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Poisonous plants of vety importance Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Poisonous plants of veterinary importance
  • 2.
    • Phytotoxins-toxic principles present in the plant
    • Predisposition
    • Fodder scarcity
    • New areas
    • Loss of sense of discrimination
    • Malicious poisonong
    • Lack of information/knowledge
  • 3. Classification
    • Organic phytotoxins
    • by-products of plant metabolism. Eg:
    • alkaloids , glycosides,essential oils,
    • terpenes, proteins, and resins etc.
    • Inorganic phytotoxins
    • fluorides, nitrates and selenium compounds
    • merely accumulate in the plant due to their
    • translocation from the soil and water rich in
    • these substances.
  • 4. Factors affecting the phytotoxicity
    • Region/place
    • Stage of growth
    • Part of the plant
    • Quantity ingested
    • Climate
    • Soil composition
    • Age
    • Sex
    • Prevailing health/ condition of the animal
  • 5. Clinical condition
    • Acute
    • Gastrointestinal and nervous signs predominant.
    • Off-feed, colic, bloat, diarrhoea mixed with blood and
    • mucous, salivation,
    • CNS signs - convulsions, paralysis , coma , death
    • Chronic
    • Not fatal, affects the economy of farmer
    • Fall in production and fertility of animals.
    • Allergic dermatitis, photosensitisation,
    • Haemoglobinuria and agalactia
  • 6.
    • Diagnosis
    • History and Information on feeding practices
    • Survey of the grazing area and farm premises
    • Symptoms, botanical and toxicological
    • Analysis of hay, forage, silage or suspected plant material.
    • Materials to be sent to the lab
    • Fresh plant material
    • Whole fresh plant if it is small, Leafy branch with flowers
    • In case of large plants and trees- uncrushed bulky parts-root, fruits in a plastic bag
    • Dried plant material
    • in a rigid cardboard box taking care not to break branches/detach leaves
  • 7.
    • Treatment
    • Adsorbents like charcoal, raw white of an egg orally
    • Antiserum (if the causative phytotoxin is specifically known)
    • Specific antidotes whenever available
    • Symptomatic treatment- administration of astringents, antispasmodics, anticonvulsants, fluid therapy, liver tonics, etc.
    • Prevention
    • Drying of plants
    • Caution while stall-feeding
    • Manual removal of poisonous plants and weeds from the farm premises
  • 8.
    • Abrus precatorius (Gulaganji)
    •  
    •   Abrin
    • Intensiveirritation,inflammation,oedema,ecchymoses,
    • necrosis at the site of introduction.Anorexia, salivation, inco-ordination,muscular spasms
    • convulsions. Death in2-3 days.
    • Rx:
    • Actd Charcoal
    • demulcents
    • saline purgatives
    • fluid therapy
  • 9. Abrus precatorius (Gulaganji) 
  • 10. Abrus precatorius (Gulaganji ) 
  • 11.
    • Adhatoda vasica ( aadu muttada gida,
    • aadu sokada gida)
    • vasicine
    • Persistent Bronchodilation
    • hypotension, uterotonic- abortifacient
    • cardiac depression
    • Rx
    • symptomatic
  • 12. Adhatoda vasica ( aadu muttada gida, aadu sokada gida)
  • 13.
    • Allium cepa Onion  
    •   n-propyl disulfide
    • Haemoglobinuria. Anaemia.
    • In extreme cases onion odour in urine and tissues.(diagnostic feature)
    • Rx
    • Symptomatic
  • 14. Allium cepa Onion
  • 15.
    • Areca catechu betel-nut palm
    • Arecoline
    • Emesis, exaggerated catharsis
    • colic, diarrhea, restlessness
    • convulsions
    • Rx
    • Atropine sulphate 0.044mg/kg BW
  • 16. Areca catechu Betel-nut palm
  • 17.
    • Argemone mexicana ( arasina datturi )
    • Poppy weed seed
    • Sanguinarine
    • Glaucoma
    • Ascites
    • Rx
    • Diuretics
    • supportive therapy
  • 18. Argemone mexicana ( arasina datturi) popy weed seed
  • 19.
    •  
    • Datura stramonium (Thorn apple )
    • Atropine  hyoscine and hyoscyamine
    • Solanine, solanidine, tropeine  
    • Mydriasis, cycloplegia (impaired vision)
    • anorexia, muscular spasms, dryness of mouth, tachycardia,
    • respiratory depression and nervous symptoms.
    • Rx
    • Emetics – to empty stomach contents.
    • Mild cholinergics
    • sedatives / hypotics to control nervous signs.
    • Medullary stimulatnts(Nikethamide, Leptazole)
  • 20. Datura stramonium (datturigida,Thorn apple)
  • 21.
    • Solanum nigrum (kempu kachi,
    • karikachi gida )
    • black night shade
    •  
    • Atropine  hyoscine and hyoscyamine
    • Solanine, solanidine, tropeine  
    • Mydriasis, cycloplegia (impaired vision)
    • anorexia, muscular spasms, dryness of mouth, tachycardia, r
    • espiratory depression and nervous symptoms.
    • Rx
    • Emetics – to empty stomach contents.
    • Mild cholinergics
    • sedatives / hypotics to control nervous signs.
    • Medullary stimulatnts(Nikethamide, Leptazole)
  • 22. Solanum nigrum (kempu kachi, karikachi gida)
  • 23.
    • OXALATE RICH PLANTS
  • 24.
    • Beta vulgaris,( beet root )
    • Amaranthus viridis ( kere soppu, daggi soppu)
    • Chenopodium albua ( bele soppu, chakravarti soppu, huli chikka)
    • Solanum spp., [night shade]
    • Trianthema s pecies
    • Oxalis spp
    • Calandrinia
    • Atriplex species
    • Vomiting, depression,
    • ataxia,weakness, dehydration,renal failure-hematuria/anuria,
    • Coma
    • Rx
    • Anti emetics,anti histaminics
    • gastric lavage with 5% soda bicarb solution,
    • lime water, dicalcium PO4 in feed
  • 25. Amaranthus viridis ( kere soppu, daggisoppu)
  • 26. Chenopodium albua ( belesoppu, chakravarti soppu, huli chikka)
  • 27. Trianthema species (seeme bellulli
  • 28. Atriplex species
  • 29.
    • Brassica nigra ( saasive)
    • sinigrin
    • Acute gastroenteritis
    • colic,dyspnoea
    • Rx
    • symptomatic
  • 30. Brassica nigra ( saasive)
  • 31.
    • Calotropis gigantica,Calotropis procera  
    • (Arka, ekka, bili ekka)
    • Gigantin (a glycoside) 
    • Glycoside (digitalis like action on heart) 
    • Gastro intestinal upset, loose stool,
    • vomiting,
    • cardiac arrhythmia
    • Rx
    • Rest
    • Anti arrhythmics like Phenytion, Lignocane, Propanol,
    • Potassium chloride 0.6-1mg orally followed by 0.3-0.5g (Dogs) in every 2hrs.
  • 32. Calotropis gigantica (Arka, ekka, bili ekka)
  • 33.
    • Capsicum annuum Chili pepper
    • Capsaicin
    • GI irritant -vomiting and diarrhea.
    • Not likely to be lethal.
    • Rx
    • Symptomatic; irritation relief—cool water irrigation,
    • topical or oral mineral or vegetable oil.
    • Topical anesthetics.
  • 34. Capsicum annuum Chili pepper
  • 35.
    • Cassia tora
    • (chagate, thagate)
    • anthraquinone
  • 36. Cassia tora (chagate, thagate)
  • 37.
    • Crotolaria juncea (jute; janumu)
    • pundinaru, senabu)
    • Monocrotaline
    • Related pyrrolizidine alkaloids in seeds
    • Bloody faeces, salivation
    • nasal discharge, jaundice,
    • dyspnoea and colic.
    • Rx
    • Symptomatic
  • 38. Crotolaria juncea (jute, janumu, pundinaru, senabu)
  • 39.
    • Croton tiglium ( Nervala, nepala)
    • Crotonalic acid
    • Tiglicacid
    • Nausea,tympanitis, colic and diarrhoea
    • Rx
    • Symptomatic
    • Demulcents.
    • Astringents
    • antimotility agents like Loperamide
  • 40. Croton tiglium ( Nervala, nepala )
  • 41.
    • Equisetum arvense
    • horse tail (kudure bala)
    • Thiaminase
    • Excitement,
    • nervous signs, nystagmus, opisthotonus
    • weakness, diarrhea, crouching stance
    • Rx
    • Thiamine parenterally (Large animals 100mg-1g, Small animals 5-10g)
  • 42. Equisetum arvense horse tail (kudure bala )
  • 43.
    • Eupatorium odoratum
    • ( communist gida)
    • Sterols
    • Flavones
    • Nephrotoxic
    • Hepatotoxic sign
    • Rx
    • Saline purgatives
    • fluid therapy
    • Demulcents
    • hepatic stimulants
  • 44. Eupatorium odoratum ( communist gida)
  • 45.
    • Gossypium herbaceum
    • cotton
    •   
    • Gossypol
    • Cardiac myopathy
    • Hepatic necrosis.
    • Anorexia, dyspnoea and weakness
    • Haematuria.
    • Rx
    • Symptomatic
    • Prevention by cooking or by addition of 1% CaOH. or 0.1% ferrous sulfate
  • 46. Gossypium herbaceum   cotton
  • 47.
    • PLANTS CAUSING PHOTOSENSITISATION
  • 48.
    • Parthenium hysterophorus
    • (Congress gida)
    • Histaminergic/ allergic.
    • Photosensitisation.
    • rash, swelling on face, dewlap, neck and various parts of body.
    • Intense itching,animal rubs against hard objects causing open wounds.
    • Rx
    • Anti-histaminics.
    • Removal to a safer place.
    • Antibiotics
    • .Corticosteroids.
  • 49. Parthenium hysterophorus (Congress gida)
  • 50.
    • Hypericum perforatum ( chinnadavare)
    • hypericin
    • photosensitisation.
    • redness, swelling, serous fluid oozing fromskin surfaces,
    • oedema and sloughing of skin.
    • Intense itching causing tissue injury and secondary bacterial infection.
    • Eartip, nose muzzle,udder, teats
    • Conjunctivitis , liver damage
    • Rx
    • keep under shade,
    • topical demulcent, antibiotics, corticosteroids
    • antihistamines, antibiotics, DNS,
    • saline purgatives
    • liver tonics
  • 51. Hypericum perforatum ( chinnadavare)
  • 52.
    • Fagopyrum esculentum ( Kadu godhi)
    • Fagopyrin
    • photosensitisation.
    • redness, swelling, serous fluid oozing fromskin surfaces,
    • oedema and sloughing of skin.
    • Intense itching causing tissue injury and secondary bacterial infection.
    • Eartip, nose muzzle,udder, teats
    • Conjunctivitis , liver damage
    • Rx
    • keep under shade,
    • topical demulcent, antibiotics, corticosteroids
    • antihistamines, antibiotics, DNS,
    • saline purgatives
    • liver tonics
  • 53. Fagopyrum esculentum ( Kadu godhi)
  • 54.
    • Lantana camara (Madarangi gida)  
    • Lantadene
    • Hepatogenous photosensitisation.
    • Nephropathy
    • Cardiac myopathy
    • Rx
    • Antihistaminics
    • Topical demulcent ointments
    • Liver tonics.
    • Keep animals in doors
  • 55. Lantana camara (Madarangi gida)
  • 56.
    • Tribulus terrestris ( negilu mullu)
    • saponins
    • Hepatotoxic photosensitisation.
  • 57. Tribulus terrestris ( negilu mullu)
  • 58.
    • Medicago sativa Alfalfa, lucerne
    • ( kudure masale)
    • Saponins
    • Hepatotoxic photosensitisation.
  • 59. Medicago sativa lucerne (kudure masale)
  • 60.
    • MIMOSINE RICH PLANTS
  • 61.
    • Leucaena leucocephala (Subabul)
    • Mimosine- antimitotic, goitrogen, depilatory agent.
    • Alopecia ,Anorexia, salivation,
    • vomition, inco-ordination
    • BW loss
    • Mucosal ulceration, ear and eye lesions, scaly skin.
    • Rx
    •   Supplement with L-phenylalanine and L – tyrosine.
    • Treat leucaena meal with 0.05 N sod. acetate.
  • 62. Leucaena leucocephala (Subabul)
  • 63.
    • Mimosa pudica Touch-me-not
    • ( Muttidare muni, nachike mullu)
    • Mimosine- antimitotic, goitrogen, depilatory agent.
    • Alopecia ,Anorexia, salivation,
    • vomition, inco-ordination
    • BW loss
    • Mucosal ulceration, ear and eye lesions, scaly skin.
    • Rx
    •   symptomatic
  • 64. Mimosa pudica ( Muttidare muni, nachike mullu)
  • 65.  
  • 66. HysocyamusNiger Black bane ( Oama,Khurasani )
  • 67.
    • Ipomoea carnea (chandrakai balli)
    • Ipomeanols.
    • toxic saponin
    • Photosensitive principle in leaves.
    • Pulmonary emphysema and oedema.
    • Lysis of RBC, anaemia and lumbar paralysis in S&G.
    • Hepatic derangement
    • Rx
    • B-complex vit
    • . Nervine tonics lipotropics & haematinics.
  • 68. Ipomoea carnea (chandrakai balli)
  • 69.
    • Jatropha curcas
    • ( visha haralu, adalu haralu,
    • kadu jadalu)
    • Curcin
    • Drastic purgation,
    • Nausea, vomition,
    • Rx
    • Sedation
    • Symptomatic
  • 70. Jatropha curcas ( visha haralu, adalu haralu, kadu jadalu
  • 71.
    • Lathyrus odorata
    • sweet pea (perangi jali )
    • Betaine ( β-aminopropio nitrite lathyrine)
    • Leg weekness leading to paralysis (Neuro-osteo-angio lathyrism)
    • rapid, irregular pulse
    • resp distress
    • Rx
    • Symptomatic treatment,
    • calcium supplementation
  • 72. Lathyrus odorata sweet pea(perangi jali)
  • 73.  
  • 74. Lobelia Sp. (Kaduhogesoppu)
  • 75.
    • Meliotus sp.
    • ( kadu lucerna soppu )
    • sweet clover
    • Dicumarol
    • Extensive sub-cultaneous haemorrhages
    • , impaired clotting
    • Rx
    • Symptomatic treatment,
    • calcium supplementation
  • 76. Meliolotus sp. ( kadu lucerna soppu) sweet clover
  • 77.
    • Nicotiana tabaccum
    • Tobacco( thambaku, hogesoppu)
    • Nicotine
    • Clonic-tonic convulsions
    • depression,
    • OPC poisoning like symptoms
    • Rx
    • Oxygen therapy,
    • caffeine
    • symptomatic
  • 78. Nicoiiana tabaccum Tobacco( thambaku)
  • 79.
    • Parmetia perlata. ground lichen
    • (kallu hoovu)
    • Usnic acid
    • Incordination,
    • depression, paralysis
    • Rx
    • Symptomatic
  • 80. Parmelia perlata (kallu hoovu)
  • 81.
    • Ricinus communis Castor plant  
    •   (Haralu, joudla)
    • Ricin
    • Latent period of 2-3 days
    • Bloody diarrhea in cattle.
    • Horses -tumultous heart beat
    • Rx
    • Specific AS in endemic areas
    • Sedatives,Shock therapy.
    • Prevention
    • Upon boiling the cake, ricin coagulates.
  • 82. Ricinus communis   (Haralu, joudla)
  • 83.
    • Robinia pseudoacasia
    • ( parthanga, belangi)
    • Tannins
    • Colic,
    • Neurosis
    • Rx
    • Symptomatic
  • 84. Robinia pseudoacasia ( parthanga, belangi)
  • 85.
    • Sesbania grandiflora
    • coffee weed( agase, parivala arisina geenangi, kadu jogache)
    • Saponine
    • Severe colic
    • Depression, salivation
    • Rx
    • Symptomatic
  • 86. Sesbania grandiflora (agase,parivala)
  • 87.
    • Strychnos nuxvomica (Kasaraka)
    • Strychnine and brucine
    • Spinal convulsions.
    • Muscular spasms,
    • opisthotonus, dilated pupil,
    • asphyxia, paralysis of respiratory muscles.
    • Rx
    • Sedatives ,hypnotics anticonvulsants
    • .Gastric lavage with dil.
    • KMnO4/ Tannic acid. [KMnO4-oxidises. Tannic acid-precipitates.]
  • 88. Strychnos nuxvomica (Kasaraka)
  • 89.
    • Theretia peruviana yellow oleander
    • (kanigilu, kadu kasi )
    • Thevetin
    • cardiac glycosides
    • Toxic to heart
    • Violent vomition, diarrhoea, ruminal atony and bloat, colic, cardiac arrhythmias
    • convulsions. 
    • Rx
    • Symptomatic.
    • Atropine 0.5 mg /kg. i/v. along with propranolol 5 mg/kg. i/v.
  • 90. Thevetia peruviana (kanigilu, kadu kasi)
  • 91.
    • Withania somnifera
    • ( ashwagandha, sogade beru)
    • withaferine
    • CNS depression signs
    • Rx
    • symptomatic
  • 92. Withania somnifera ( ashwagandha, sogade beru)
  • 93. Cyanogenic Plants
  • 94.
    • Grasses such as sudan grass, johnson grass, arrow grass ,
    • Plants
    • Acacia leucophloea (bili jali)
    • Euphorbia species,
    • Saccharum officinarum sugarcane (kabbu),
    • Sorghum vulgare (kempu jola, sakre jola, neerjola) ,
    • Zea mays ( mekke jola, musukina jola, haladi jola
    • Mannihot esculenta Tapiocia ( mara genasu)
    • Hevea braziliensis( rubber),
    • Bambusa bambos( bidiru )
    • Mimosa invisa( mullu illada nachike )
    • Clinical signs -Anxiety, panting, salivation, tremors, lacrimination, urination, defecation, severe colic emesis, prostration, bright red mucus membranes, clonic convulsions Mydriasis.
  • 95.
    • Rx
    • Inhalation of 5-8 drops of Amyl nitrate
    • NaNO2 5mg/kg BW as slow IV( Excess of Sodium nitrite causes methaemoglobin that is fatal) ,
    • Na thio SO4 600mg/kg BW as slow IV (20% solution 4-80ml),
    • 4 L vinegar in 12 - 20L cold water to dilute/ cool / acidify rumen contents to inhibit microbial hydrolysis.
    • Mineral oil to soothe G.I linings.
  • 96. Acacia leucophloea (bili jali)
  • 97. Bambusa bambos ( bidiru)
  • 98.
    • Sorghum vulgare Sorghum
    • ( kempu jola, sakre jola)
    • Lathyrogenic
    • nitrite rich
    • Leg weakness leading to paralysis (Neuro-osteo, angio lathyrism)
    • Rx
    • ymptomatic treatment,
    • calcium, supplementation
  • 99. Sorghum vulgare (kempu jola, sakre jola, neerjola)
  • 100. Zea mays ( mekke jola, musukina jola, haladi jola )
  • 101. Ficus tsjahela ( kari, basari soppu)
  • 102. Mannihot esculenta Tapiocia ( mara genasu),
  • 103. Mimosa invisa ( mullu illada nachike)
  • 104. Hevea braziliensis ( rubber)
  • 105.
    • Nerium oleander (Kanigile, kasturi jaji )
    •  
    • Oleandroside,
    • Nerioside, nerin in leaves, pods and fruit
    • Violent vomition, diarrhoea
    • ruminal atony and bloat,
    • colic, cardiac arrhythmias
    • convulsions.
    • Rx
    • Symptomatic.
    • Atropine 0.5 mg /kg. i/v. along with propranolol 5 mg/kg. i/v.
  • 106. Nerium oleander (Kanigile, kasturi jaji )
  • 107. Nerium indicum
  • 108. Nitrate/Nitrite rich plants
  • 109.
    • Crop sources:
    • Oats - Avena sativa ( seeme oats, seeme thoke godhi) especially if green hay or green chop and left on the wagon overnight before feeding. The forage heats up and converts nitrate to nitrite before it is eaten. Oats are no longer toxic after the grain forms.
    • wheat - Triticum aestivum
    • barley - Hordeum vulgare
    • Corn - Zea mays
    • rye - Secale cereale
    • Beta vulgaris
    • rape - Brassica napus
    • soybeans - Glycine max
    • Flax- Linum usitatissimum
    • alfalfa - Medicago sativa
    • Sudan grass- Sorghum vulgare. -
  • 110.
    • Acute toxicity
    • Digestive symptoms –vomition, diarrhoea, colic and frequent urination
    • Respiratory symptoms like dyspnoea, cyanosis, rapid & weak pulse
    • weakness, trembling, collapse, coma, terminal clonic convulsions and death
    • Chronic toxicity
    • Anorexia, decreased body weight gain,
    • reduced milk production, weakness,
    • abortions, birth of weak & stunted calves
    • , poor conception rate,
    • hypovitaminosis of A, D, E
    • thyroid dysfunction .
  • 111.
    • Treatment:
    • Methylene blue 1% w/v solution, @ 8.8 mg/Kg body wt. slow I/V.for cattle and sheep. In other species the dosage is 4.4 mg/Kg body wt. slow I/V. Repeat after 30 min. if symptoms persist.
    • Saline purgatives
    •   Broad-spectrum antibiotics in 8-19 L cold water to inhibit microbial conversion of nitrate to nitrite.  
    • For chronic toxicity
    • Eliminating the source
    • Supplementation with vit. A D & E.
    • For prevention, indiscriminate use of nitrogenous fertilisers like urea to forage crops to be avoided
  • 112. Avena sativa ( seeme oats, seeme thoke godhi)
  • 113. Hordeum vulgare (barley)
  • 114. Brassica napus ( rape)
  • 115. Linum usitatissimum ( linseed)
  • 116.
    • Solanum tuberosum
    • Potato (aalu gadde)
    • L-chalconine, solanidine,
    • solanicin, solanine
    • Severe colic, salivation, depression, trembling, paralysis,
    • Coma
    • Rx
    • Gastric lavage
    • demulcents
    • symptomatic treatment
  • 117.
    • Senecio vulgaris
    • ( kadu gochhi gida)
    • senecionine
    • Colic, diarrhoea,
    • ascites, straining
    • Rx
    • symptomatic
  • 118.  
  • 119.
    • Anamirta cocculus
    • ( chippalka balli)
    • Berberine, monoterpene
  • 120. Anamirta cocculus ( chippalka balli )