Junhyuk Swimming


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Junhyuk Swimming

  1. 1. Evolution of Swimming Junhyuk Park PSE 4U
  2. 2. What is Swimming? <ul><li>Swimming is the propulsion of the body through water using </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arm and leg motions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flotation of the body </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. History <ul><li>Swimming has been practiced as early as 2500 BC in Egypt, Assyrian, Greek, and Roman civilizations </li></ul><ul><li>In Greece and Rome, swimming was part of martial training and part of the education system for males </li></ul><ul><li>In Japan, there is evidence of swimming races during the 1 st century BC and by the 17 th century, swimming was made compulsory in schools </li></ul>
  4. 4. Historical Timeline Date Event 1 st century BC The Roman Gaius Maecenas built the first heated swimming pool. Middle Ages There was a lack of swimming in Europe due to the fear of infection spreading through swimming pools. 19 th century Swimming became popular for recreation as a sport all around the world. 1837 The first swimming organization was formed. 1846 The first swimming championship was held in Australia (400 metre race). 1869 The Amateur Swimming Association was established. This association became the governing body of British amateur swimming. 1882-1889 The national swimming federations were formed throughout Europe. 1888 Swimming was recognized as a national sport in the United States by the Amateur Athletic Union.
  5. 5. Competitive Swimming <ul><li>Competitive swimming became part of the first modern Olympic Games in Athens in 1896 </li></ul><ul><li>Four strokes were used in individual races  freestyle (crawl), backstroke, breaststroke, and butterfly </li></ul>
  6. 6. Instruction & Training <ul><li>Swimming instruction programs began in the 19 th century in Great Britain for both sport and lifesaving </li></ul><ul><li>In the United States, the American Red Cross started to instruct swimming in 1916 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Strokes <ul><li>The earliest strokes to be used were the sidestroke and breaststroke </li></ul><ul><li>The sidestroke was used with both arms but was modified in the 19 th century by brining one arm forward above the water </li></ul><ul><li>The sidestroke was replaced in competitive swimming by the crawl </li></ul>
  8. 8. Breaststroke <ul><li>Oldest of strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Used in lifesaving, recreational and competitive swimming </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke is performed lying face down in the water with the arms always staying under water </li></ul><ul><li>Breath is taken at the end of the arm pull </li></ul>
  9. 9. Butterfly Stroke <ul><li>Used only in competition </li></ul><ul><li>Arms are brought forward above the water </li></ul><ul><li>This stroke was used in a race in 1933 by Henry Myers and in 1953 was recognized as a competitive stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Breath is taken by raising the head every 2 nd or 3 rd stroke </li></ul>
  10. 10. Backstroke <ul><li>Began to develop in the 20 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Used in competition and recreation </li></ul><ul><li>Body position is supine and arms reach above the head in alternate motions </li></ul><ul><li>Palm is placed outward with the little finger entering the water first </li></ul><ul><li>Kick involves up-and-down leg movements </li></ul>
  11. 11. Crawl <ul><li>Fastest of all strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Most common choice of stroke for long distance swimming </li></ul><ul><li>19 th century – first used in the Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>1893 – used by Australian swimmer Henry Wickham </li></ul><ul><li>1902 – popularized in Europe and the United States by brothers Syd and Charles Cavill of Australia </li></ul>
  12. 12. Races Crawl Distance (metres) Freestyle 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1500 Backstroke Breaststroke Butterfly 100, 200 Individual Medley Races 200, 400 Freestyle Relay 4 x 100 and 4 x 200 Medley Relay 4 x 100
  13. 13. Canadian Olympics <ul><li>5 swimming disciplines and relays </li></ul><ul><li>Olympic pool is 50 metres long and divided into eight 2.5 metre lanes </li></ul><ul><li>Each stroke has its own rules on proper starts, leg and arm movements, and how the swimmer must touch the wall </li></ul><ul><li>Backstroke starts in the water but all other strokes start from the starting block </li></ul><ul><li>2008 Olympic Games marked a new event – marathon 10 km open water </li></ul>
  14. 14. Individual Medley <ul><li>Made up of equal distances of the 4 strokes in the order – butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke, freestyle </li></ul><ul><li>4 swimmers from one team each use a different stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Once the first swimmer touches the wall, the next swimmer dives in </li></ul>
  15. 15. Officials <ul><li>Starter – sends swimmers off the blocks and can call a “false start” if a swimmer leaves the block too early </li></ul><ul><li>Finish Judge – determine the order of finish and ensures that the swimmer finish properly (ie. 2 hands for breaststroke & butterfly) </li></ul><ul><li>Turn Judge – ensures that the swimmers’ turns are within rules </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke Judge – checks the swimmers’ strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Timekeeper </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sports Nutrition <ul><li>Competitive swimming is an endurance sport that requires a large amount of carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates promote muscle stamina and strength because glucose is the main energy source for the muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Swimmers should consume a light meal before swimming and a well-balanced meal should be consumed afterwards </li></ul>
  17. 17. Canadian Swimming <ul><li>Dorothy Prior – first Canadian woman to participate in the Olympic Games in swimming </li></ul><ul><li>1976 – Cheryl Gibson (silver) and Becky Smith (bronze) in the same race (400m) </li></ul><ul><li>1976 – Robin Corsiglia (age 13) – youngest swimmer at the Olympics ever to win a medal </li></ul><ul><li>1988 – Debbie Wurzburger – set a new Canadian record in the 800m freestyle (8:36.24) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Men’s Swimming World Championships FREESTYLE (2007) BREASTSTROKE (2007) BUTTERFLY (2007) 50 m B. Wildman-Tobriner USA 50 m O. Lisogor Ukraine 50 m R. Schoeman South Africa 100 m F. Magnini Italy 100 m A. Peirsol USA 100 m M. Phelps USA 200 m M. Phelps USA 200 m R. Lochte USA 200 m M. Phelps USA 400 m Park Tae Hwan South Korea 800 m P. Stanczyk Poland
  19. 19. References <ul><li>Britannica Online Encyclopedia </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian Olympic Committee </li></ul><ul><li>FINA World Aquatic Championships </li></ul><ul><li>History of Canadian Olympics </li></ul>