Atropine 0.5 mg /kg. i/v. along with propranolol 5 mg/kg. i/v.
Nerium oleander (Kanigile, kasturi jaji )
Nitrate/Nitrite rich plants
Oats - Avena sativa ( seeme oats, seeme thoke godhi) especially if green hay or green chop and left on the wagon overnight before feeding. The forage heats up and converts nitrate to nitrite before it is eaten. Oats are no longer toxic after the grain forms.
wheat - Triticum aestivum
barley - Hordeum vulgare
Corn - Zea mays
rye - Secale cereale
rape - Brassica napus
soybeans - Glycine max
Flax- Linum usitatissimum
alfalfa - Medicago sativa
Sudan grass- Sorghum vulgare. -
Digestive symptoms –vomition, diarrhoea, colic and frequent urination
Respiratory symptoms like dyspnoea, cyanosis, rapid & weak pulse
weakness, trembling, collapse, coma, terminal clonic convulsions and death
Anorexia, decreased body weight gain,
reduced milk production, weakness,
abortions, birth of weak & stunted calves
, poor conception rate,
hypovitaminosis of A, D, E
thyroid dysfunction .
Methylene blue 1% w/v solution, @ 8.8 mg/Kg body wt. slow I/V.for cattle and sheep. In other species the dosage is 4.4 mg/Kg body wt. slow I/V. Repeat after 30 min. if symptoms persist.
Broad-spectrum antibiotics in 8-19 L cold water to inhibit microbial conversion of nitrate to nitrite.
For chronic toxicity
Eliminating the source
Supplementation with vit. A D & E.
For prevention, indiscriminate use of nitrogenous fertilisers like urea to forage crops to be avoided