CaseThere was a man who made a living selling balloons at afair. He had all colors of balloons. Whenever, the businessused to slow down, he would release a helium filled ballooninto the air and when the children saw it go up, they allwanted to buy.They would all come up to him, buy a balloon and his saleswould go up again. On day a little boy came up to him andasked, “If you release a black balloon, would that also fly”?The man answered “Son, it is not the color of the balloon, itis what is inside that makes it go up”.The same inside thing works for all of us. It is the Attitude.
What is attitude• It is a belief, feeling and action tendency to an individual or a group of individuals towards objects, ideas and people.E.g. – If ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ =1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
Hard work H+A+R+D+W+O+R+K 8+1+18+4+23+15+18+11 = 98% Knowledge K+N+O+W+L+E+D+G+E 11+14+15+23+12+5+4+7+5=96% Then what makes 100%??? Is It Money M+O+N+E+Y 13+15+14+5+25 = 72% NO Is It Leadership L+E+A+D+E+R+S+H+I+P12+5+1+4+5+18+19+9+16 = 89% NO
Every problem has a solution, only if wechange our ATTITUDE. A+T+T+I+T+U+D+E 1+20+20+9+20+21+4+5 = 100%
How much do you see of an iceberg?Only 10% above sea level. Remaining 90% is below the water. Above sea level Below sea level
Human beings also works like the iceberg. Behavior Attitude
Nature of attitude• It refers to feelings and beliefs of an individual or a group of individual.• Attitude persists, unless something happens. If X’s duty hours is changed, he will be happy.• It is core to any individual.
Components of Attitude Pre tendency to get on a favorable or unfavorable evaluation. Behavior AttitudeFeelings, sentiments, moods, emotio ns about some Affective Cognitive Belief, opinionideas, object, pers knowledge held by on. an individual.
CognitiveMy supervisor gave apromotion to a co-workerwho deserved it less thanme.My supervisor is unfair. NegativeAffective / Informational attitude I dislike my supervisor towards supervisor BehavioralI’m looking for otherwork.I have complained aboutmy supervisor to anyonewho would listen.
Formation of attitude Experience with the Mass object Classicalcommunication conditioning Economic Operant Status Attitude conditioning VicariousNeighborhood learning Family and peer group
• Experience with the objects – attitude can develop from a personality rewarding or punishing experience with an object. E.g. – If everyone who has held a job has been promoted within six months, all those who are currently holding a job will also start thinking that they also will be promoted within six months.• Classical conditioning – repetition of anything help to learn attitude. E.g. – Pavlov dog’s salivation at the sound of the bell.• Operant conditioning – attitude can be learned by outcome, consequences, results. E.g. – If a scientist performs a test and it results positive, his attitude also becomes the same, contrastingly if it results negative.• Vicarious learning – attitude that is formed by observation and consequences of that behavior from others. E.g. – If a child is been told that handicapped people are incompetent, he carries the similar opinion unless they meet somebody handicapped.• Family and peer group – attitude can also be learned through parents, peers, friends.
• Neighborhood – in our society we are divided against cast, creed, religion, status. So people tend to also develop attitude from their neighbors. E.g. – Hindu children are always taught not to interact with the Muslim kids and vice versa. People of upper status look down upon lower status people. All of these help to build one’s attitude.• Economic status – Our socio-economic background also influences our present and future attitudes.• Mass communication – All medias, television, radio, newspaper feed the people with large information. This influences in developing one’s attitude towards something.
Functions of attitude Ego- defensiveAdjustment Attitude ValueKnowledge expression
• Adjustment – attitude helps people to adjust in any circumstances. If people are well treated, they tend to have a positive attitude with any situation. Just the reverse will happen, in case of poor treatment.• Ego-defensive – people often maintain a certain attitude in order to protect their self image. E.g. – In a group assignment, an error is caused by you. Although you know the reason, you simply keep quite to hide your mistake and maintain your image.• Value-expression – it helps express the individual values and self-identity. E.g. – consumers express their values in the products they buy, the shops they patronize and the life-style they exhibit.• Knowledge – attitude provide frames of references by which an individual judges objectives or events. E.g. – consumer before purchasing a particular brand of car, do not re- examine their values, habits and lifestyle prior to the decision to buy.
What is job satisfaction Suppose, employees feel that they are working much harder than others in the department but are receiving fewer rewards, they will probably have a negative attitude towards their work, boss, co-workers. They will be dissatisfied. Influences on job satisfaction:-• The work itself• Pay• Promotion opportunities• Supervision• Co-workers
Consequences of Job Satisfaction• Productivity – A happy worker is a productive worker. Perceived equity of rewards Extrinsic Rewards Performance Satisfaction Intrinsic Rewards
• Job satisfaction and employee turnover• Satisfaction and absences• Satisfaction and job stress• Unionization Measuring job satisfaction A job satisfaction survey is the procedure by which employees report their feelings towards their job and work environment.
Job involvementJob Involvement – The degree to which a person identifieswith his job, actively participates and considers hisperformance self-worth. Performance Turnover Job Involvement Absence Effort
Organization commitment• The degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to be associated with it.• Believe in what their organizations are doing.• Proud of what their organizations stand for.• More likely to go above and beyond the call of duty.• Less likely to quit.
CasePayal and Rahul were both young, aggressive, and competent. They joined the M. K.Company on the same day and went through the same training program in preparation foridentical jobs involving a great deal of close contact with fellow employees. Although it wasnot easy, Payal made a good adjustment to her work environment. She was able to do thisbecause of her warm, flexible personality and the application of the human relations skillsshe had learned and developed at technical school. Rahul, on the other hand, made littleprogress. He appeared rigid and distant to those who worked around him. To a few older andexperienced employees, he even seemed aloof and hostile. Rahuls supervisor, watching himfrom a distance, felt he was waiting around expecting others to approach him and be friendly.He seemed to be standing on the sidelines, unable or unwilling to meet people halfway.Perhaps he did not know how to communicate with others.A few weeks later, during lunch, Rahul told Payal he was going to look for another job. Hisreasons were as follows:(1) he felt some co-workers were unfriendly,(2) He resented some of his fellow employees, who seemed excessively critical of him, and(3)He felt his supervisor was trying to push him into a mold of conformity that was simply nothis style.Why should he go all out to adjust? After all, building working relationships is a two-waything. He felt confident that he could find another company that would appreciate him moreand give him all the freedom that he needed to be himself.What chance do you think Rahul has of finding a job environment that would make himcompletely happy?
Assignment Assume you are Rahuls supervisor and willing to spend thirty minutes in a two-way communications session trying to help him and keep him with the firm. Rishi is a first-year student. He felt since the beginning that his roommate, Bhushan, doesn’t like him. Rishi admits that he is often a sensitive person and he cares deeply about what others think, however, Rishi has been highly bothered by the lack of interaction from Bhushan. Rishi states he has met plenty of other friends on campus, especially through his current acting class, but he feels frustrated with not having the type of roommate he expected and hoped he would have. Rishi predicted a roommate that he could go out to dinner with, share what’s going on in their days, and eventually, maybe, best friends. It’s November in the school year and Rishi feels that is vision for this roommate relationship is shattered since all Bhushan wants to do is play video games or go running by himself – neither of which Rishi enjoys. Rishi has tried to reach out to Bhushan, asking him to go out to dinner or just calls him up when he’s on his way to a campus event, but Bhushan always says no since he thinks that Rishi asks too last minute to do things. But Rishi defends that likes to keep his schedule free and decide what he likes to do on occasion. Rishi feels dissatisfied with his roommate situation and is considering moving out. How do you proceed?• What do you think Rishi’s MBTI type is? Why?• How would you help Rishi in this situation, considering his potential MBTI type and personality characteristics?
Values• It is a mode of conduct in a society.• It is in which an individual tends to make judgments or choices, about goals at different stages of one’s life.• Values in Indian society Karta – it is the nurturing, caring, dependable, authoritative of the father figure. Relationships – warm and lose personal relationships, which displays empathy, intimacy, togetherness. Proximity to power – It is idealized and invested with heroic dimensions in terms of capacity and action. Security – a parent-child relationship of dependence produces security. Simple living and high thinking – Mahatma Gandhi is an ideal example. Survival – The believe in Karma.
Importance of values• Values lay the foundation for the understanding of attitude and motivation because they influence our perception.• Individuals enter organization with notion of what is right and wrong with which they interpret behavior or outcomes.• Values generally influence attitude and behavior.
Source of values Society Religion Family Friends Work place / school
Effect of values on work performance• People demonstrate and model the values in action in their personal work behaviors, decision making, contribution, and interpersonal interaction.• Organizational values help each person establish priorities in their daily work life.• Values guide every decision that is made once the organization has cooperatively created the values and the value statements.• Rewards and recognition within the organization are structured to recognize those people whose work embodies the values the organization embraced.• People hire and promote those whose, values are congruent with the organizations.
Types of values• Terminal values – desirable end-state of existence. The goals that a person would like to achieve during his lifetime• Instrumental values – preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values.