“The New Immigrants” (write what’s bolded) Dion Stafford, James Nunn, Martin Pineda, Patrick Layug, Sunshine Dominguez (The Mystical Dragons)
Immigration to America-Millions of immigrants entered the US in the late19th and early 20th centuries-Moved to escape difficult living conditions such asfamine, land shortages, or religious or politicalpersecution.-Things such as birds of passage intended toimmigrate temporarily to earn money and thenreturn to homeland.
Europeans-Between 1870 and 1920 20 million Europeans arrivein US-1890, most immigrants came from western andnorthern Europe beginning of 1890 immigrants camefrom southern and eastern Europe.-Many immigrants left to escape religiouspersecution. (for example: the jews were driven out ofRussia)
-Others left because of rising population(scarcity of land, farmers vs. laborers).-Jobs were plentiful in US-They were influenced by politicalmovements at home, young men andwomen moved to US.
Chinese-1851-1883 300,000 Chinese immigrants arrived-Many came to seek their fortunes after the discovery ofgold in 1848 (California Gold rush)-Chinese helped build nation’s railroads including the firsttranscontinental line.-Farming, mining, and domestic services
-1884, Japanese government allowedHawaiian planters to recruit Japanese workersand a Japanese emigration boom began.-Annexation of Hawaii in 1898 resulted inincreased Japanese migration of west coast.-Immigration continued to increase as word ofhigher wages spread.-By 1920 more than 200,000 Japanese lived onwest coast
The West Indies and Mexico-1880-1920: about 260,000 immigrants from the WestIndies came to Eastern and South Eastern U.S insearch of work during the Industrial boom-Many came from Puerto Rico, Cuba, Jamaica, andother Islands-Mexicans also come to the U.S in search of jobs andalso to flee political turmoil.
-1902: National Reclamation Act (encouragedirrigation of arid land) created new farmland inthe Western States which attracted Mexicanworkers.-1910: political and social upheavals in Mexicoprompt more immigration-Over the next 20 years, about 700,000 peoplecame to the U.S
A Difficult Journey-1870: almost all immigrants traveled by steamship. Thetrip from Europe across the Atlantic took one week. Asiato the Pacific took about 3 weeks. -Immigrants traveled in steerage- cheap accommodations in ships’ cargo holds. They were rarely allowed on deck and slept in mouse infested bunks. -Shared toilets with many other passengers.-Because of these conditions, disease spread quicklyand killed some people before they reached theirdestination.
Ellis Island• Chief immigration station in the US from 1892 – 1924.• Estimated 17 million European immigrants passed through it.• About 20% of the immigrants were detained for a day or more before being inspected. Only 2% of those were denied entry.• The processing takes 5 hours or more: – had to pass a physical examination, anyone with serious health problem or contagious disease was sent home – Inspector checked if they meet the legal requirements such as: Had never been convicted of a felony Demonstrating they’re able to work Had some money at least $25• Interpreters were use to overcome the language problem
Angel Island• Asians (primarily Chinese) immigrants arriving on the West Coast gained admission at Angel Island in San Francisco Bay.• Between 1910-1940, about 50,000 Chinese immigrants entered the U.S.• Immigrants in Angel island endured harsh questioning and long detention compared to the immigrants in Ellis Island.
Cooperation For SurvivalChallenges after admission into the country: -finding a place to live -getting a job -getting along in daily life and understandingunfamiliar language & culture.-Ethnic communities stuck together, pooled their $$ tobuild churches/synagogues, social clubs and aidsocieties.-Native born Americans often disliked the immigrants’unfamiliar customs and languages and viewed them asa threat to the American way of life.
The Rise of Natavism-Melting Pot- A mixture of different cultures and raceswho blended together by abandoning their nativelanguages and customs-Immigrants didn’t want to give up cultural identities-As immigration increased, strong anti immigrant feelingsincreased-Natavism- overt favoritism toward native bornAmericans -Believed English were superior to other ethnic groups.
Immigration Restriction League -founded by Prescott F. Hall - “Right” countries- British, German, andScandinavians - “Wrong” countries- Slav, Latin, and AsiaticracesAmerican Protective Association -Natavist group formed in 1887 -Anti-Catholic -Many colleges, businesses and social clubsrefused to admit Jews.
1897- IRL passed a bill requiring a literacy test forimmigration. -had to read 40 words in English or their nativelanguage for entry.President Cleveland vetoed the bill. -A similar bill would be passed in 1917 despitethe veto.
Anti-Asian Sentiment-Native born workers feared that jobs would go toChinese immigrants who would accept lower wages.-The founder of the working party, Denis Kearnyheaded the anti-Chinese movement in California.-In 1992 Congress slammed the door on Chineseimmigration for ten years by passing the Chineseexclusion act. -Banned entry to all Chinese exceptstudents, teachers, merchants, tourists andgovernment officials.
The Gentlemen’s AgreementWhen Japan raised an angry protest at this-treatment of emigrants, President TheadoreRoosevelt worked out a deal.- Gentlemen’s Agreement: 1907-1908Japan’s government agreed to limitemigration of unskilled workers to the USfor the repeal of the SF segregation order.