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History pp ch 7 sec 1

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  • 1. “The New Immigrants” (write what’s bolded) Dion Stafford, James Nunn, Martin Pineda, Patrick Layug, Sunshine Dominguez (The Mystical Dragons)
  • 2. Immigration to America-Millions of immigrants entered the US in the late19th and early 20th centuries-Moved to escape difficult living conditions such asfamine, land shortages, or religious or politicalpersecution.-Things such as birds of passage intended toimmigrate temporarily to earn money and thenreturn to homeland.
  • 3. Europeans-Between 1870 and 1920 20 million Europeans arrivein US-1890, most immigrants came from western andnorthern Europe beginning of 1890 immigrants camefrom southern and eastern Europe.-Many immigrants left to escape religiouspersecution. (for example: the jews were driven out ofRussia)
  • 4. -Others left because of rising population(scarcity of land, farmers vs. laborers).-Jobs were plentiful in US-They were influenced by politicalmovements at home, young men andwomen moved to US.
  • 5. Chinese-1851-1883 300,000 Chinese immigrants arrived-Many came to seek their fortunes after the discovery ofgold in 1848 (California Gold rush)-Chinese helped build nation’s railroads including the firsttranscontinental line.-Farming, mining, and domestic services
  • 6. -1884, Japanese government allowedHawaiian planters to recruit Japanese workersand a Japanese emigration boom began.-Annexation of Hawaii in 1898 resulted inincreased Japanese migration of west coast.-Immigration continued to increase as word ofhigher wages spread.-By 1920 more than 200,000 Japanese lived onwest coast
  • 7. The West Indies and Mexico-1880-1920: about 260,000 immigrants from the WestIndies came to Eastern and South Eastern U.S insearch of work during the Industrial boom-Many came from Puerto Rico, Cuba, Jamaica, andother Islands-Mexicans also come to the U.S in search of jobs andalso to flee political turmoil.
  • 8. -1902: National Reclamation Act (encouragedirrigation of arid land) created new farmland inthe Western States which attracted Mexicanworkers.-1910: political and social upheavals in Mexicoprompt more immigration-Over the next 20 years, about 700,000 peoplecame to the U.S
  • 9. A Difficult Journey-1870: almost all immigrants traveled by steamship. Thetrip from Europe across the Atlantic took one week. Asiato the Pacific took about 3 weeks. -Immigrants traveled in steerage- cheap accommodations in ships’ cargo holds. They were rarely allowed on deck and slept in mouse infested bunks. -Shared toilets with many other passengers.-Because of these conditions, disease spread quicklyand killed some people before they reached theirdestination.
  • 10. Ellis Island• Chief immigration station in the US from 1892 – 1924.• Estimated 17 million European immigrants passed through it.• About 20% of the immigrants were detained for a day or more before being inspected. Only 2% of those were denied entry.• The processing takes 5 hours or more: – had to pass a physical examination, anyone with serious health problem or contagious disease was sent home – Inspector checked if they meet the legal requirements such as: Had never been convicted of a felony Demonstrating they’re able to work Had some money at least $25• Interpreters were use to overcome the language problem
  • 11. Angel Island• Asians (primarily Chinese) immigrants arriving on the West Coast gained admission at Angel Island in San Francisco Bay.• Between 1910-1940, about 50,000 Chinese immigrants entered the U.S.• Immigrants in Angel island endured harsh questioning and long detention compared to the immigrants in Ellis Island.
  • 12. Cooperation For SurvivalChallenges after admission into the country: -finding a place to live -getting a job -getting along in daily life and understandingunfamiliar language & culture.-Ethnic communities stuck together, pooled their $$ tobuild churches/synagogues, social clubs and aidsocieties.-Native born Americans often disliked the immigrants’unfamiliar customs and languages and viewed them asa threat to the American way of life.
  • 13. The Rise of Natavism-Melting Pot- A mixture of different cultures and raceswho blended together by abandoning their nativelanguages and customs-Immigrants didn’t want to give up cultural identities-As immigration increased, strong anti immigrant feelingsincreased-Natavism- overt favoritism toward native bornAmericans -Believed English were superior to other ethnic groups.
  • 14. Immigration Restriction League -founded by Prescott F. Hall - “Right” countries- British, German, andScandinavians - “Wrong” countries- Slav, Latin, and AsiaticracesAmerican Protective Association -Natavist group formed in 1887 -Anti-Catholic -Many colleges, businesses and social clubsrefused to admit Jews.
  • 15. 1897- IRL passed a bill requiring a literacy test forimmigration. -had to read 40 words in English or their nativelanguage for entry.President Cleveland vetoed the bill. -A similar bill would be passed in 1917 despitethe veto.
  • 16. Anti-Asian Sentiment-Native born workers feared that jobs would go toChinese immigrants who would accept lower wages.-The founder of the working party, Denis Kearnyheaded the anti-Chinese movement in California.-In 1992 Congress slammed the door on Chineseimmigration for ten years by passing the Chineseexclusion act. -Banned entry to all Chinese exceptstudents, teachers, merchants, tourists andgovernment officials.
  • 17. The Gentlemen’s AgreementWhen Japan raised an angry protest at this-treatment of emigrants, President TheadoreRoosevelt worked out a deal.- Gentlemen’s Agreement: 1907-1908Japan’s government agreed to limitemigration of unskilled workers to the USfor the repeal of the SF segregation order.