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Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
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Renaissance Papacy

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Papacy in the Renaissance

Papacy in the Renaissance

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  • 1. The Papacy of the Renaissance <ul><li>Fountain of Humanism or Cesspool of Corruption? </li></ul>
  • 2. Job Description of the Pope <ul><li>Personify the Church and its Teachings </li></ul><ul><li>Represent Catholicism </li></ul>
  • 3. Definition of Corruption <ul><li>moral perversion; depravity </li></ul>
  • 4. Calixtus III (1455-1458) Background Information Background Information <ul><li>Borgia </li></ul><ul><li>No interest in the arts </li></ul>
  • 5. Calixtus III (1455-1458) Papacy Papacy <ul><li>Crusade to retake Constantinople </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Funded by indulgences, taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interference frustrated France and Germany </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gifts to relatives and allies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For own protection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nepotism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nephew Pedro Luis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Governor of Castel Sant’Angelo and prefect of Rome </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two other nephews become cardinals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rodrigo Borgia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vice-chancellor of the curia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Later Pope Alexander VI </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 6. Pius II (1458-1464) Background Information Background Information <ul><li>Considered humanist, historian, statesman as well </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic studies under Francesco Filelfo </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior in youth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refused becoming priest due to licentious lifestyle </li></ul></ul>Pope Pius II by Pinturicchio
  • 7. Pius II Background Information Background Information <ul><li>Writings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lucretia and Eurialus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Style of Boccaccio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epistolary novel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Series of love letters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antiquarianism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quotes Virgil </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Written in Latin </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chrisis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Latin Comedy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Style of Terrence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Playwright from Roman Republic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;I am a man, I consider nothing that is human alien to me.&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commentaries </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Pius II Background Information Background Information <ul><li>Diplomat for Frederick III </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diet of Nuremburg and Diet of Frankfurt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Settled hostilities toward the Pope </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concordant of Vienna </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Made cardinal in return for diplomatic successes by Calixtus III </li></ul>
  • 9. Pius II Papacy Papacy <ul><li>Decrease in overt humanism </li></ul><ul><li>Crusade against the Turks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fall of Constantinople </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants cleansed of sins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Execrabilis et in pristinis temporibus inauditus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Councils claiming more power than Pope charged with heresy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nepotism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardinal to nephew Francesco Toedschini Piccolomini </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Later Pope Pius III </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 10. Sixtus IV (1471-1484) Background Information Background Information <ul><ul><li>Franciscan Order as child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studied philosophy and theology </li></ul></ul>Pope Sixtus IV by Justus van Gent and Pedro Berruguete
  • 11. Vatican Library <ul><ul><li>Wanted Vatican to become center of European learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased collection to 3,498 codices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commissioned Melozzo da Forlì </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artwork to highlight his contributions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 12. Melozzo da Forlì <ul><li>Appoints Bartolomeo Plantina as Librarian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Points at phrase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Builder of temples, roads, squares, walls, bridges” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three Nephews </li></ul><ul><li>Perspective </li></ul>
  • 13. Antoniazzo Romano <ul><ul><li>Created frescoes for the Church </li></ul></ul>Annunciation Madonna and Child Nativity with Sts Lawrence and Andrew
  • 14.  
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  • 17. Baccio Pontelli <ul><ul><ul><li>Architect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works include: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ponte Sisto </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Santo Spirito Hospital </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Santa Maria del Popolo basilica </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sistine Chapel </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Sistine Chapel
  • 18. Sistine Chapel <ul><ul><li>Sandro Botticelli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domenico Ghirlandaio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pinturicchio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luca Signorelli </li></ul></ul>The Punishment of Korah and the Stoning of Moses and Aaron by Sandro Botticelli
  • 19. Saint Sixtus II by Sandro Botticelli
  • 20. Calling of the Apostles by Domenico Ghirlandaio
  • 21. Moses’s Treatment and Death by Luca Signorelli
  • 22. Sixtus IV Papacy Papacy <ul><li>Foreign Affairs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wars vs. Turks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legates sent to France, Spain, Hungary, Germany, Poland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denouncement of Louis XI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failed attempt to unite Russian and Roman Church </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. <ul><li>Italian Politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nepotism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nephew Cardinal Rafael Riario </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports Venetian attack of Ferrara </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nephew Girolamo Riario’s possession </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conspiracy of the Pazzi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planned by nephew Cardinal Rafael Riario </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overthrow Midici-> Riarii dominate Florence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two year war against Florence </li></ul></ul>Sixtus IV Papacy Papacy
  • 24. Innocent VIII (1484-1492) Background Information Background Information <ul><li>Two illegitimate children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Franceschetto and Teodorina </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Served Cardinal Calandrini </li></ul><ul><li>Bishop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>of Savona (1467) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of Molfetta (1472) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signed election capitulation (1482) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect the interests of the electors </li></ul></ul>
  • 25. Innocent VIII Papacy Papacy <ul><li>Relied heavily on Cardinal della Rovere (later Pope Julius II) </li></ul><ul><li>Crusade against infidels (those who were not baptized) </li></ul><ul><li>1498 treaty with Bayezid II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Payment of 40,000 ducats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holy Lance (spear used in Crucifixion) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detainment of brother Jem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Excommunication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>King Ferdinand of Naples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not pay papal dues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdom given to Charles VIII of France, but then returned in 1492 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who read works by Pico della Mirandola </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. Innocent VIII Papacy Papacy <ul><ul><li>Proclaimed King Henry VII as true King of England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summis desiderantes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bull combating heresy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Witchcraft in Germany </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indulgences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Granted to those who participated in crusade against Waldenses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nepotism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capture of Granada </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ferdinand of Aragon becomes “Catholic Majesty” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Franceschetto </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Given several towns </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Married to daughter of Lorenzo de Medici </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 27. Alexander VI (1492-1503) Background information Background information <ul><li>Borgia </li></ul><ul><li>Studied law at Bologna </li></ul><ul><li>Cardinal-Deacon of San Nicola in Carcer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age: 25 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vice-Chancellor of Holy Roman Church </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed by Uncle Pope Calixtus III </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cardinal-Bishop of Albano </li></ul>Pope Alexander VI by Cristofano dell’Altissimo
  • 28. Alexander VI Family Tree Family Tree (1) by Vannozza de Catanei Cesare (Cardinal) Giovanni (2nd duke of Gandia) Lucrezia Joffré (2) by Guilia Farnese Rodrigo Giovanni (3) by unknown mistress Pedro Luis (1st duke of Gandia) unknown children
  • 29. Alexander VI Papacy Papacy <ul><li>Nepotism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cesare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Archibishop of Valencia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cardinal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giovanni </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dukedom of Gandia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships/Alliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daughter Lucrezia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Married to Giovanni Sforza </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alliance with Urbino </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Married to Duke of Bisceglie </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Son of Alfonso II </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Married to Alfonzo d’Este, Duke of Ferrara </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>King of France </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Double crossed and allied with Naples </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 30. Alexander VI Papacy Papacy <ul><li>College of Cardinals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created 12 new cardinal positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upsets French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alexander bribes Bishop of Saint-Malo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents French deposition of him </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conquer Naples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confiscates wealth from wealthy men of Rome and Church </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Papal opposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excommunicated and killed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. Savonarola </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 31. Alexander VI Papacy Papacy <ul><li>Rumors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lucrezia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Murder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Duke of Bisceglie (2nd husband of Lucrezia) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>princes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orsini clan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Condottieri </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wealthy cardinals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 32. The Papacy of the Renaissance Fountain of Humanism or Cesspool of Corruption? Fountain of Humanism or Cesspool of Corruption? <ul><li>Humanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in some popes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patrons of the arts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sixtus IV </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Julius II </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanist studies/Background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pius II </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sixtus IV </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Corruption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in every pope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Themes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wealth/lavish lifestyle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nepotism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simony </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immoral behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 33. Sources <ul><li>http://www.adishakti.org/_/papacy_in_historical_perspective_the_seldom_told_history.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.svcc.edu/academics/classes/murray/Ezine/sistine.html </li></ul>
  • 34. Photo Sources <ul><li>Portrait of Callixtus: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_-HE1lR1mlb8/TL57aFZmK3I/AAAAAAAADUE/AMu6lhbtqNk/s1600/callistus_iii.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Portrait of Pius II: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pintoricchio_014.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Portrait of Sixtus IV: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pope_Sixtus_IV_%28head%29.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Commentaries: http://covers.openlibrary.org/w/id/412119-L.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Vatican Library Image: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/23/arts/design/23libr.html </li></ul><ul><li>Bartolomeo Plantina’s Appointment: http://thiswritelife.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/vatican-library-melozzo.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Annunciation: http://www.wga.hu/index1.html </li></ul><ul><li>Madonna and Child: http://www.wga.hu/index1.html </li></ul>
  • 35. Photo Sources <ul><li>Nativity with Sts Lawrence and Andrew: http://www.wga.hu/index1.html </li></ul><ul><li>Exterior of Sistine Chapel: http://www.scanopia.com/michelangelo/exterior-of-the-sistine-chapel.html </li></ul><ul><li>The Punishment of Korah and the Stoning of Moses and Aaron: http://www.wga.hu/index1.html </li></ul><ul><li>St. Sixtus II: http://www.wga.hu/index1.html </li></ul><ul><li>Calling of the Apostles: http://www.wga.hu/index1.html </li></ul><ul><li>Moses’s Treatment and Death: http://www.wga.hu/index1.html </li></ul><ul><li>Portrait of Innocent VIII: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Innocent_VIII_1492.JPG </li></ul><ul><li>Portrait of Alexander VI: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pope_Alexander_Vi.jpg </li></ul>

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