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  1. 1. A vowel is a speech sound thatis produced without anyobstruction air in the speechtract. There are twenty vowelsin English. These are sub-dividedinto two: purevowels(monothongs) impurevowels(diphthongs).
  2. 2. Vowels are described based on the following criteria:(i) The height of the tongue(ii) The part of the tongue that is raised or lowered(iii) The position of the lips
  3. 3. A vowel may be short or long. Long vowels take two dots in front of them, e.g/i:/, /a:/ while short vowels e.g /i:/, /e/ do not.
  4. 4. /i:/ it is a long vowel common spellings.ee, as in tree e, as in complete as in cheese as in jesus as in canteen as in be as in seen as in these as in been i, as in machinecene, as in scene as in prestige as in suite ea, as in leaf ey, as in key as in reason as in storey as in sea as in money as in beat
  5. 5. ie, as in piece as in fieldei, as in seige as in receipt as in deceive
  6. 6. 2. /i/ it is a short vowel common spellings i, as in bit o, as in women as in sit a, as in village as in rich as in private y, as in lorry as in manage as in bury ay, as in monday as in any as in sunday e, as in pretty rhy, as in rhythm as in naked as in careless
  7. 7. minimal pairs /i:/ /i/ beat bit deed did bead bid neat hit seat sit
  8. 8. 3. /e/ It is a short vowel. common spellings e, as in set ea, as in heaven as in get as in feather as in beg as in thread as in let as in threat as in peck as in dread as in peg a, as in many as in any as in thames as in ate as in says
  9. 9. ea, as in dead u, as in bury as in head eo as in leopard as in Geoffrey
  10. 10. 4. It is a short vowel. common spellings a, as in sat a, as in badge as in bat as in mary as in pack ai, as in plait as in back as in plaid as in hat as in bag as in batch
  11. 11. minimal pairs/i:/ /i/ /e/neat knit netreach rich wretchread rid red
  12. 12. pet patpeck packten tan
  13. 13. EXERCISE: Construct one sentenceeach with the following pairs ofwords. 1. neat, knit 2. reach, rich 3. read, rid 4. pet, pat 5. peck, pack
  14. 14. write 5 minimal pairs each of thefollowing sounds.
  15. 15. 5. /a:/ It is long Vowel. common spellings: /a:/ It is long in the following words ar, as in march as in large as in chart as in hard ear, as in heart
  16. 16. er, as in clerk as in Derbyal, as in calf as in palm as in almsau, as in laugh as in aunt
  17. 17. minimal pairs cart cut harm hum march much lark luck dance dunceEXRCISE. Write ten contrastive pairs of thefollowing sounds. .
  18. 18. 6. It is a shot Vowel common spellings. o, as in dog as in pot as in hot a, as in was as in swan as in wantou, ow, as in cough as in trough au, as in because as in Australia as in laurel as in qualify
  19. 19. 7. It is a long Vowel common spellings; or, as in cord as in sword as in born aw, as in saw as in lawn as in dawn as in yawn
  20. 20. ore, oor, as in before as in more as in floor as in dooroar, our, as in oar as in board as in court as in four
  21. 21. minimal pairs sport spot board bought stork stock cord cod
  22. 22. 8. It is a short Vowel common spellings: u, as in put oo, as in good as in full as in book as in cushion as in cool o, as in wolf ou, as in could as in woman as in would as in bosom as in should
  23. 23. 9. It is a long Vowel common spellings: oo, as in food ou, as in group as in moon as in through(N) as in spoon as in wound o, as in do u, as in rude as in move as in june as in lose as in Susan ew, as in chew ui, as in juice ue, as in blue oe, as in shoe
  24. 24. minimal pairs shoe shoot jews juice lose loose
  25. 25. 10. It is a short Vowel common spellings: u, as in hut ou, as in rough as in cut as in trouble as in Sunday as in country as in sun as in young o, as in won as in cousin as in one as in courage as in love as in among
  26. 26. minimal pairs cop cup long lung dock duck doll dullstock stuck
  27. 27. 11. It is a long Vowel common spellings: ir, yr, as in bird ur, urr, as in turn as in first as in church as in myrtle as in purrer, err, ear as in her W+or, as in word as in serve as in world as in err as in work as in earth our, as in journey as in heard as in scourge
  28. 28. 12. (schwa) It is a short Vowel common spellings: i, as in possible e, as in gentleman a, as in woman o, as in oblige u, as in suppose ar, as in particular er, as in mother or, as in doctor ou, as in famous
  29. 29. Assignmentprovide ten common spellingseach of /i:/ and /i/