the basis of antimicrobial activity, including β-lactamase stability and pharmacological properties
Generationwise, from first to fourth
the spectrum of activity against gram negative organisms and the stability against β-lactamase increase usually with the same or reduced spectrum of activity against gram positive organisms and pharmacokinetic differences.
Usually active against beta haemolytic streptococci and against beta lactamse producing s taphylococci. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus, Mycobacteria and Enterococci s pp are resistant to all cephalosporins.
High activity against gram positive bacteria including β-lactamase producing S.aureus .
Generally susceptible to β-lactamases ; not as effective against anaerobes as penicillins.
Wide distribution in ECF , but poor penetration across biological membranes and physiological barriers
Oral absorption is poor and highly erratic in ruminants, thus being used only in preruminant calves
Rapid elimination in urine, with the half life less than one hour except for cefadroxil which has a longer half life in dogs
Cephalexin, cefadroxil : primarily for skin and soft tissue infections such as pyoderma caused by streptococci and Staph. aureus , and bacterial endocarditis caused by Streptococcus viridans and S .aureus.
Cefazolin and cephalexin are used to treat bone and joint infections in the treatment of open fractures, lymphadenitis, abscesses, pharyngitis etc.
Cefuroxime axetil the only 2nd gen, to penetrate into cerebrospinal fluid
IM Injections are painful, and may cause thrombophlebitis on IV administeation.
The broad antibacterial activity may lead to gastrointestinal disturbances and superinfection by resistant microorganisms including yeasts.
Cefoxitin , valued particularly for its broad activity against anaerobes and enterobacteriaceae, is used in the treatment of severe mixed infections with anaerobes in conditions like aspiration pneumonia, bite infections , ruptured intestine gangrene, peritonitis and pleuritis.
Cefuroxime is effective for short lasting dry cow therapy and clinical mastitis, has been also given orally to treat otitis media and upper respiratory tract infections
High antibacterial activity and broad resistance to β-lactamases, though, are less effective than 1st and 2nd generation gainst gram positive bacteria
Not first choice antimicrobial agents in animals , and used only where other alternatives are not available.
Used to treat bone and joint infections, pneumonia, enteritis, endocarditis, rhinosinusitis and cystitis.
Most effective of the cephalosporins against antibiotic-resistant gram-negative aerobes, effective against Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter species, Citrobacter species, Haemophilus species, Neisseria species and Moraxella species
Moderate activity against Gram-positive bacteria and are inferior in activity against Staphylococci
The Biliary elimination occurring with ceftriaxone and latamoxef makes them to be avoided or used cautiously in species with expanded large intestines( adult horse )
stable & effective against beta-lactamase producing bacteria; has been used in skin infections in dogs with no adverse effect
Ceftazidime and Cefoperazone , : H ighly active against Pseudomonas.aeruginosa among all cephalosporins , compared to Ceftriaxone and Ceftizoxime, which also have antipseudomonal activity to some extent.
Ceftazidime may be reconstituted with1%lignocaine for IM injection to reduce pain
Cefixime : advocated as an oral follow up to a group 4 parenteral cepohalosporin
Cefoperazone : contraindicated in the herbivore aspecies with an expanded bowel. It has been used for treating coliform mastitis
Newer one, differs from other as it stays in the dog’s or cat’s body for a very long time after it has been injected.
Single SC injection effect lasts for up to 14 days. Depending on the infection concerned, the injection can be repeated if necessary (upto three times)
Used in dogs and cats to treat skin and soft tissue infections; such as wounds, abscesses and pyoderma and also urinary tract infections.
Not to be used in dogs or cats of less than 8 weeks old, or in dogs or cats with severe kidney problems (renal dysfunction).
As no studies have been made in breeding animals and it has an exceptionally long duration in the body, it should not be used in pregnant or lactating dogs or cats and treated animals should not be used for breeding for 12 weeks after the last injection .
Bleeding disorders : with Cefotetan, Ceftazidime, Cefamandole and Cefoperazone.ssociated with an increased risk of bleeding due to a decrease in prothrombin activity and anti vitamin K effects. Prophylactic vitamin K therapy is recommended when used for prolonged periods in malnourished or seriously ill patients .
The admixture of any cephalosporin with other medications in the same syrienge is not recommended, as it . may result in substantial mutual inactivation; they should not be mixed in the same syrienge, intravenous bag or bottle.
Laboratory value alterations
False-positive or false negative glucosuria ( cephalexin)
synergistic activity when combined with an aminoglycoside .
Antacids and H2-receptor antagonists
Decrease the absorption of cephalosporins and thus should not be taken within 2 hous of taking these antacids
Coumarin- or indandione-derivative, or Heparin or Thrombolytic agents , concurrent use may increase the bleeding risk associated with cephalosporins and Dosage adjustments of anticoagulants may be necessary during and after therapy with cephalosporins
Increased incidence of nephrotoxicity when used concurrently other nephrotoxic medications, such as loop diuretics, aminoglycosides(cephalothin) especially in patients with pre-existing renal function impairment
Platelet aggregation inhibitors
Hypoprothrombinemia induced by large doses of salicylates and the gastrointestinal ulcerative or hemorrhagic potential of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], salicylates, or sulfinpyrazone may increase the risk of hemorrhage if used concurrently with cephalosporins