Indian financial system by Kalyani Dutta Upneja


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Indian financial system by Kalyani Dutta Upneja

  1. 1. Prepared by Kalyani Dutta
  2. 2. Financial System comprises , a set of sub-systems of financial institutions, financial markets, financial instruments and services which help in formation of capital. It provides a mechanism by which savings are transformed into investment. The financial system is characterized by the presence of an integrated, organized and regulated financial markets and institutions that meet the short term and long term financial needs of both the household and corporate sector.
  4. 4. ⇒ The word “system” means an ordered organisation & assemblage of facts , principles or components relating to particular field or for specified purpose. ⇒ A Financial System is an integral part of Modern Economy.
  5. 5. Functions:-  Link between savers and investors.  Selection of the projects to be financed and review the performance of such projects.  Payment mechanism for exchange of goods & services  Mechanism for the transfer of resources across geographic boundaries.  provide mechanism for Managing and control risk  Promotes capital formation by bringing together the supply of savings & demand for investable funds.
  6. 6.  Lowering the cost of transactions and increase returns.Reduced cost motivate people to save more.  Provides information to the operators/ players in the market(indivisuals, govt,business houses.
  7. 7. Components and Constituents Financial Institutions Financial Markets Financial Instruments/Assets/Securities Financial Services
  8. 8. Structure:  Components of Indian Financial System Financial Institutions Financial Markets Financial Instruments Financial Services Banking Institutions Non-Banking Institutions Commercial Banks Cooperative Banks Public Sector Pvt. Sector RRBs Foreign Banks DFIs a) Developments Banks -All India - State Level b)Invt Institutions (LIC,GIC,UTI) c) Specialized Institution Non-Banking Financial Entities a) NBFCs - Equipment Leasing - Hire-Purchase - Investment - Loan Money Market Capital Market -Call Money Market -Treasury Bills -Commercial Bills -Commercial Papers -CDs Primar y Market Secondary Market Term -Short term -Medium Term -Long Term Type -Primary Securities -Secondary Securities (Equity,Pref,Debt) -Innovative Instruments Asset/Fund Based -Leasing -Hire Purchase -Consumer Credit -Bill Discounting -Venture Capital -Housing Finance -Insurance -Factoring Fee Based - Merchant Banking -Credit Rating -Stock Broking -Mergers
  9. 9. I. Financial Institutions Financial institutions are the intermediaries who facilitate smooth functioning of the financial system by making investors and buyers meet. Financial institutions mobilize saving of the surplus units & allocate them in productive activities promising a better rate of return.
  10. 10. Types of Financial Institutions:-  Banking Institutions  Non-Banking Institutions
  11. 11. Banking Institutions Indian banking industry is subject to the control of the Central Bank (RBI).Indian banking system can be classified in two categories. 1. Organized Sector 2. Unorganized Sector
  12. 12. a) Commercial Banks b) Co-operative Banks c) Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) d) Foreign Banks
  13. 13. Commercial Banks : Commercial banking system in India consisted of 297 scheduled banks (including foreign banks) and one non-scheduled bank at the end of Dec. 2000.
  14. 14. Scheduled bank Scheduled commercial Banks constitute those banks which have been included in the Second Schedule of Reserve Bank of India(RBI) Act, 1934. RBI in turn includes only those banks in this schedule which satisfy the criteria laid down vide section 42 (60 of the Act. "Non-scheduled bank in India" means a banking company as defined in clause (c) of section 5 of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 (10 of 1949), which is not a scheduled bank".
  15. 15. Co-operative Banks : This segment is represented by a group of societies registered under the Acts of the States relating to co-operative societies. These are classified into two broad categories:- a) Rural credit societies which are primarily agricultural. b) Urban credit societies which are primarily non- agricultural.
  16. 16. Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) : RRBs were set by the state government and the sponsoring commercial banks with the objective of developing the rural economy. IDBI, NABARD (National bank for agriculture & rural development)and SIDBI are also required to provide managerial and financial assistance to RRBs under Regional Rural Bank Act. Foreign Banks : 1 Barclays Bank 2 Bank of Ceylon 3 Bank Indonesia International 4 Development Bank of Singapore 5 Fuji Bank
  17. 17. Unorganised Sector a) Indigenous Bankers b) Money Lenders (Seths and Sahukars)
  18. 18. Indigenous Bankers : Indigenous bankers are the forefathers of modern commercial banks. As the term indigenous indicates, they are the local bankers. Indigenous bankers provide finance for productive purposes directly to trade , industries,& indirectly through money lenders & traders to agriculture.
  19. 19. Money Lenders : Money lenders depend entirely on their own funds for the working capital. Money lenders may be rural or urban, professional or non-professional. They enjoy monopoly in their areas of operation. Money lenders are not bankers,their business is money lending only.
  20. 20. Characteristics of Money Lenders 1. Own funds. 2. Weaker sections of the society. 3. High rates of interest. 4. Unregulated Operations 5. Prompt and flexible.
  21. 21. Non-Banking Institutions The non-banking institutions may be broadly categorised broadly into two groups:- a) Organised Financial Institutions b) Unorganised Financial Institutions
  22. 22. Organised Financial Institutions 1. Development Finance Institutions:- a) The institutions like IDBI, ICICI, IFCI(Industrial finance cooperation of India), IIBI(industrial investment bank of india) at all India level. b) State Finance Corporations (SFCs), State Industrial Development Corporations (SIDCs) at state level. c) Agriculture Development Finance Institutions as NABARD etc.
  23. 23. . Investment Institutions :- It includes those financial institutions which mobilize savings of the public at large through various schemes and invest these funds in corporate and government securities. These include LIC, GIC, UTI, and mutual funds.
  24. 24. Unorganised Financial Institutions The unorganised non-banking financial institutions include number of non-banking financial companies (NBFCs) providing whole range of financial services. Examples : Hire-purchase and consumer finance companies, leasing companies, housing finance companies, factoring companies, credit rating agencies, merchant banking companies etc.
  25. 25. II. Financial Markets Financial markets refer to the institutional arrangements for dealing in financial assets and credit instruments of different types such as currency, cheques, bank deposits, bills, bonds etc. Classification : a) Negotiated loan market-is a market in which lender & the borrower personally negotiate the terms of loan agreement. b) Open Markets-in which standardized securities are traded in large volumes.-stock market
  26. 26. Functions of financial markets 1. Creation and allocation of credit and liquidity. 2. Intermediaries for mobilization of savings. 3. Balanced economic growth. 4. Financial convenience. 5. Cater Credit needs of corporate houses.
  27. 27. Types of Financial Market 1) Money Market 2) Capital Market
  28. 28. Money Market Money Market refers to the institutional arrangements facilitating borrowing and lending of short-term funds. The RBI describes money market as, “the centre for dealings, mainly of a short-term character, in monetary assets, it meets the short-term requirements of borrowers and provides liquidity or cash to the lenders.”
  29. 29. Money Market Instruments : Commercial Bills Treasury Bills Call Money Market Commercial Papers Certificate of Deposits
  30. 30. Commercial Bills In the global money market, Commercial Paper is an unsecured promissory note with a fixed maturity of 1 to 270 days. Commercial Paper is a money-market security issued (sold) by large banks and corporations to get money to meet short term debt obligations .
  31. 31. Treasury Bills Just like commercial bills which represent commercial debt, treasury bills represent short-term borrowings of the Government. Treasury bill market refers to the market where treasury bills are brought and sold. Treasury bills are very popular and enjoy higher degree of liquidity since they are issued by the government.
  32. 32. Call money market Market in which brokers and dealers borrow money to satisfy their credit needs, either to finance their own inventory of securities .
  33. 33. Commercial papers. promissory note (issued by financial institutions or large firms) with very-short to short maturity period (usually, 2 to 30 days, and not more than 270 days), and secured only by the reputation of the issuer. Rated, bought, sold, and traded like other negotiable instruments, commercial paper is a popular means of raising cash,
  34. 34. Certificate of Deposit A savings certificate entitling the bearer to receive interest. A CD bears a maturity date, a specified fixed interest rate and can be issued in any denomination. CDs are generally issued by commercial banks . The term of a CD generally ranges from one month to five years.
  35. 35. Functions of the Money Market 1. Adjustment of liquidity position of commercial banks. 2. Provides short-term funds 3. Short-term funds to the government institutions. 4. Helpful to businessmen 5. Proper flow of funds. 6. Provide outlets to various borrowers such as businessman, traders, Industrialists. 7. Mechanism for credit control.
  36. 36. Capital Market The term ‘capital market’ refers to the institutional arrangements for facilitating the borrowing and lending of long-term funds. Repo is a collateralized lending i.e. the banks which borrow money from Reserve Bank to meet short term needs have to sell securities
  37. 37. Capital Market Instruments : Equity Shares Preference Shares Debentures
  38. 38. Importance of Capital Market a) Coordination and balance between savings and investment. b) Optimum utilisation of financial resources. c) Concentration of national savings d) To maintain the Expected rate of economic growth
  39. 39. III. Financial Instruments A financial instrument/asset/security is a claim, against a person or an institution, for the payment of a sum of money or a periodic payment in the form of interest or dividend, at a specified future date.
  40. 40. Types of Financial Securities 1. PRIMARY SECURITIES –direct securites,issued directly by borrower of funds. 2. SECONDARY SECURITIES –indirect securities eg – Insurance & mutual funds.
  41. 41. Some new innovative financial instruments : i. Equity Warrants ii. Secured Premium notes iii. Regular Income Bonds iv. Retirement Bonds v. Inflation Adjusted Bonds vi. Easy Exit Bond vii. Growth Bonds
  42. 42. IV. FINANCIAL SERVICES Financial services are the activities, benefits and satisfactions, connected with the sale of money, that offer to users and customers, financial related value .
  43. 43. Suppliers of Financial Services i) Banks and Financial Institutions ii) House Building Societies iii) Insurance Companies iv) Credit Card Issuer Companies v) Investment Trusts and Mutual Funds vi) Stock Exchanges vii) Leasing Companies/Equipment Finance/Consumer Finance Companies viii) Unit Trusts
  44. 44. Characteristics of Financial Services 1. Intangible 2. Direct Sale 3. Heterogeneity 4. Fluctuation in demand 5. Protect Consumer’s interest 6. Labour Intensive 7. Geographical dispersion 8. Lack of special identity 9. Information based 10. Require quality labour
  45. 45. Kinds of Financial Services A. Asset based/fund based services. B. Fee based/advisory services
  46. 46. Asset/Fund Based Services 1. Equipment Leasing/Lease Financing 2. Hire Purchase and Consumer Credit 3. Bill Discounting 4. Venture Capital 5. Housing Finance 6. Insurance Services 7. Factoring
  47. 47. Equipment leasing Leasing is an arrangement that provides a firm with the use & control over assets without buying is the form of renting assests.
  48. 48. Hire purchase Hire purchase means transaction where goods are purchased & sold on the terms that  payment will be made in instalments. the possession of the goods given to buyer. The ownership right remains with the vendor till the last instalment is paid. The seller can repossess the goods in case of default in payment of any instalment.
  49. 49. Bill discounting According to negotiable instrument act 1881 The bill of exchange is an instrument in writing containing an unconditional order,signed by maker ,directing a certain person to pay a certain sum of money only to,or to order of,a certain person,or to the bearer of that instrument.
  50. 50. Venture capital The term venture capital represents financial investment in a highly risky project with the objective of earning high rate of return.
  51. 51. Housing finance Housing finance emerged as a fund based financial service in the country with the setting up of national housing bank by RBI IN 1998.
  52. 52. INSURANCE SERVICES With setting up of the IRDA Act 1999,the monopoly of LIC & GIC has been dismantled & new players entered in the field.
  53. 53. Factoring A factor is a financial institution which offers services related to management & financing of Debts.
  54. 54. B. Fee Based Advisory Services 1. Merchant Banking 2. Credit Rating 3. Stock Broking
  55. 55. Indian Financial System- An Overview  Before Independence  After Independence till 1990  After 1990
  56. 56. Stage I : Before Independence Characteristics :  Unorgainsed system  Few industrial securities in securities market  No separate issuing institution  Outside savings were restricted.
  57. 57. Stage II : After Independence (1948-90) 1) Transfer of Ownership from Private to Public Sector: a) Nationalization of RBI b) Setting up of State Bank of India c) Nationalization of Life Insurance Business d) Nationalization of Commercial Banks e) Nationalization of General Insurance Business.
  58. 58. 2. Setting up of Financial Institutions a) Development of Finance Institutions : IFCI, SFC’s, NIDC, ICICI, LIC, IDBI etc. b) Investing Institutions : UTI established in 1964, LIC in 1956, GIC in 1973. c) Other Institutions : RCI in 1971, EXIM Bank in 1982, NABARD in 1982.
  59. 59. STAGE III : After 1990’s a) Privatization in banking and insurance sector. b) Development of Finance Institutions c) Emergence of Non-Banking Financial Companies d) Growth of Mutual Funds. e) Establishment of SEBI Act in 1992.