three financial years and changes in it.
  31. 31. 31 RATIO ANALYSIS LIQUIDITY GROUP 1) Current Ratio: - Current Ratio 1.45 1.56 1.82 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Financial year Significance: - This ratio is calculated for knowing short term solvency of the organization. This ratio indicates the solvency of the business i.e. ability to meet the liabilities of the business as and when they fall due. The Current Assets are the sources from which the current liabilities are to be met. Certain authorities have suggested that in order to ensure solvency of a concern current assets should be twice the current liabilities and therefore this ratio is known as 2:1 ratio . However it depends upon Formula 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Current Assets/Current Liabilities 1.45 1.56 1.82
  32. 32. 32 the nature of industry. The standard Current Ratio applicable to the Indian industries is 1.33:1. Here the Current Ratio of Kalyani Steels Ltd indicates that it has got sufficient assets to pay off short term liabilities as and when they fall due. The company has maintained its short term solvency through out the years and it is improving its short term solvency status which is appreciable. 2) Acid Test Ratio: - Acid Test Ratio 1.17 1.24 1.35 1.05 1.1 1.15 1.2 1.25 1.3 1.35 1.4 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Financial Years Significance: - This ratio serves as a realistic guide to the short term solvency of the company. It is a measure of the extent to which liquid resources are immediately available to meet current obligation. In so far as it eliminates inventories as part of Formula 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Liquid Assets/Liquid Liabilities 1.17 1.24 1.35
  33. 33. 33 current ratio, this is a more rigorous test of liquidity than the Current Asset Ratio and when used in conjunction with it, gives a better picture of the firms ability to meet its short term debts out of its short term assets. An Acid Test Ratio of 1:1 is considered to be ideal and standard. Here the Acid Ratios of Kalyani Steels Ltd through out the years considered indicates that it has adequate assets which can be converted in the form of cash almost immediately to pay off those liabilities which are to be paid off immediately. It must be remembered that the company is improving its Acid Test Ratio year by year at a constant rate which is appreciable as such higher the liquid ratio better the situation TURNOVER GROUP 1) Fixed Assets Turnover Group: Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio 2.65 4.31 3.12 0 1 2 3 4 5 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Financial Years Formula 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Net Sales/Fixed Assets 2.65 4.31 3.12
  34. 34. 34 Significance:- This ratio measures the efficiency in the utilization of fixed assets. This ratio indicates whether the fixed assets are being fully utilized. It is an important measure of the efficient and profit earning capacity of the business. Normally standard ratio is taken as five times. The financial year 2003-04 had not so good fixed asset turnover ratio. The financial year 2004-05 had an appreciable fixed assets turnover ratio indicating fixed assets are turned over more number of times. This was due to around 72% growth in sales. This shows better asset management policy as compared to the past year. The same ratio came down to 3.12 times in the financial year 2005-06 due to fall in sales by around 31.48%. 2) Working Capital Turnover Ratio: - Working Capital Turnover Ratio 8.63 8.48 3.33 0 2 4 6 8 10 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Financial Years Formula 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Net Sales/Working Capital 8.63 8.48 3.33
  35. 35. 35 Significance: - This ratio signifies achievement of maximum sales with less investment in working capital. As such higher the ratio better will be the situation. The financial year 2003-04 and 2004-05 saw excellent ratio as the company was able to achieve maximum sales with less investment in working capital which shows better working capital management policy. It must be remembered that working capital ratio has been increasing through out the years but the financial year 2005-06 failed to maintain the past records due to fall in sales by 31.48%. The year 2005-06 had heavy investments in working capital which shows rise in activity. 3) Current Asset Turnover Ratio: - Capital Asset Turnover Ratio 2.69 3.08 1.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Financial Years Formula 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Net Sales/Current Assets 2.69 3.08 1.5
  36. 36. 36 Significance: - This ratio indicates capability of the organization in efficient use of current assets. This ratio indicates whether current assets are fully utilized. It indicates the sales generated per rupee of investment in current assets. The financial year 2004-05 had good current asset turnover ratio because it had excellent sales in that year. It must remembered that investments in current assets are increasing year by year at constant rate but the company failed to register growth in sales and its sales fell down by 31.48%. 4) Capital Turnover Ratio: - Capital Turnover Ratio 1.52 2.25 1.29 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Financial Years Significance: - Formula 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Sales/Capital Employed 1.52 2.25 1.29
  37. 37. 37 This ratio indicates whether capital employed is turned over in the form of sales more number of times. As such higher the capital turnover better will be situation. The financial year 2004-05 had acceptable ratio because it had better sales as compared to other two years. Due to addition or purchase of fixed assets and heavy investments in working capital due to rise in activity, the capital turnover ratio for 2005-06 came down as compared previous years. 5) Inventory Turnover Ratio: - Inventory Turnover Ratio 13.99 1.82 7.45 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Financial Years Significance: - It is an indication of the velocity with which merchandize moves through the business. This is a test of inventory to discover possible trouble in the form of overstocking or overvaluation. Formula 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Net Sales/Average Inventory 13.99 1.82 7.45
  38. 38. 38 A low inventory turnover may reflect dull business, overinvestment in inventory or accumulation of absolute and unsaleable goods. A high inventory turnover indicates relatively lower amount of working capital locked in inventories. The financial year 2003-04 had excellent inventory turnover ratio locking up smaller part of funds in inventory. The company had low inventory turnover ratio for the year 2004-05 thus indicating over investment in inventory but it has improved in the financial year 2006 indicating less investment in inventory. SOLVENCY GROUP 1) Debt-Equity Ratio: - Formula 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 External Liabilities/Shareholders Fund 1.24 1.39 1.07 Debt-Equity Ratio 1.24 1.39 1.07 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Financial Years
  39. 39. 39 Significance: - It is a measure of financial strength of a concern. Lower the ratio greater the security available to the creditors. A satisfactory current ratio and ample working capital may not always be a guarantee against insolvency if the total liabilities are inordinately large. The purpose of this ratio is to derive an idea of the amount of capital supplied be the owners and of assets cushion available to creditors on liquidation. Generally 1:2 ratio is acceptable, but the ratio of at least 1:1 is desirable as banks even do accept this. The greater the interest of the owners as compared with that of the creditors, the more satisfactory is the financial structure of the business because in such a situation the management is less handicapped by interest charges and debt repayment requirements. A company having a stable profit can afford to operate on a relatively high debt-equity ratio; whereas in the case of a company having an unstable profit, a high debt-equity ratio reflects a speculative situation. Too much reliance on external equities may indicate undercapitalization, whereas too much reliance on internal equities may lead to over-capitalization. All the financial years considered has debt-equity ratio more than 1:1, which is appreciable and acceptable indicating equal amount of interest of the owners as compared with that of creditors. 2) Proprietary Ratio: - Formula 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Total Assets*100/Owners Fund 61.38% 51% 56.93%
  40. 40. 40 Propriotary Ratio 61.38 51 56.93 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Financial Years Percentage Significance: - This ratio is normally a test of strength of credit-worthiness of the concern. To the extent the percentage of liability increase or the percentage of capital dwindles, the credit strength of the concern deteriorates. A high proprietary ratio is however a frequently indicative of over-capitalization and an exercise investment in fixed assets. A low proprietary ratio on the other hand is a symptom of undercapitalization and an excessive use of creditors funds to finance the business. The financial year 2003-04 had good proprietary ratio as it indicates assets are financed to the extent of 69% by the owners funds and the balance is financed by the outsiders. The year 2004-05 had fall in proprietary ratio but in the year 2005-06 the company has improved due to rise in reserve and surplus due to appreciable profits in the last financial year.
  41. 41. 41 3) Capital Employed Ratio:- Capital Employed Ratio 57.54 52.27 41.39 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Financial Ratio Percentage Significance: - Normally a proprietor should provide all the funds required to purchase fixed assets. If the capital employed ratio exceeds 100%, it indicates that the company has used short-term funds for acquiring fixed assets, which policy is not desirable. When the amount of proprietor funds exceeds the value of fixed assets i.e when the percentage is less that 100, a part of the net working capital is supplied by the shareholders, provided that there are no other non-current assets. Though it is not possible to lay down a rigid standard as regards the percentage of capital which should be invested in fixed assets in each industry there always is a maxim which should not be exceeded so that the harmony among the fixed assets, debtors and stock is not disturbed. The ratio should generally be 65%. Formula 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Fixed Assets*100/Capital Employed 57.54% 52.27% 41.39%
  42. 42. 42 It should be remembered that all of the financial years studied had cap employed ratio below 65% which also suggest that the company had equally funded for working capital for current assets through long term funds which has been accepted principle of financial management. PROFITABILITY RATIOS 1) Gross Profit Ratio: - Gross Profit Ratio 24.41 27 36.06 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Financial Years Percentage Significance: - This ratio indicates the degree to which selling prices of goods per unit may decline without resulting in losses on operations for the firm. Formula 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Gross Profit*100/Sales 24.41% 27% 36.06%
  43. 43. 43 A high gross profit ratio as compared with that of the other firm in the same industry implied that the firm in question produces its products at lower cost. It is a sign of good management. A low gross profit ratio may indicate unfavorable purchasing and make-up policies, the inability of management to develop sales volume, theft, damage, bad maintenance, market reduction in selling prices not accompanied by proportionate decrease in the cost of goods etc. The company is growing at a constant rate as far as gross profit is concerned which is appreciable indicating efficiency in production of goods at relatively lower costs. 2) Net Profit Ratio: - Net Profit Ratio 2.38 4.98 17.07 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Financial Years Percentage Formula 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Net Profit(after taxes)*100/Sales 2.38% 4.98% 17.07%
  44. 44. 44 Significance: - This ratio differs from the ratio of operating profits to net sales in as much as it is calculated after adding non-operating incomes, like interest, dividends on investments etc to operating profits and deducting non-operating expenses such as loss on sale of old assets, provisions for legal damage etc. from such profits. The ratio is widely used as a measure of over-all profitability and is very useful to the proprietors. Reading along with the operating ratio it gives an idea of the efficiency as well as profitability of the business to a limited extent. The company has improved its net profits by 6.17 times in the year 2005-06 from the 2003-04 which is appreciable which shows considerable proportion of net sales to the owners and shareholders after all costs, charges and expenses including income tax, have been deducted. OVER PROFITABILITY GROUP 1) Return on Assets: - Formula 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Net Profit*100/Assets 3.19% 8.95% 17.33%
  45. 45. 45 Return on Asset Ratio 3.19 8.95 17.33 0 5 10 15 20 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Financial Years Percentage Significance:- The ratio is a measure of the return on the total resources of the business enterprise. It shows how efficiently management has used the funds provided be the creditors and the owners. It can be referred that the financial year 2003-04 had not so good ratio because of high operating expenses. However the company is improving year by year at a constant rate. The financial year 2005-06 had 17.33% as returns on its various resources which is appreciable. 2) Return on Capital Employed: - Formula 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 PAT+Int*100/Capital Employed 3.65% 13.70% 23.86%
  46. 46. 46 Return on Capital Employed 3.65 13.7 23.86 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Financial years Percentage Significance: - Return on capital employed measures the profitability of the capital employed in the business. A high business return on capital employed indicates better and profitable use of long term funds of owners and creditors. As such a high return capital employed will always be preferred. The company has rising trend of return on capital employed indicating efficient use of funds of the creditors and owners by the management which is appreciable. 3) Return on Shareholders Fund: - Formula 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 PAT*100/Total Shareholders Funds 5.20% 17.54% 14.22%
  47. 47. 47 Return on shareholders Fund 5.2 17.54 14.22 0 5 10 15 20 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Financial Years Percentage Significance:- The ratio shows how well the firm used the resources of the owner. This ratio is a measure of the profitableness of an enterprise. The realization of a satisfactory net income is the major objective is being achieved. The financial year 2003-04 had low returns on shareholders fund as compared to next financial years. However the management of the company is improving in utilizing the resources of the owner in efficient way. MISCELLANEOUS GROUP 1) Capital Gearing Ratio: - Formula 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Eq Cap+Res&Sur/Pref Share&Loan Cap 3.52 3.29 2.04
  48. 48. 48 Capital Gearing Ratio 3.52 3.29 2.04 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Financial Years Significance: - The ratio is a means of analysis of the capital structure. If the proportion of preference shares and loan capital is high, or where the proportion of ordinary share capital is low, capital is said to be highly geared and reverse is the position in low gearing. Low gearing indicates that the equity share capital is not paid an adequate return because the profits are swallowed up by the high charges in the form of interest and dividends. Capital gearing signifies the process of maintaining a desired and appropriate gear ratio in an enterprise. When inflationary conditions are expected, high gearing is to be employed and in the period marked by trade depression, low gearing should be employed. Here the company is geared which indicates that it attempts to employ fixed income bearing securities in the capital structure with an intention to increase the earnings of the shareholders.
  49. 49. 49 NOTES FORMING PART OF THE PROJECT REPORT 1. Debtors for sale of assets has not been considered which has been duly mentioned in the schedules. 2. While considering long term loans for capital gearing ratio interest accrued on loans has not been considered. 3. While considering net sales, returns from sales has been deducted from gross sales. 4. Gross profit is calculated by deducting manufacturing expenses from Net Sales.
  50. 50. 50 CONCLUSION The company has strong short term liquidity position as both the liquidity ratios are favorable and appreciable which concludes that company has got sufficient assets to pay off short term debts as and when they fall due. The company had excellent turnover of various assets in the year 2004-2005 as the sales rose by 72% indicating better assets management policy. The assets were efficiently employed to generate maximum sales. However for the year 2005-2006 the turnover ratios suffered because of fall in sales by 31.48% and also there was rise in activity as compared to past years. For inventory turnover the year 2004-2005 was crucial as it had minimum investment in different inventories avoiding thus blockage of funds. The company has strong solvency position as all the solvency ratios are favorable. Debt-equity ratio is favorable indicating equal share of owners and creditors. The working capital ratio indicates the company has funded for working capital through long term funds which represents accepted finance policy. The proprietary ratio indicates around 60% of assets are financed by owners fund which indicates reasonable creditworthiness to the company. The company has got excellent gross profit ratio and the trend is rising which is appreciable indicating efficiency in production cost. The net profit for the year 2005-2006 is excellent and it is 6.17 times past year indicating reduction in operating expenses and large proportion of net sales available to the shareholders of company. The company has excellent overall profitability ratios indicating effective use of funds provided be shareholders and creditors. According to the capital gearing ratio the company is geared by including fixed income bearing securities with an intention to increase the income of shareholders.
  51. 51. 51 BIBLIOGRAPHY Following books were referred for carrying out the project: - Financial Management M Y Khan/ P K Jain Financial Management I M Pandey Financial Management S M Inamdar Management Accounting M G Patkar Annual Reports from 2003-2004 to 2004-2005 of Kalyani Steels Ltd Following websites were referred: - www.kalyanisteels.com www.bharatforge.com www.google.com
  52. 52. 52 PROFIT & LOSS ACCOUNT FOR THE LAST 3 YEARS 2005-2006 2004-2005 2003-2004 INCOME Sales, Gross 7546482590 9230188514 5325946924 Less: Excise Duty 2107705856 1602250358 738809546 Net Sales 5438776734 7627938156 4587137378 Power Generated, Captively Consumed 200262113 21778011 Operating income 89089729 5728128576 56243793 7705959960 57733225 4644870603 Divestment of interest: Profit on sale of long term inv 315272877 Other Income 29169325 9934647 70991291 6072570778 7715894607 4715861894 EXPENDITURE Materials consumed & Mfg Exps 3782570647 6302132759 3787655900 Employees emoluments 170870364 110773625 92360079 Other exps 537406659 382713027 320722030 Interest 46227488 76587048 126198161 Int. differentials on restructuring of loans 57464408 Depn & Write Offs 181608637 4718683795 194931431 7067137890 152545583 4536946161 Profit for the Year 1353886983 648756717 178915733 Less: Trial Rum income net of exp 380128 3571647 PBT 1353506855 645185070 178915733 Prov for Taxation Current Tax 118300000 48725000 11250000 Deferred Tax 223432003 266372520 48004325 FBT 1600000 343332003 215097520 59254325 PAT 1010174852 430087550 119661408
  53. 53. 53 CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEET FOR THE LAST 3 YEARS 2005-2006 2004-2005 2003-2004 1] Sources of Funds 1) Shareholders Funds a) Capital 420909667 420909667 420909667 b) Reserve and Surplus 2896814903 3317724570 2031416703 2452326370 1876415780 22973254447 2) Loan Funds a) Secured Loans 849696020 1317598093 1395860045 b) Unsecured Loans 105969319 955665339 85981060 1403579153 105116584 1500976629 3) Deferred Tax Adjustments a) Deferred Tax Liabilities 463700909 471447205 541940259 b) Deferred Tax Assets 2342749 461358160 233521048 237926157 470386622 71553637 Total 4734748069 4093831680 3869855713 2] Application of Funds 1) Fixed Assets a) Gross Block 2893972992 2816968999 2508709521 b) less: Depreciation 997974575 817594121 623522746 c) Net Block 1895998417 1999374878 1885186775 d) Capital WIP Exp to date 95838867 1991837284 104672254 2104047132 404231664 2289418439 2) Investments 911931257 807969286 810719920 3) Current Assets, Loans & advances a) Inventories 999684728 587317212 358171941 b) Sundry Debtors 1103840173 1328572775 906932119 c) Cash and bank Balance 85432259 81082914 161689106 d) Other Current Assets 62037142 55771123 39659941 e) Loans and Advances 1737634738 914667776 579889270 3988629040 2967411800 2046342377 Less: Current Liabilities & Provisions a) Liabilities 1833921502 1627367457 1244441874 b) Provisions 323728010 158229081 32183149 2157649512 1785596538 1276625023 Net Current Assets 1830979528 1181815262 769717345 Total 4734748069 4093831680 3869855713
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