0601029 study of recruitment and selection
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0601029 study of recruitment and selection Document Transcript

  • 1. 1 A Project Report On STUDY OF RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION FOR MALAYALA MANORAMA Co Ltd. BY Marvin Mathew Varghese UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF PROF. Mrs. SMITA SOVANI SUBMITTED TO “UNIVERSITY OF PUNE” In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of master of business administration (MBA) Through Vishwakarma Institute of Management, Pune-48.
  • 2. 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: I would like to express my deepest sentiments of gratitude to all those who have helped me this endeavour. First of all, I would like to thank God almighty who is the source of everything in my life. I express my deep sense of indebtedness and sincere gratitude to the Director Dr Sharad Joshi for having allowed me to undertake the project work. I express my sincere gratitude to Mr. K.M.Mathew Chief Editor, for granting me the permission to conduct the study in their esteemed organization. My heartfelt thanks to Mr. Pradeep Nair General Manager, HR division Malayala Manorama, Kottayam for his suggestions and guidance given to me. I am extremely thankful to Mr, K. Thomas Jacob(Manager, HR), Mr. Murli, Mr. Prakasan, Mr. Suraj Thomas, Mr. Unnikrishnan, Mrs. Lovely Thomas, Miss. Nishana P., and Miss. Swapna Susan Abraham for their valuable guidance, support and help.
  • 3. 3 My warmest thanks are due to Mrs Smita Sovani for valuable guidance, generous encouragement has given me all through the tenure of my project. A special word thanks to my parent, relatives, friends and colleagues, who have been interested and involved in my work in many ways, for their constant encouragement. Marvin Mathew Varghese INDEX Sr. No. Title Page Number 1 Executive Summary 1 2 Company Profile 3 3 Objectives of the Study 19 4 Introduction to Recruitment and Selection 22 5 Recruitment and Selection at Malayala Manorama 50
  • 4. 4 6 Research Methodology 52 7 Data Analysis 55 8 Findings and conclusions 63 9 Suggestions and Recommendations 65 10 Bibliography 66 11 Appendices 67 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: This project is done in partial fulfillment for the award of the master of business administration for the University of Pune. The project titled as, ‘study of recruitment and selection procedures’ was held at MALAYALA MANORAMA for a period of two months from 14th of June to 14th of august. The project was carried under the guidance of. While studying the HR procedures it was conspicuous that the recruitment and selection procedures are of greater importance for any organization. As Malayala Manorama is an esteemed organization in Kerala the response to recruitment advertisement was huge. During my training period I was a part of recruitment and selection procedure. My primary task was to screen the resumes of the applicants and thus to select the candidates for the interview sessions. The selection procedures
  • 5. 5 included written tests and interviews. After every stage the selected candidates are moved to the next level while the rejected candidates are again called for the feed- back. However recruitment in Malayala Manorama is done mainly by news paper and magazine advertisements. Online procedures are also opted for the executive posts. The objective with which the study was conducted are as follows, To understand: 1 The functioning of Recruitment and Selection. 2 To have exposure to recruitment process 3 Whether the recruitment process and selection process are satisfactory or not. The selected 80 candidates who appeared for the second and final phase of interview were selected as the sample. From the organization 10 executives were interviewed to assess the process internally. The major findings about the recruitment and selection procedures are as follows, The overall satisfaction level is high. Job profile communication, evaluation of experience is the factors where Malayala Manorama is scoring well. The recruitment is mainly done through print media. The selection procedures are having three phases The executives want the procedure to be future oriented. Following were the suggestions given for the improvement in the procedures.
  • 6. 6 The process should be made future oriented this can be done by keeping skills, attitude and knowledge in consideration instead of just emphasizing on qualification and experience. The levels for selection procedures should be minimized for lower level staff selection. The individual departmental needs should be communicated within the company during general meetings, also the job profiles should be designed in such a way that it reinforces with the need of departments so as to avoid inter-departmental frictions. The recruitment is not done mainly by campus interviews. The company should opt for it as it provides the chance for getting higher potential candidates and the process is cheaper too. The recruitment and selection process should be designed in such a way that the time and economy factor are well observed. COMPANY PROFILE: Sree Kandathil Varghese Mappilai launched Malayala Manorama, the first joint stock publishing company in 1888. The great Kerala poet Kerala Varma named it Malayala Manorama.This Company started off with one hundred shares of Rs 100 each. The first installment was good enough to buy a press. The first issue of manorama appeared on March 22, 1890. While kottayam was hosting a highly popular cattle fair.Its, very first editorial was passionate plea for the education and welfare of the pulayas. From a weekly, the Malayala manorama grew into a bi-weekly in 1901, a tri-weekly in 1918 and a daily in 1928.After the death of Varghese mappilai in
  • 7. 7 1904; his nephew mammen mappilai took over the reins. The rise of Malayala manorama is the outcome of the vision and perseverance of K.C Mammen Mappilai. Oppressive regimes attempted to crush the Malayala manorama on various occasions. On September 10th 1938, during the Indian freedom struggle, the government closed down the newspaper .It resumed the publication soon after independence with mammen mappilai son, 50 year old K.M.Cherian at the helm. The spirit continues in the safe hands of sree K M Mathew, the present chief editor. Today the daily is published from sixteen centres.They are Kottayam, Kozhikode, Cochin, Palakkad, Kannur, Kollam, Trivandrum, Thrissur, Malappuram, Pattanamthita, Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai. , Kolkata, Dubai, and Bahrain The motto of Malayala manorama is “DHARMOSAMATHI KULADAIVATHAM”.(CHARITY OUR HOUSEHOLD DIVINITY). Manorama has an effective management and a decentralized system of decision-making. There are no political based trade unions and there has been no conflict or disagreement of any kind in the company’s 112 years of existence. Malayala Manorama is the largest language daily in India with circulation of over 15 lakhs copies per day. Malayala Manorama has many other publications catering to a broad spectrum of people in five languages including Hindi and English. It was the first Indian language daily to cross the million marks in circulation. PERSONALITIES BEHIND THE SUCCESS • Kandathil Varghese mappilai(1857-1904) • K C Mammen Mappilai(1873-1954) • K M Cherian(1929-1938) • K M Mathew –Chief Editor since 1973
  • 8. 8 LAND MARKS YEAR LANDMARKS 1888 Malayala Manorama Company founded by Kandathil Varghese Mappilai on March 14 1890 The first issue of Malayala Manorama appears on march 22. It is a weekly news paper 1892 Publication of Bhashaposhini 1901 Manorama becomes a bi-weekly on August 7 1904 Kandathil Varghese Mappilai passes away on July 6. K C Mamman Mappilai becomes Editor 1915 Manorama starts publishing daily world war supplements. 1918 Manorama becomes tri-weekly on July 2 1928 Manorama becomes a daily on January 16 1929 Akhila Kerala Balajana Sakhyam formed on May 29 1930 Manorama commences publication of Annual Numbers. 1937 publication of Malayala Manorama weekly on August 8 1938 Manorama proscribed in Travancore.The on September 10. It makes a surprise appearance from Cochin state on September 14 but folds up after 3 months. 1941 Mamman Mappilai released from jail. 1992 Chief minister Karunakaran inaugurates Palakkad edition on April 22.
  • 9. 9 1993 Manorama vision, the electronic media division, formally launched on October 18. In 1994 Vijayaveedhi launched 1995 Manorama music launched on January 1. 1998 Malayala Manorama thrissur unit inaugurated. 2001 50th international Press Institute World Assembly at New Delhi, organized by Malayala Manorama. 2002 Mumbai edition of Manorama started on February 11th . Bangalore and Chennai editions of Manorama started on February 16 2007 Malayala Manorama Pattanamthita edition launched. MISSION, VISION AND VALUES The MISSION of the organization is “DHARMOSAMATH KULADAIVATHAM” ,meaning “charity our household divinity” From inception,Malayala Manorama has been a socially conscious and welfare oriented organization.It has an effective management and decentralized system of decision making.There are no political based trade unions and the fact that the company has excellent relations with its workers. 1947 Manorama restarts on November 29. 1954 K.M Cherian becomes Chief Editor on January 1. K.M Mathew joins Manorama as General Manager. 1972 Balarama launched. In 1973, K.M Cherian passed away on march 14. K.M Mathew becomes Chief Editor 1975 Vanitha launched. In 1979, Kochi edition started on January 15.
  • 10. 10 VISION AND VALUES • High trust through Family Culture • Faces all the problems Still maintain Spirit of harmony • Delegates and develops Yet retain Honesty • Help others succeed Yet Remain Informal • High Performance Standard which allow Transparency • Highly innovative in being Ambitious • Process happiness create sense of Belonging GOALS • Growth in turn over • Growth in circulation • Creditability • Responsiveness to customers ,readers, advertisers, and agents • Continual improvement in system and procedure • Adhesiveness to ISO 9001-2000 QUALITY POLICY The international organization for standardization (ISO) is a worldwide federation of national standard bodies from some 140 countries, one from each country. Malayala manorama got ISO certification in 1999.It has implemented the 1994 version. When ISO was implemented, the major changes that took place in the organization are in the divisions like marketing, circulation, works, editorial and materials. Malayala manorama’s quality policy • Our readers and advertisers define the quality of our publications.
  • 11. 11 • We ensure that all of them receive the best of our services. It is our constant endeavor to live up to their aspirants. • To meet the changing expectations of quality, we design and appropriate work processes and revises them from time to time. • Flaws in the process cause defects. We modify the process to prevent problems and desist from attributing the defects to people. • We are committed to the continuous up gradation of competence and responsiveness of all our members through appropriate training programs. This is essential for our job satisfaction and to improve the quality of our work. • Our sources, distributors, agents, and advertisers are all responsible partners in our effort for quality. We ensure their involvement in raising benchmarks of quality. • We value the safety and healthy of our people and equipment. Every member of manorama is responsible for ensuring the cleanliness of our premises and upkeep of our equipment. • We have a commitment to one another within manorama like our commitment to our work and our society. We respect each other and our mutual dependence. PRODUCT PROFILE Malayala Manorama is a multi magazine publishing house. It has publications for different age groups based on different tastes and needs. In 1982, Manorama launched The Week, a news feature magazine in English. It is among the best- read English magazine in India. Manorama has grown into a highly successful publishing house with a slew of other immensely popular periodicals. Besides the daily newspaper, there is Manorama weekly for the common man. It is the largest selling weekly in India. The weekly Balarama is the best- selling children’s
  • 12. 12 magazine in India. Children of school going age have two other playmates from Manorama: Balarama Amarchithra Katha and Balarama Digest. For pre-scholars, there is the delightful Kalikudukka and an English version, Magic Pot. For women, there is Vanitha, the largest circulated women’s magazine in India. Vanitha Hindi edition, launched in 1997, became an instant hit. School students have found a reliable study aid in Vijayaveedhi. Job seekers have a guide in Thozhilveedhi. Karshakashree, a bold experiment in farm journalism has won over the farming fraternity. Bhashaposhini, the literary journal, is sought- after by the highbrow reader. For the scholar and the knowledge seeker, choices come in five languages: Manorama yearbook is published in Malayalam, English, Hindi, Tamil and Bengali. In CD-Rom, it is called the Manorama Knowledge Adventure. Besides, Manorama has a vibrant presence in the Electronic Media. Manorama Vision, its television software division was launched in 1993 producing quality television serials and news and current affairs programmes for Malayalam Television Channels. Its Music division, Manorama Music was started in 1995. On the web, Manorama Online has a magnetic pull. It started its television channel in 2007. The different products are listed below: No PRODUCTS NO PRODUCTS 1 Malayala Manorama Daily 23 Hasta-VCD 2 Malayala Weekly( Malayalam) 24 Ente Malayalam 3 Bhashaposhini(Malayalam) 25 Thiruvabharanam(Malayalam, Tamil) 4 Year book(Malayalam) 26 Vishukani(Malayalam) 5 Year Book( English) 27 Higher Education Directory(English) 6 Year Book( Hindi) 28 Swayamvaram 7 Year Book(Tamil) 29 Parpidam
  • 13. 13 8 Year Book( Bengali) 30 Vanitha Annual 9 Balarama ( Malayalam) 31 Vanitha Fashion 10 Balarama Digest 32 Vanitha Panchakam 11 Balarama Amarchithra Katha 33 Vanitha Aarogyam 12 Vanitha(Malayalam) 34 The Man 13 Vanitha( Hindi) 35 Shreeman 14 The Week( English) 36 Onam Ponnonam 15 Karshakashree(Malayalam) 37 Manorama Music 16 Kalikudukka (Malayalam) 38 Calendar(Malayalam, Tamil, Hindi) 17 Magic pot 39 Malayala Manorama Dairy 18 Malayala Manorama Varshika Pathippu 40 The Week Dairy 19 Onam Annual (Malayalam) 41 Karshakashree Dairy 20 Vijayaveedhi(Malayalam) 42 Ayyappa Dairy 21 Thozhilveedhi(Malayalam) 43 Ayyappa Pocket Dairy 22 Knowledge Adventure(CD ROM) (English) 44 Fast Track 45 Life Style ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE PEOPLE “. Keep the family in, but make them professionals first” is the way things work out at Malayala manorama.members of the family in the organization are thorough professionals in their line of work. The reason behind Malayala manorama’s success and potential growth is due to competency of its management and their ability to inspire excellence in work of their employee.
  • 14. 14 Some of the finest professionals work with the Malayala manorama.In the editorial unit, each product is lead by a editor in charge and business units is lead by a general manager. The various divisions in the business units are:- - -Editorial Department -Materials Department -Works Department -Finance Department -Management Accounts Department -Internal Auditing Department -Circulation Department -Marketing Department -Personal and Administration Department -Human Resource Department -Diversification Department -Manorama Online Department -Manorama Vision Malayala manorama has nearly 2000 members in its roll. It has offices in all major cities to manage its editorial, marketing and circulation. It has a number of production centers called as units. Resident/coordinating editor heads each of these units. Printing units There are ten printing units from where manorama is published in Kerala and four centers outside Kerala. kottayam, kozhikode, kochi, Trivandrum, palakkad, kannur, kollam thrissur, malappuram and pattanamthita are the centers in Kerala.the first unit was founded in 1888 in kottayam.the second unit of Malayala manorama was established in kozhikode n 1966, kochi edition in 1979, palakkad edition in 1992, the sixth edition arrived at kannur in 1994 and kollam in the next year. The
  • 15. 15 thrissur unit was born in 1998, malappuram in 2001 and pattanamthita in 2007.manorama has six units outside Kerala .Four of them in India and the other two abroad. The company started the first outside unit in Mumbai, second in Chennai, third in Bangalore and fourth in Delhi. Manorama newspaper is going abroad. It has two printing units abroad .One at Dubai and other at Bahrain. In most of the countries, they receive the newspaper of a particular day on the same day itself. STAFF CLASSIFICATION Management staff (M grade) M1 – GENERAL MANAGER M2 – SENIOR MANAGER M3 – MANAGER M4 – DEPUTY MANAGER M5 – SENIOR EXECUTIVE M6 – EXECUTIVES Administrative staff (A grade) P.A- PRODUCTION ASSISTANT A3 – SECTION HEAD A4 – SENIOR CLERK A5 – JUNIOR CLERK A6 – SEMI CLERK A7 – PEON Journalist staff (J grade) J1 B – ASSISTANT EDIYOR/NEWS EDITOR/SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT J2 – CHIEF SUBEDITOR/CHIEF REPORTER J3- SUBEDITOR/REPORTER/CORRESPONDENT/PHOTOGRAPHER
  • 16. 16 Factory staff (F grade) F3 - PROOF READER F4 – PRODUCTION ASSISTANT F6 - FOREMAN F7 - TECHNICIAN ORGANISATION DESIGN STRUCTURE Organization structure influences the overall performance of the organization.Organisations have different structures and they have a bearing on employee attitude and behavior.Organisation structure defines how job tasks are formally divided, grouped and coordinated.Manorama has taken into consideration 6 key elements for deciding their organization structure. They are- 1. Work specifications This means to what degree is a task subdivided into separate jobs.Manorama has a high degree of work specialization. A person does a part of an activity rather than full. Therefore, people’s skill for a particular task increases through repetition. 2. Departmentalization This concept implies on what basis jobs are grouped together. In Malayala manorama, departmentalization is done based on functions performed. In Malayala manorama departmentalization is done on basis of functions performed. 3. Chain of command
  • 17. 17 Chain of command refers to the unbroken line of authority that extends from top to bottom. A chain of command exists in manorama together with authority and unity of command. The managers are given authority to give orders. A person should report to one and only one person. I.e. there is only one boss. 4. Span of control This determines the number of levels and managers an organization has. The span of control is large in Malayala manorama.This speeds up decision making ad reduces costs. 5. Centralizations and decentralization The system in manorama is highly decentralized. Key decisions are made by the managers close to action based on their knowledge, information available regarding the particular situation. 6. Formalization The concept is to what to degree jobs are standardized manorama has a set of rules and procedure where by its functions. Marketing works, circulation editorial materials department functions by the standard operative procedure (sop) and has got ISO 9001.
  • 18. 18 ORGANIZATIONAL CHART-MALAYALA MANORAMA CO-LTD Chief Editor Editor & MD M. Editor & Director Ex. Editor Director Director Res Editor & GmDeputy Editor & GM Asst. Editor & GM Calicut Unit Res Editor News Editor Kochi Unit News Editor TVM Unit Res Editor News Editor PLK Unit Res Editor KTM Unit News Editor Kannur Unit Co-ord Editor Kollam Unit Co-ord Editor Printing ctrs At Mumbai Chennai Bangalore Kodimatha Unit Mgr of Operation Thrissur Unit Co-ord Editor Malapuram Unit C-ord Editor Manorama Portal C.O.O GM Works News Division Asso Editor Chief News Editor GM Finance GM Fin. A.Cs GM P& A GM Human resources GM Circulation Editor in charge Week GM Marketing E-I-C Malayalam Weekly EIC Bhasha Poshini E-I-C Karsha kasree E-I-C Thozhil Veethi Planning Cell GM Material
  • 19. 19 4) HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT Human resource division at Malayala manorama started its functioning on Feb. 1st , 1998.before its commencement, all the personnel functions of the company were handled by the personnel and administration within a shot span of time. General Manager heads the department. The division comprises of eight members. The major functions are MANPOWER REQUISITION This is the important function performed by human resource division. HR division analyses the requisitions made by difference division. The immediate supervisor, manager or the news editors make these requisitions to the functional heads of the concerned division. After receiving requisition from the divisional head, the general manager write his comments regarding the suggestion made on it and sends it to general manager human resources. MANPOWER PLANNING Manpower planning may be defined as the strategy for the procurement development allocation and utilization of enterprises human resources. To ensure optimum use of resource and forecast future skill requirements manpower planning is very essential. There is a manpower sanction committee at Malayala manorama, which is not a part of human resources division. It is a body of top management, which includes general manager of human resources and personal administration. They study the feasibility and see whether a person is required. After analyzing the feasibility they sanction the manpower requisition from and they the vacancy arises. CONTRIBUTION APPRAISAL The company has a system of contribution appraisal to create appropriate working conditions. Their assumption is that each member contributes to his or her capabilities. To ensure that the talents that Malayala manorama has attracted can help in achieving its goals, and to create appropriate working conditions, the system of contribution was introduced in the year 1998. This is an annual exercise. The exercise mainly aims to
  • 20. 20 bring about alignments between an individuals expectation from his job with the expectation of his supervisors from him. This exercise also brings about how and which areas he can contribute further. The types of appraisal forms that are used in manorama are- 1.) For journalist staff 2) For administrative staff 3) For factory staff The features of contribution appraisal form are: 1) Biographical details of the person 2) Recommendations of division head a) Final rating b) Award c) Transfer d) Promoting e) Justification 3) Self appraisal a) The major contributions during the year b) Constraints under which the person operates c) Way to improve contribution d) Appraisal by senior 4) Contribution (expectation from appraise and how well she/he operates 5) Expectation for coming year 6) Personal qualities 7) Overall rating 8) Comment by appraiser 9) Comment by reviewer
  • 21. 21 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Training and development is the major function performed by the HR division. The division sells the idea as vital force in the organization and develops an atmosphere conductive to sound manpower development. This division devises, recommends and executes strong policies for training facilites.The HR division carries out continuous study, analysis and evaluation, of he organization’s training need. It comes out with a quarterly training calendar, which has proved to be very effective. RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION The HR division also handles the recruitment function of the company. The different sources of recruitment being used by company are databank, advertisements and campus interviews and through different consultancy firms. After inviting the application, HR division does the screening process. Call letter for different tests and interviews are sent to those applicants who get selected after the screening process. The different test and interviews conduct varies depending upon the nature of the job. For journalists and stenographers, test is compulsory. For the managerial cadre, psychological test and interview is must. There is a final interview for the senior managers. After this the selected candidates are placed on their respective jobs with the aid of an induction, training and probationary period. ORGANIZATIONS DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES HR division conducts different organizations development activities for helping out different divisions. It introduces several organization building activities and interventions like team building ,sensitivity training etc .To conclude the HR division specifically deals with the procurement ,hiring ,training, placing ,utilizing and maintaining of an effective work force that will aid in the accomplishment of the firm’s objective. This does not mean to imply that other members of the management team do not have a part in the management and development of personnel. The responsibility of good HR administration rests on every supervisor and manager in the organization. Personnel management is not a one-man responsibility nor can one
  • 22. 22 individual ever achieve it. A corporate, cooperative endeavor should stem from a common feeling and concept and should progress in a unified and coordinate manner. STRUCTURE OF HR DIVISION
  • 23. 23 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT Every project report is carried out with some specific OBJECTIVE in the mind. Objective is basically the purpose behind conducting a project and unless the objective is certain or specifically defined it is not understood what data has to be collected. Objectives of the project are nothing but what is to be learned out of this project report. Specific objectives of this Project Report To understand: 1 The functiononing of recruitment and selection process 2 To have exposure to recruitment process 3 Whether the recruitment process and selection process are satisfactory So in this project report I have made every effort to understand the above specified objectives keeping in mind the present scenario of the Recruitment and Selection of employees process and collect data. In today’s rapidly changing business environment, organizations have to respond quickly to requirements for people. Hence, it is important to have a well-defined recruitment policy in place, which can be executed effectively to get the best fits for the vacant positions. Selecting the wrong candidate or rejecting the right candidate could turn out to be costly mistakes for the organization. Selection is one area where the interference of external factors is minimal. Hence the HR department can use its discretion in framing its selection policy and using various selection tools for the best results. They discuss the importance of a good selection process that starts with gathering complete information about the applicant from his application form and ends with inducting the candidate into the organization
  • 24. 24 Recruitment And Selection Rationale for Recruitment and Selection Policy Higher education is a human resource intensive enterprise. It is not surprising, then, that recruitment and selection of staff should be a very high priority in most if not all units and divisions of student affairs. Recruitment and selection should include procedures directed to analyze the need and purpose of a position, the culture of the institution, and ultimately to select and hire the person that best fits the position. Recruitment and selection policy should, then, be directed toward the following objectives: • Hire the right person. • Conduct a wide and extensive search of the potential position candidates. • Recruit staff members who are compatible with the college or university environment and culture. • Hire individuals by using a model that focuses on student learning and education of the whole person. • Place individuals in positions with responsibilities that will enhance their personal development. Recruitment and Selection Policy Statement Every position vacancy will be filled based upon a thorough position analysis regardless of the level of the position or the extent of the search. The diversity goals of the institution, division of student affairs, and the unit will be addressed in all recruitment and selection processes. Units may use different processes for recruitment depending upon the circumstances surrounding the need to fill the position, but must take steps to ensure that the values of the profession are applied in all procedures that are used. Recruitment and selection
  • 25. 25 committee members should be properly trained to assume the important responsibilities of recruitment and selection. Supervisors should adhere to any institution-wide recruitment and selection programs. This can not, however, substitute for an understanding of procedures and processes from a student affairs perspective. Recruitment and selection will be planned, implemented, and evaluated to ensure that each potential employee is provided equal opportunities to compete for the position.
  • 26. 26 INTRODUCTION TO RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PROCESS Human resources planning means deciding the number and type of the human resources required for each job, unit and the total capacity for a particular future date in order to carry out organizational activities. E.W.Vetter viewed human resources planning as a process by which an organization should move from its current man power position to its desired manpower position. Though planning management strives to have the right number and right kind of people at the right place at the right time, doing things, which result in both the organization and the individual receiving maximum long run benefit. Once the required number and the kind of human resources are determined, the management has to find places where required human resources are/will be available and also work out strategies for attracting them towards the organization before selecting suitable candidates for jobs. This process is generally known as recruitment. Some people use recruitment for employment. These two are not one and the same. Recruitment is only one of the steps in entire employment process. Some others use the term recruitment for selection. These two terms are different. Technically speaking the function recruitment precedes the selection function and it includes only finding, developing the sources of prospective employees and attracting them to apply for jobs in an organization, where as the selection is the process of finding out the most suitable candidate to the job out of the candidates attracted. UNDERSTANDING RECRUITMENT PROCESS Recruitment is the phase which immediately precedes selection. Its purpose is to pave the way for the selection procedures by producing, ideally, the smallest number of candidates who appear to be capable either of performing the required tasks of the job from the outset, or of developing the ability to do so within a period of time acceptable to the employing organization. The smallest number of potentially suitable candidates can in theory, of course, be any number. The main point that needs to be madeabout
  • 27. 27 the recruitment task is that the employing organization should notwaste time and money examining the credentials of people whose qualifications do not match the requirements of the job. Apart from the methods used and the general administration of task, the achievement of the objective will depend very much in the end on how efficiently the basic tasks of manpower planning and job analysis have been carried out and applied. In short, efficient recruitment of staff may be described as knowing what resources you want, what resources are available, where and how they may be found. Edwin B. Flippo defined recruitment as the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. The Objectives of Recruitment are: To attract people with multi-dimensional skills and experiences that suits the present and future organizational strategies To induct outsiders with a new perspective to lead the company To infuse fresh blood at all levels of the organization To develop an organizational culture that attracts competent people to the Company To search or head hunt/ head pouch people whose skills fit the company s values To devise methodologies for assessing psychological traits To seek out non-conventional development grounds of talent To search for talent globally and not just within the company To design entry pay that competes on quality but not on quantum To anticipate and find people for positions that does not exist yet.
  • 28. 28 Recruitment Policy: Recruitment policy of any organization is derived from the personnel policy of the same organization. In other words, the former is a part of the later. However, recruitment policy by itself should consider the following factors: • Government policy • Personnel policies of other competing organizations • Organization s personnel policies • Recruitment sources • Recruitment needs
  • 29. 29 • Recruitment costs • Selection criteria and preference etc., Recruitment policies are mostly drawn from personnel policies of the organization. According to Dale Yoder and Paul D. Standohar, general personnel policies provide a variety of guidelines to be spelt out in the recruitment policy. After formulation of the recruitment policies the management has to decide whether to centralize or decentralize the recruitment function. Recruitment practices vary from one organization to another. Some organizations like commercial banks resort to centralized recruitment while some organizations like the Indian railways resort to decentralized recruitment practices. Personnel department at the central office performs all the functions of recruitment in case of centralized recruitment and personnel departments at unit level or zonal level perform all the functions of recruitment concerning to the jobs of the respective unit or zone in case of decentralized recruitment. Merits of Centralized Recruitment: Average cost of recruitment per candidate/unit should be relatively less due to economies of scale It would have more expertise available to use It can ensure board uniformity among human resources of various units/zones in respect of education, skill, knowledge, talent etc., It would generally be above malpractices, abuse of powers, favoritism, bias etc., It would facilitate interchangeability of staff among various units/zones. It enables line managers of various units and zones to concentrate on their operational activities by relieving them the recruitment function
  • 30. 30 It enables the organization to have centralized selection procedure, promotional and transfer procedures etc., It ensures the most effective and suitable placement to candidates. It enables centralized training programmes, which further brings uniformity and minimizes the average cost of staff. Merits of Decentralized Recruitment: The unit concerned concentrates only on those sources/places where it normally gets the suitable candidates. As such, the cost of recruitment would be relatively less. The unit gets the most suitable candidates as it is well aware of the requirements of the jobs regarding cultural, traditional, family background aspects, local factors, social factors etc., Units can recruit candidates as and when they are required without any delay. The units would enjoy freedom in finding out, developing the sources, in selecting and employing the techniques to stimulate the candidates. The unit would relatively enjoy advantage about the availability of information, Control and feedback and various functions/processes of recruitment. The unit would enjoy better familiarity and control over the employees it recruits rather than on employees selected by the central recruitment agency. Both the systems of recruitment have their own demerits. Hence, the management has to weigh the merits and demerits of each system before making a final decision about centralizing or decentralizing the recruitment.
  • 31. 31 Sources of Recruitment: There are traditional as well as modern sources of recruitment. It s the duty of the HR Manager to search for which source to adopt to get personnel in to the organization. Traditional sources of recruitment: The sources of recruitment are broadly divided into internal and external sources. Internal sources: Internal sources are the sources within organizational pursuits. Organizations prefer this source to external source to some extent for the following reasons: Internal recruitment can be used as a technique of motivation. Morale of the employees can be improved Suitability of the internal candidates can be judged better than the external candidates as known devils are better than unknown angels Loyalty, commitment, a sense of belongingness and security of the present employees can be enhanced. Employees psychological needs can be met by providing an opportunity for Advancement Employees economic needs for promotion, higher income can be satisfied. Cost of selection can be minimized Cost of training, induction, orientation, period of adaptability to the organization can be reduced. Trade unions can be satisfied. Social responsibility towards employees can be discharged Stability of employment can be ensured.
  • 32. 32 Sources of Recruitment
  • 33. 33 The different kinds of internal sources are: (a) Present permanent employees: Organizations consider the candidates from this source for higher-level jobs due to availability of most suitable candidates for jobs relatively or equally to the external source, to meet the trade union demands and due to the policy of the organization to motivate the present employees. (b) Present temporary/casual employees: Organizations find this source to fill the vacancies relatively at the lower level owning to the availability of suitable candidates or trade union pressures or in order to motivate them on the present job (c) Retired employees: Generally, particular organizations retrench the employees due to lack of work. The organization takes the candidates for employment from the retrenched employees due to obligation, trade union pressure and so on. Sometimes, the organizations prefer to re-employ their retired employees as a token of their loyalty to the organization or to postpone some internal conflicts for promotion etc., (d) Dependents of deceased, disabled and retired employees: Some organizations function with a view to develop the commitment and loyalty of not only the employee but also his family members and to build up image and to provide employment to the dependents of deceased, disabled and retired employees. Such organizations find this source as an effective source of recruitment. External sources: External sources are sources outside organizational pursuits. Organizations search for the required candidates from these sources for the following reasons: The suitable candidates with skill, knowledge, talent etc., are generally available. Candidates can be selected without any pre-conceived notion or reservations. Cost of employees can be minimized because employees selected from this source are generally organization.
  • 34. 34 Human resources mix can be balanced with different background, experience, skills etc., Latest knowledge, skill, innovative or creative talent can also be flowed into the organization. Existing sources will also broaden their personality Long run benefit to the organization in the sense that qualitative human resources can be brought. Placed in the minimum pay scale. Expertise, excellence and experience of other organizations can be easily brought into the organization. Different kinds of External sources are: (a) Campus recruitment: Different types of organizations like industries, business firms, service organizations, social or religious organizations can get fresh candidates for different types of jobs from various educational institutions like collages and universities imparting education in science, commerce, arts, engineering and technology, agriculture, medicine, management studies etc., (b) Private employment agencies/consultants: Public employment agencies or consultants like ABC consultants in India perform recruitment functions on behalf of a client company by charging fees. Line managers are relieved from recruitment functions so that they can concentrate on their operational activities and recruitment functions are entrusted to a private agency or consultants. (c) Public employment exchanges: The government set up public employment exchanges in the country to provide information about vacancies to the candidates and to help the organizations in finding out suitable candidates. The Employment Exchange (Compulsory Notification or Vacancies) Act 1959 makes it obligatory for public and private sector enterprises in India to fill certain types of vacancies through public employment exchanges.
  • 35. 35 (d) Professional associates: Professional organizations or associates maintain complete bio-data of their members and provide the same to various organizations on requisition. They also act as exchange between their members and recruiting firms in exchanging information, clarifying doubts etc. organizations find this source more useful to recruit the experienced and professional employees like executives, managers, engineers. (e) Data banks: The management can collect the bio-data of the candidates from different sources like employment exchange, educational training institutes etc and feed them in the computer. It will become another source and the company can get the particulars as and when required to recruit. (f) Casual applicants: Depending upon the image of the organization, its prompt response, participation of the organization in the local activities, the level of unemployment, candidates apply casually for jobs through mail or hand over the applications in the personnel department. (g) Similar organization: Generally, experienced candidates are available in organizations producing similar products or are engaged in similar business. The management can get potentially suitable candidates from this source. This would be the most effective source for executive positions and for newly established organizations or diversified or expanded organizations. (h) Trade Unions: Generally, unemployed or underemployed persons or employees seeking change in employment put a word to the trade union leaders with a view to getting suitable employment. Due to latter s intimacy with the management. As much, the trade union leaders are aware of all the available candidates. In view of this fact and in order to satisfy the trade union leaders, the management enquires for suitable candidates.
  • 36. 36 MODERN METHODS OF RECRUITMENT: A number of modern recruitment sources are being used by the corporate sector in addition to traditional sources. The sources are divided into internal and external sources. Internal sources: (a) Employee referrals: Present employees are well aware of the qualifications, attitudes, experience and emotions of their friends and relatives. They are also aware of the job requirements and organizational culture of their company. As such, they can make preliminary judgement regarding the match between the job and their friends or relatives. Hence, the HR Managers of the company depend on the present employees for reference of the candidates for various jobs. This source reduces the cost and the time required for recruitment. Further this source enhances the effectiveness of recruitment. External sources: (a) Walk in interviews and tests: The busy and rapidly changing organizations do not find time to perform various functions of recruitment. Therefore, they advice the potential candidates to attend for an interview directly and without a prior application on specified date, time and at a specified place. The suitable candidates from among the interviews will be selected for appointment after screening the candidates through tests and interviews. (b) Consult in: The busy and dynamic companies encourage the potential job seekers to approach them personally and consult them regarding the jobs. The companies select the suitable candidates from among such candidates through the selection process. c) Head hunting: The companies request the professional organizations to search for the best candidates particularly for the senior executive positions. The professional organizations search
  • 37. 37 for the most suitable candidate and advice the company regarding the filling up of the positions. Headhunters are also called search consultants (d) Body shopping: Professional organizations and the Hi-Tech training institutes develop the pool of human resources for the possible employment. The prospective employees contact these organizations themselves approach the prospective employees to place their human resources. These professional and training institutes are called body shoppers and these activities are known as body shopping. The body shopping is also known as employee leasing activity. (e) Mergers and acquisitions: Business alliances like acquisitions, mergers and take-overs help in getting human resources. In addition, the companies do also have alliances in sharing their human resources on ad-hoc basis. (f) E-Recruitment: The technological revolution in telecommunications helped the organizations to use Internet as a source of recruitment. Organizations advertise the job vacancies through the world wide web (www). The job seekers send their applications through e-mail using internet. Alternatively job seekers place their CV s in the worldwide web/ Internet, which can be drawn by the prospective employers depending upon their requirements. (g) Outsourcing: Some organizations recently started developing human resources pool by employing the candidates for them. These organizations do not utilize the human resources instead they supply HRs to various companies based on their needs on temporary or ad-hoc basis. Various companies, rather than employing HRs draw HRs from these organizations on commission basis. This arrangement is called out-sourcing. These are the different traditional and modern methods of recruitment that are followed by different organizations as per their convenience and requirement.
  • 38. 38 UNDERSTANDING SELECTION PROCESS Recruitment function helps the organization to develop a pool of prospective human resources. It is difficult for the HR manager to employ the suitable people out of the pool. Infact, many organizations face critical problems in choosing the people. Selection techniques and methods reduce the complexities in choosing the right candidates for the job. After identifying the sources of human resources, searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organization, the management has to perform the function of selecting the right employees at the right time. The obvious guiding policy in selection is the intention to choose the best qualifies and suitable job candidate for each unfilled job. The objective of the selection decision is to choose the individual who can most successfully perform the job from the pool of qualified candidates. The selection procedure is the system of functions and devices adopted in a given company to ascertain whether the candidate s specifications are matched with the job specifications and requirements or not. The selection process can be successful if the following requirements are satisfied: Someone should have the authority to select. This authority comes from the employment requisition, as developed by an analysis to the workload and work force. There must be some standard of personnel with which a prospective employee may be compared, i.e. a comprehensive job description and job specification should be available before hand. There must be a sufficient number of applicants from whom the required number of employees may be selected. The ability of an organization to attain its goal effectively and to develop in a dynamic environment largely depends upon the effectiveness of its selection programme. If the right person is selected, he is valuable asset to the organization
  • 39. 39
  • 40. 40 . SELECTION PROCEDURE: Selection procedure employs several methods of collecting information about the candidates qualifications, experience, physical and mental ability, nature and behavior, knowledge and aptitude for judging whether a given applicant is suitable or not for the job. Therefore the selection procedure is not a single act but is essentially a series of methods or stages by which different types of information can be secured through various selection techniques. At each step facts may come to light, which are useful for comparison with the job requirement and employee specifications. Steps in Scientific Selection Procedure: Job analysis Recruitment Application form Written examination Preliminary interview Business games Tests Final interview Medical examination Reference checks Line manager s decision Job offer Employment IN DETAIL EXPLANATION: (A) JOB ANALYSIS: Job analysis is the basis for selecting the right candidates. Every organization should finalize the job analysis, job description, job specification and employee specifications before proceeding to the next step of selection.
  • 41. 41 (B) HUMAN RESOURCE PLAN: Every company plans for the required number of and kind of employees for a future date. This is the basis for recruitment function. (c) RECRUITMENT: Recruitment refers to the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organization. It is the basis for the remaining technologies of the screening the candidates in order to select the appropriate candidates for the jobs. (D) DEVELOPMENT OF BASES FOR SELECTION: The company has to select the appropriate candidates from the pool of applicants. The company develops or borrows the appropriate bases/techniques for screening the candidates in order to select the appropriate candidates for the jobs. (E) APPLICATION FORM: Application form is also known as application blank. The techniques of application blank are traditional and widely accepted for securing information from the prospective candidates. It can also be used as a device to screen the candidates at the preliminary level. Many companies formulate their own style of application forms depending upon the requirement of information based on the size of the company, nature of business activities, type and level of the job etc. Information is generally required on the following items in the application forms: Personal background information Educational qualifications Work experience Salary (drawing and expecting) Personal attainments including likes and dislikes References
  • 42. 42 (F) WRITTEN EXAMINATION: Organizations have to conduct written examination for the qualified candidates after they are screened on the basis of the application blanks so as to measure the candidate s ability in arithmetical calculations, to know the candidate s attitude towards the job, to measure the candidate s aptitude, reasoning, knowledge in various disciplines, general knowledge and English language. (G) PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW: The preliminary interview is to solicit necessary information from the prospective applications and to assess the applicant s suitability to the job. An assistant in the personnel department may conduct this preliminary interview. The information thus provided by the candidate may be related to the job or personal specifications regarding education, experience, salary expectations, attitude towards job, age, physical appearance and other requirements etc. Thus, preliminary interview is useful as a process of eliminating the undesirable and unsuitable candidates. If a candidate satisfies the job requirements regarding most of the areas, he may be selected for further process. Preliminary interviews are short and known as stand up interviews or sizing up of the applicants or screening interviews. However, certain required amount of care is to be taken to ensure that the desirable workers are not eliminated. This interview is also useful to provide the basic information about the company to the candidate. (H) BUSINESS GAMES: Business games are widely used as a selection technique for selecting management trainees, executive trainees and managerial personnel at junior, middle and top management positions. Business games help to evaluate the applicants in the areas of decision-making, identifying the potentialities, handling the situations, problem- solving skills, human relations skills etc. participants are placed in a hypothetical work situation and are required to play the role situations in the game. The hypothesis is that the most successful candidate in the game will be most successful one on the job.
  • 43. 43 GROUP DISCUSSION is used in order to secure further information regarding the suitability of the candidate for the job. Group discussion is a method where groups of the successful applicants are brought around a conference table and are asked to discuss either a case study or subject matter. The candidates in the group are required to analyze, discuss, find alternative solutions and select the sound solution. A selection panel then observes the candidates in the areas of initiating the discussion, explaining the problem, soliciting unrevealing information based on the given information and using common sense, keenly observing the discussion of others, clarifying controversial issues, influencing others, speaking effectively, concealing and mediating arguments among the participants and summarizing or concluding aptly. The selection panel, based on its observation, judges the candidate s skill and ability and ranks them according to their merit. In some cases, the selection panel may also ask the candidates to write the summary of the group discussion in order to know the candidate s writing ability as well. (I) TESTS: Psychological tests play a vital role in employee selection. A psychological test is essentially an objective and standardized measure of sample of behavior from which inferences about future behavior and performance of the candidate can be drawn. Objectivity of tests refers to the validity and reliability of the instruments in measuring the ability of the individuals. Objectivity provides equal opportunity to all the job seekers without any discriminating against sex; caste etc. standardization of test refers to uniformity of procedure in conducting the tests for all the candidates. Sample behavior refers to the sample of the total behavior of the prospective employee on the job.
  • 44. 44
  • 45. 45 Types of test: Tests are classified into six classes, each class is again divided into different types of tests. They are: APTITUDE TESTS: These tests measure whether an individual has the capacity or latent ability to learn a given job if given adequate training. Aptitudes can be divided into general and mental ability or intelligence and specific aptitudes such as mechanical, clerical, manipulative capacity etc. General aptitude test is of two types namely intelligence quotient (IQ) and emotional quotient (EQ). (1) Skill tests: These tests measure the candidate s ability to do a job perfectly and intelligently. These tests are useful to select the candidates to perform artistic jobs, product design, design of tools, machinery etc. The candidates can be selected for assembly work, testing and inspection also. (2) Mechanical aptitude tests: These tests measure the capabilities of spatial visualization, perceptual speed and knowledge of mechanical matter. These tests are useful for selecting apprentices, skilled, mechanical employees, technicians etc. (3) Psychomotor tests: These tests measure abilities like manual dexterity, motor ability and eyehand coordination of candidates. These tests are useful to select semi-skilled workers and workers for repetitive operations like packing and watch assembly. (4) Clerical aptitude tests: These types of tests measure specific capacities involved in office work. Items of this tests include spelling, computation, comprehension, copying, word measuring etc. ACHIEVEMENT TESTS: These tests are conducted when applicants claim to know something as these tests are concerned with what one has accomplished. These tests are more useful to measure the value of a specific achievement when an organization wishes to employ
  • 46. 46 experienced candidates. These tests are classified into (a) job knowledge test and (b) work sample test. Thus, the candidate s achievement in his career is tested regarding his knowledge about the job and actual work experience. SITUATIONAL TESTS: This test evaluates a candidate s in a similar real life situation. In this test the candidate is asked either to cope with the situation or solve critical situations of the job. (1) Group discussion: This test is administered through the group discussion approach to solve a problem under which candidates are observed in the areas of initiating, leading, proposing valuable ideas, conciliating skills, oral communicating skills, coordinating and concluding skills. (2) In basket: Situational test is administered through in basket method. The candidate in this test is supplied with actual letters, telephone and telegraphic message,reports and requirements by various officers of the organization, adequate information about the job and organization. The candidate is asked to take decisions on various items based on the in basket information regarding requirements in the memoranda. INTEREST TESTS: These tests are inventories of the likes and dislikes of candidates in relation to work, job, occupations, hobbies and recreational activities. The purpose of this test is to find out whether a candidate is interested or disinterested in the job for which he is a candidate and to find out in which area of the job range/occupation the candidate is interested. The assumption of this test is that there is a high correlation between the interest of a candidate in a job and job success. Interest inventories are less faked and they may not fluctuate after the age of 30.
  • 47. 47 PERSONALITY TESTS: These tests prove deeply to discover clues to an individual s value system, his emotional reactions and maturity and characteristic mood. They areexpressed in such traits like self-confidence, tact, distrust, initiative, emotional control, optimism, decisiveness, sociability, conformity,objectivity, patience, fear, judgment dominance or submission, impulsiveness, sympathy, integrity, stability and self-confidence. (1) Objective tests: Most personality tests are objective tests as they are suitable for group testing and can be scored objectively. (2) Projective tests: Candidates are asked to project their own interpretation of certain standard stimulus basing on ambiguous pictures, figures etc. under these tests. Personality tests have disadvantages in the sense that sophisticated candidates can fake them and most candidates give socially acceptable answers. Further, personality inventories may not successfully predict job success. A number of corrective measures tried as personality inventories are widely subject to faking. They are: Forced choice of Edward s personnel preference schedule. Gordon personal profile. The Minnesota Multi-phasic Inventory offers different methods for identifying faking. The faking can be countered by repeating the same question in different parts to measure consistency. MULTI-DIMENSIONAL TESTING: However, the need for multi-skills is being felt be most of the companies consequent upon globalization, competitiveness and the consequent customer-centered strategies. Organization have to develop multidimensionaltesting in order to find out whether the candidates possess a variety of skills or not, candidate s ability to integrate the multi- skills and potentiality to apply them based on situational and functional requirement.
  • 48. 48 (J) INTERVIEW: Final interview follows after tests. This is the most essential step in the process of selection. In this step the interviewer matches the information obtained about the candidate through various means to the job requirements and to the information obtained through his own observation during the interview. The different types of interviews are:
  • 49. 49 PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW: (1) Informal interview: This is the interview, which can be conducted at any place by the person to secure the basic and non-job related information. The interaction between the candidate and the personnel manager when the former meets the latter to enquire about the vacancies or additional particulars in connection with the employment advertisement is an example of the informal interview. (2) Unstructured interview: In this interview, the candidate is given the freedom to tell about himself by revealing his knowledge on various items/areas, his background, expectations, interest etc. Similarly, the interviewer also providesinformation on various items required by the candidate. CORE INTERVIEW: It is normally the interaction between the candidates and the line executive or experts on various areas of job knowledge, skill, talent etc. This interview may take various forms like: (1) Back ground information interview: This interview is intended to collect the information which is not available in the application blank and to check that information provided in the application blank regarding education, place of domicile, family, health, interest, hobbies, likes, dislikes and extra curricular activities of the applicant. (2) Job and probing interview: This interview aims at testing the candidate s job knowledge about duties, activities, methods of doing the job, critical/problematic areas, methods of handling those areas etc. (3) Stress interview: This interview aims at testing the candidate s job behavior and level of understanding during the period of stress and strain. The interviewer tests candidate by putting him
  • 50. 50 under stress and strain by interrupting the applicant from answering, criticizing his opinions, asking questions pertaining to unrelated areas, keeping silent for unduly long periods after he has finished speaking etc. Stress during the middle portion of the interview gives effective results. Stress interview must be handled with utmost care and skills. This type of interview is often invalid, as the interviewer s need for a job and his previous experience in such type of interviews may inhibit his actual behavior under such situations. (4) Group discussion interview: There are 2 methods of conducting group discussion interviews, viz. group interview method and discussion interview method. All the candidates are brought into one room and are interviewed one by one under group interview. This method helps a busy executive to save valuable time and gives a fair account of the objectivity of the interview to the candidates. Under the discussion interview method, one topic is given for discussion to the candidates who assemble in one room and they are asked to discuss the topic in detail. This type of interview helps the interviewer in appraising certain skills of the candidates like initiative, inter-personal skills, dynamism, presentation, leading, comprehension, collaboration etc. Interviewers are at ease in this category of interview because of its informality and flexibility. (5) Formal and structured interview: In this type of interview, all the formalities, procedures like fixing the value, time, panel of interviewers, opening and closing, intimating the candidates officially etc. are strictly followed in arranging and conducting interview. The course of the interview is preplanned and structured, in advance, depending on job requirements. (6) Panel interview: A panel of experts interview each candidate, judges his performance individually and prepares consolidated judgement. This type of interview is known as panel interview. Interviewers for middle level and senior level mangers are normally conducted are the panel of experts.
  • 51. 51 (7) Depth interview: In this interview, the candidate would be examined extensively in core areas of job skills and knowledge. Experts test the candidate s knowledge in depth. Depth interviews are conducted for specialist jobs. DECISION-MAKING INTERVIEW: After the experts including the line managers of the organization in the core areas of the job examine the candidates, the head of the department/section concerned interviews the candidates once again, mostly through informal discussion. The interviewer examines the interest of the candidate in the job, organization, reaction/adaptability to the working conditions, career planning, promotional opportunities, work adjustment and allotment etc. The personnel manger also interviews the candidates with a view to find out his reaction/acceptance regarding salary, allowances, benefits, promotions, opportunities etc. The head of the department and the personnel manager exchange the view and then they jointly inform their decision to the chairman of the interview board, which finally makes the decision about the candidate s performance and their ranks in the interview. Most of the organizations have realized that employee s positive attitude matters much rather than employee s skill and knowledge. Employees with positive attitude contribute much to the organization. Hence, interviewers look for the candidates with the right attitude while making final decision. (K) MEDICAL EXAMINATION: Certain jobs require certain physical qualities like clear vision, perfect hearing unusual stamina, tolerance of hardworking conditions, clear tone etc. Medical examination reveals whether or not a candidate possesses these qualities. Medical examination can give the following information: Whether the applicant is medically suited for the specific job Whether the applicant has health problems or psychological attitudes
  • 52. 52 likely to interfere with work efficiency or future attendance. The offer. Whether the applicant suffers from bad health which should be corrected before he can work satisfactorily It reveals the applicant s physical measurements and It is used to check the special senses of the candidates. (L) REFERENCE CHECKS: After completion of the final interview and medical examination, the personnel department will engage in checking references. Candidates are required to give the names of references in their application forms. These references may be from the individuals who are familiar with the candidates academic achievement or form the applicant s previous employer, who is well versed with the applicant s job performance, and sometimes from coworkers. Incase the reference check is from the previous employer; information for the following areas may be obtained. They are job title, job description, and period of employment, pay and allowances, gross emoluments, benefits provided, rate of absence, willingness of the previous employer to employ the candidate again and soon. Further, information regarding candidate s regularity at work, character, progress etc. can be obtained. Often a telephone call is much quicker. The method of mail provides detailed information about the candidate s performance, character and behavior. However, a personal visit is superior to the mail and telephone methods and is used where it is highly essential to get the detailed, actual information, which can also be secured by observation. Reference checks are taken as a matter of routine and treated casually or omitted entirely in many organizations. But a good reference check used sincerely will fetch useful and reliable information to the organization. (M) FINAL DECISION BY THE LINE MANAGER: The line manager concerned has to make the final decision whether to select or reject a candidate after soliciting the required information through techniques discussed earlier. The line manager has to take much care in taking the final decision not only
  • 53. 53 because of economic implications but alsobecause of behavioral and social implications. A careless decision of rejecting would impair the morale of the people and they would suspect the selection procedure and the basis of selection of this organization. A true understanding between line managers and personnel managers should be established to take proper decisions. (N) JOB OFFER: Thus, after taking the final decision, the organization has to intimate this decision to the successful as well as unsuccessful candidates. The organization offers the job to the successful candidates either immediately or after some time depending upon its time schedule. The candidate after receiving job offer communicates his acceptance to the offer or requests the company to modify the terms and conditions of employment or rejects the offer. (O) EMPLOYMENT: The company may modify the terms and conditions of employment as requested by the candidate. The company employs those candidates who accept the job offer with or with out modification of terms and conditions of employment and place them on the job. With the employment of the candidate the recruitment and selection process is completed.
  • 54. 54 RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION AT MALAYALA MANORAMA: Recruitment is the process of attracting prospective candidates who are likely to get selected. Recruitment process starts with the drafting of advertisement for the required post mentioning the name of the post, qualifications required, place of posting etc. the advertisement is released in all major and national newspaper across the country. Not only print media, but other media like internet is also used for posting the advertisement. Placement agencies and educational institutions are considered if the requirements are for fresh graduates. Employee references by are also encouraged. After receiving the applications, it is initially screened by HR division based on minimum requirements and qualifications prescribed for the post. Screened applications from HR division are sent to respective divisional heads for their screening in case of applications for higher posts. Selection is the process of selecting right candidates from the list of prospective candidates. Selection process involves tests, interviews, group discussions, psychometric tests or a combination of these depending on the nature or sensitivity of the level and the post. For technical posts, tests are used as elimination means while for some other posts like management trainee, tests are not used as elimination means. The shortlisted candidates are called for the final interview. Regret letters are sent to those who are not shortlisted. Background checking of the shortlisted candidates is done to ensure that they will fit with the culture of the organization. Job offers are made to the selected candidates and they are asked to give their confirmation that they accept the job offer. On receiving their confirmation, appointment letter is prepared by personnel and administration division and given to the candidate at the time of joining. Salary offer is a part of Human resource division while personnel and administration division handles salary administration. Senior Executives and Executives are responsible for conducting the recruitment and selection process in a time phased manner. Work flow of recruitment and selection process is given below.
  • 55. 55 Advertisements Data Banks References Educational Institutions Test Interview Group Discussion Psycho Profiling Regret letter sent to candidates not selected IF POSITIVE IF ACCEPTED
  • 56. 56 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: Research is a careful or critical inquiry or examination in seeking facts or principles, diligent investigation in order to ascertaining something. The process in which data/facts is collected to solve the problem in a most effective manner is known as Research Methodology. The methodology is basically the set of rules, procedures, tools, and techniques used by the researcher for realization of research objective. The process of designing research study involves many interrelated decisions. The most significant decision is the choice of research design. This determines how the information will be obtained. Research design: It is a framework or blueprint for conducting the marketing research or any other research project. It specifies the details of the procedures necessary for obtaining the information needed to structure and solve the marketing or other problems. The designing mostly goes through the following steps, 1) Design the exploratory, descriptive, and/or casual phases of the research. 2) Define the information needed. 3) Determine the data collection method. 4) Construct and present a questionnaire. 5) Specify the sampling process and sample size. 6) Develop a plan for data analysis. In Research Methodology mainly Data plays an important role. The Data is divided in two parts: a) Primary Data. b) Secondary Data.
  • 57. 57 Primary is the data, which is collected directly by direct personal interview, interview, indirect oral investigation, Information received through local agents, drafting a schedule, drafting a questionnaire. It can be defined as, ‘It is the data originated by the researcher for the specific purpose of addressing the research problem’. Secondary is the data, which is collected from the various books, magazine and material, reports, etc. The data which is stored in the organization and provide by the HR people are also secondary data. However secondary data can be defined as, ‘data collected for some purpose other than the problem at hand’. The various information is taken out regarding that subject as, Studies on recruitment and selection procedures. The last years data stored can also be secondary data. This data is kept for the internal use of the organization. This is the Research Methodology used in the project. The primary and secondary data method has been used in this project. Unless the data is collected no project can be complete. So both these data is very important in the project. Sampling method: The sample is a sub-group of the elements of the population selected for participation in the study. However population is the aggregate of all the elements, sharing some common set of characteristics, which compromises the universe for the purpose of the defined objective. A total of 80 people were selected for the study. Also 10 executives from the company were asked about the same. As there was a defined universe, each and every element of the universe had a probabilistic chance of being selected for the sample, thus the sampling method used was simple random probability sampling.
  • 58. 58 DATA COLLECTION METHODS Statistics is those facts that can be stated in a table or in any tabular or classified arrangement. It is called as science of averages. PRIMARY DATA: Primary data is data collected from field research. PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION METHOD Primary data was collected by means of personal interview. Methods applied to Conduct the Survey was: Direct Questionnaire method Interview technique The questionnaire consisted of general questions which were aimed at finding the satisfaction level of employees with regard to the selection procedure. Thus a direct interview method enabled in understanding the pros and cons in the selection procedures in a broader sense. SECONDARY DATA Secondary data refers to data collected from books and articles. Secondary data was provided by the HR Dept. Feed back from all the employees. SECONDARY DATA COLLECTION METHOD: The company hands out a feed back form to each candidate who passes through the selection program. The candidates are required to fill these forms and return it to the concerned HR person. A file of these feedback forms is maintained. These forms provided ample information for the project. In the “recruitment and selection at Malayala Manorama”, there were 80 respondent who applied for the post of ciculation inspector and who appeared for the second phase of interview. The survey was done after giving them an idea about why we are doing this survey. These questionnaires were filled by the individual candidate. The respondents were asked to go through all the questions and put tick mark on any one from the different alternatives.
  • 59. 59 DATA ANALYSIS: Some of the questions asked to the candidates Q. 1) Are you satisfied with the recruitment and selection procedues in Malayala Manorama? Ans.) Satisfaction level Very satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied No. of respondents 17 32 26 5 Observation: Most of the respondents are satisfied with the recruitment and selection process which is carried out in malayala manorama
  • 60. 60 Q.2) . What is the criteria of selection in Malayala Manorama of the recruitment process if Work Experience considered rated in percentage as per your experience. Ans.) Percentage 20-30 31-50 51-60 61-70 70 and above No. of respondents 5 17 41 12 5 Observation: Most of the respondents feel that work experience plays an important role in getting selected in Malayala manorama
  • 61. 61 Q.3) Are you satisfied with the no. of screening levels in selection procedure? Ans.) Satisfaction level Very satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied No. of respondents 8 16 30 26 Observation: 37% of the respondents are partially satisfied with the number of screening levels in the recruitment and selection process 33% of the respondents are dissatisfied with the number of levels 20% of the respondents are satisfied with the number of levels 10% of the respondents are very satisfied with number of levels Hence the satisfactory levels with the number of levels in the screening process is low
  • 62. 62 Q.4) Do you feel that your job profile was properly communicated in recruitment advertisement? Ans.) Satisfaction level Very satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied No. of respondents 17 35 28 Observation: 44% of the respondents feel that they are properly communicated about the job profile through the advertisement 35% of the respondents feel that they are partially communicated 21% of the respondents are very satisfied Hence the respondents are satisfied with the communication of the job profile to them
  • 63. 63 Some of the questions asked to the Executives Q.1) Do you believe that the core competencies required were properly communicated and tested for the given job profile. Ans.) Satisfaction level Very satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied No. of respondents 6 8 44 14 8 Observations: 55% of the respondents feel that the need is partially fulfilled 18% of the respondents are dissatisfied 10% of the respondents are satisfied 10% of the respondents are very dissatisfied 7% of the respondents are very satisfied Hence over all satisfactory level in communication of the core competencies to the prospective candidate is low
  • 64. 64 Q.2) Are you satisfied with the recruitment and selection procedure? Is it efficient to satisfy the needs of all the departments? Ans.) Satisfaction level Very satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied No. of respondents 2 3 4 1 Observation: 40% of the respondents are dissatisfied over the recruitment and selection procedure 30% of the respondents are saying that the procedures are average 20% of the respondents are satisfied with the recruitment and selection process 10% of the respondents are very satisfied with the recruitment and selection process Hence the dissatisfactory levels about the recruitment and selection process is high
  • 65. 65 Q.3) Are you satisfied with the time consumed in for the recruitment and selection procedure? Ans.) Satisfaction level Very satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied No. of respondents 2 5 3 Observation: 50% of the respondents are staying Average or are not sure whether the time consumed by the recruitment process is appropriate or not 30% of the respondents are not satisfied with the time consumed 20% of the respondents are satisfied with the time consumed Hence satisfactory level in time consumed in recruitment and selection process is low
  • 66. 66 Q.4) Do you think that the recruitment and selection procedures are future oriented and helping organizational growth? Ans.) Response Yes No Not sure No. of respondent 5 3 2 Observations: • 50% of the repondents feel that the recruitment and selection process carried out in Malayala Manorama helps in the future growth and development of the organization. • 30% feel that it does not help the organisation. • 20% of them are not sure about it. • Hence there is not a clear feeling that the procedures are future oriented.
  • 67. 67 FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: The recruitment is done mostly through advertisements in news papers and magazines. However the other sources used and its prevalence can be observed from the graph. It is done through Malayala Manorama Daily when there is a need of people who know Malayalam and who should be working in kerala. But in the case of all India level recruitment advertisements are also given in The Week which is a magazine of Malayala Manorama and the Times of India. The recruitment and selection process is mostly not given to any recruitment agencies for recruiting people but they are used to get the prospective candidates which are shortlisted later. There is a constant need of talented people because of the expansion plans undertaken by the Malayala Manorama. The selection procedures are usually consisting of three phases which includes one level of written test and two levels of interviews.
  • 68. 68 A talent pool is formed by selecting more number of candidates than required and are given employment offers when the opportunities are created. The data analysis shows that most of the respondents are satisfied with the recruitment and selection process which is carried out in malayala manorama. The satisfaction level is high if communication of job profile and evaluation of experience is concerned but the respondents were found to be less satisfied with the no. of screening levels for lower level posts. Even the management was concerned for the same when they took the cost factor. The executives within the company are not satisfied with the recruitment and selection process as there is no proper communication and response for the individual departmental needs, these increases inter departmental frictions. The time taken due to procedures and the communication of core competencies for the given job are also a matter of concern. The recruitment and selection procedures should be future oriented that is also an important suggestion given by them.
  • 69. 69 SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Following are the suggestions to improve the recruitment and selection procedures at Malayala Manorama, The process should be made future oriented this can be done by keeping skills, attitude and knowledge in consideration instead of just emphasizing on qualification and experience. The levels for selection procedures should be minimized for lower level staff selection. The individual departmental needs should be communicated within the company during general meetings, also the job profiles should be designed in such a way that it reinforces with the need of departments so as to avoid inter- departmental frictions. The recruitment is not done mainly by campus interviews. The company should opt more for it as it provides the chance for getting higher potential candidates and the process is cheaper too. The recruitment and selection process should be designed in such a way that the time and economy factor are well observed.
  • 70. 70 BIBLIOGRAPHY • www.manoramaonline.com • Quality Manual • Manorama Year Books • Management Trainee Reports • MM Knowledge Advertised CD-ROM
  • 71. 71 APPENDICES: Questionnaire: 1) For candidates Q. 1) Are you satisfied with the recruitment and selection procedures in Malayala Manorama? Ans.) Satisfaction level Very satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied No. of respondents Q.2). What is the criteria of selection in Malayala Manorama of the recruitment process if Work Experience considered rated in percentage as per your experience. Ans.) Percentage 20-30 31-50 51-60 61-70 70 and above No. of respondents Q.3) Are you satisfied with the no. of screening levels in selection procedure? Ans.) Satisfaction level Very satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied No. of respondents
  • 72. 72 Q.4) Do you feel that your job profile was properly communicated in recruitment advertisement? Ans.) Satisfaction level Very satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied No. of respondents Questionnaire: For company executives. Q.1) Do you believe that the core competencies required were properly communicated and tested for the given job profile. Ans.) Satisfaction level Very satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied No. of respondents Q.2) Are you satisfied with the recruitment and selection procedure? Is it efficient to satisfy the needs of all the departments? Ans.) Satisfaction level Very satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied No. of respondents
  • 73. 73 Q.3) Are you satisfied with the time consumed by the recruitment and selection procedure? Ans.) Satisfaction level Very satisfied Satisfied Average Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied No. of respondents Q.4) Do you think that the recruitment and selection procedures are future oriented and helping organizational growth? Ans.) Response Yes No Not sure No. of respondent
  • 74. 74