1. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL2. GREIVANCE3. DISCIPLINE4. RECURITMENT5. SELECTION6. CAREER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT7. EMPLOYEE T...
PERFORMANCE APPRAISALMEANING OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISALperformance appraisal may be understood as the assessment of individu...
Performance appraisal is a continuous process in every large scale organization.PROCESS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISALPerformanc...
2) Communicate the Standards.Performance appraisal involves attract two parties; the appraiser who does theappraisal and t...
METHODS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:                   Methods of Performance AppraisalA) Traditional Methods                ...
also compares with all others. Since A is already compared with B, this time B is tobe compared with only C, D, and E In t...
rates to give consistently high and low ratings to all employees. This method makesthose of several sets of pair phases, t...
other members about the job characteristics, demand, standards or performance etc.then the group appraise the performance ...
The second step involves setting of the performance standard fro the subordinates in apreviously arranged time period.In t...
360° PERFORMANCE APPRAISALThe appraisal may be any person who has thorough knowledge about the job contents,contents to be...
In developed countries, the concept of change superiors rated by subordinates in beingused in most organizations. Such a m...
PURPOSES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISALTo create and maintain a satisfactory level of performance.To contribute to the employee ...
top ranks without taking into account their merits. This raises outstandingperformances but also raises doubts about the v...
GREIVANCE1) MEANING/ DEFINITION :   The concept ‘Grievance’ has been defined in several ways by different authoritiessome ...
contract violation, you ought to use it. You and your local union are only limited bythe contract, the skills of the griev...
A summary of issues which can be addressed through the Basic GrievanceProcedure include, but are not limited to, the follo...
action and matters not subject to the Department of Administration control. Otheravenues exist to seek redress or remedy i...
hours. If a representative is chosen, the representative shall be identified on thegrievance formGroup Grievance     Shoul...
grievance. The employee must clearly state to the supervisor the employeesintentions of filing a formal grievance, the iss...
Disciplinary and grievance procedures provide a clear and transparent frameworkto deal with difficulties which may arise a...
Employment Relations Act 1999.The statutory disciplinary, dismissal and grievance proceduresFrom 1 October 2004, the Emplo...
Top of FormGrievance policy and practice   It is essential that grievances from employees are treated in the same fair man...
4)GRIEVANCE          PROCEDURES:           THE       STANDARD          THREE-STEPPROCEDUREYour employer’s grievance proced...
your chosen companion there. You should be given notes of the meeting, and copiesof any information given by other people....
Discipline is not a glamorous term. It is viewed with fear and suspicion inorganization. The multiple explanation advanced...
Conflict       Employees do not perceptive There is no conflict between               the corporate goals as there individ...
Without the continual support of the subordinate, no manager can get things done.But disciplinary action against a delinqu...
sheet. Charges of misconduct or indiscipline should be clearly and precisely stated   in the charge sheet.b. Consideration...
that such issues are addressed informally, as and when they arise, by managers viadiscussions which clarify what good perf...
Handing disciplinary interviews   All line managers should be trained and supported so that they are able to carry outdisc...
Deliver the decision (and give reasons, taking into account any mitigatingcircumstances), confirm review periods and ensur...
Disciplinary warnings should normally have a specified life after which they aredisregarded when considering any subsequen...
In recruitment, information is collected from interested candidates. For these differentsources of recruitment such as new...
3) To help increase the success rte of the selection process by reducing the       percentage of applicants who are either...
3) Retirements: - At times, management may not find suitable candidate in place       of the one who had retired, after me...
management trainees. The promising students get job security immediately   after securing degrees due to such campus inter...
ADVANTAGES OF INTERNAL RECRUITMENT   1) Internal recruitment is economical.   2) The present employees already know the co...
1) Entry of young blood in the organization is possible. 2) Wide scope is available for selection. This facilitates select...
Selection is one of the most important of all functions in the management ofpersonnel. Selection is more closely related t...
IMPORTANCE OF SELECTION   The importance of selection may be judged from the following facts:-   1) Procurement of Qualifi...
is essentially a series of methods or stages by which different types of information canbe secured through various selecti...
close date. After the close date of the recruitment, the Job Expert for the   hiring department and Human Resources will s...
achievement or from the applicant’s previous employer, who is well versed   with the applicant’s job performance, and some...
MEANING AND DEFINITION OF PLACEMENT
Placement means offering of the job to the finally selected candidate. One theemployee is selected he should be placed on ...
CAREER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENTINTRODUCTION:-     The term career planning is frequently used in relation young boys and g...
Unskilled worker – Semi-skilled worker – Skilled worker – Highly skilled worker – Assistant foreman – Foreman.    Employee...
3) To utilize available managerial talent within the organization fully.   4) To achieve higher productivity and organizat...
Training is essential for career planning and also for manpower development.       Along with job analysis, organizational...
business and industry. Therefore, career plans for a period exceeding a decade          may not be effective. iii.     Car...
v.    Field staff at head office with necessary details, and         vi.   Facilitates available for training and developm...
identify the scope and limitations of career development needs on the basis of  the data collected (through personnel inve...
III.    Removing artificial barriers to promotion;      IV.     Establishing a register of employees for promotion on meri...
process/activity. This rule is applicable to career development plans of an       organization.CAREER STAGES:-   Education...
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Hrm notes %28on almost every topics%29

  1. 1. 1. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL2. GREIVANCE3. DISCIPLINE4. RECURITMENT5. SELECTION6. CAREER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT7. EMPLOYEE TRAINING8. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING9. INDUSTRIAL CONFLICTS10. PROMOTION, TRANSFER, DEMOTION11. PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT
  2. 2. PERFORMANCE APPRAISALMEANING OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISALperformance appraisal may be understood as the assessment of individual’sperformance in a systematic way, the performance being measured against factorssuch as job knowledge, quality and quantity output, initiative, leadership abilities,supervision, dependability, co-operation, judgment, versatility, health and the like.Assessment should be confined to past performance alone. Potentials of the employeefor future performance must also be assessed.Performance appraisal is a method of evaluating the behavior of employees in thework spot, normally including both the quantitative and qualitative aspect of jobperformance. Performances here refer to the degree of accomplishment of the tasksthat make up an individual’s job. It indicates how well an individual is fulfilling thejob demands. Often the term is confused with effort, but performance is alwaysmeasured in terms of result and not efforts.A formal definition of performance appraisal is “it is the systematic evaluation of theindividual with respect to his or her performance on the job and his or her potentialfor development.”FEATURES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISALPerformance appraisal is the systematic description of an employee’s job relevantstrengths and weaknesses.The basic purpose is to find out how well the employee is performing the job andestablish a plan of improvement.Appraisals are arranged periodically according to a definite plan.Performance appraisal is not job evaluation. It refers to how well someone is doingthe assigned job. Job evaluation determines how much a job is worth to theorganization and there for, what range of pay should be assigned to the job.
  3. 3. Performance appraisal is a continuous process in every large scale organization.PROCESS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISALPerformance appraisal is planned, developed and implemented through a series ofsteps: ESTABLISHING PERFORMANCE STANDARD CONNUNICATION OF PERFORMANCE STANDARDS MEASUREMENT OF ACTUAL PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF ACTUAL PERFORMANCE WITH THE STANDARDS FOLLOW UP ACTIONS1) Establish Performance Standards.Appraisal systems require performance standards, which serve as benchmarks againstwhich performance is measured. In order to be useful, standards should relate to thedesired results of each job. Appraisals must have a clear- cut criteria. Performancestandards must be both to the appraiser and the appraise. The performance standardsof goals must be developed after a thorough analysis of the job. Goals must be writtendown. They must be measurable within certain time and cost considerations.
  4. 4. 2) Communicate the Standards.Performance appraisal involves attract two parties; the appraiser who does theappraisal and the appraise whose performance is being evaluated. Both are expectedto do certain things. The appraiser should prepare job descriptions clearly, helpappraise set his goals and targets; analysis results objectively; offer coaching andguidance to appraise whenever required and reward good results. The appraisershould be very clear about what he is doing and why he is doing. For this purpose, theperformance standards must be communicated to appraise and their reactions arenoted initially. These standards must be revised or modified as and when required.3) Measure Actual Performance.After the performance standards are set and accepted, the next step is to measureactual performance. This requires the use of dependable performance measures, theratings used to evaluate performance. Performance measures in order to be helpfulmust be easy to use, reliable and report on the critical behaviors that determineperformance. Generally, managers regarding how to measure actual performance usefour common sources of information: personal observation, statistical reports, oralreports and written reports.4) Compare Actual Performance with Standards and Discuss the Appraisal.Actual performance may be better than expected and sometimes it may even go offthe track. The assessment of another persons contribution and ability is not an easytask. It has serious emotional overtones as it affects the self-esteem of the appraise.Any appraisal asked on subjective criteria is likely to be questioned by the appraisersand leave him quite dejected and unhappy when the appraisal turns out to be negative.5) Taking Corrective Action, if Necessary.Corrective action is of two types: The one, which puts out the fires immediately andthe other one, which strikes at he root of the problems permanently. Immediate actionsets things right and get things back or track, whereas the basic corrective action getsto the source of deviations and seems to adjust the difference permanently. Basiccorrective step seek to find out how and why performance deviate.
  5. 5. METHODS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL: Methods of Performance AppraisalA) Traditional Methods B) Modern MethodsConfidential report 1. Human resource accountingRanking 2. management by objectiveGraphical rating scale 3. Assessment centreChecklists 4. BARS( BehaviorallyForced distribution anchored rating scale )Critical incidentsEssay evaluationGroup appraisalsTraditional methods:Confidential report methodIt is mostly used in government organizations. It is a descriptive report generallyprepared at the end of the year, by the employee’s immediate superior. The reporthighlights the strengths, weaknesses, major mistakes, merits, good work done etc. ofthe subordinate. The impression of the superior about the superior is merely recordedhere. It does not offer any feedback to appraise. It is a narrative method ofperformance appraisal since the report is not made public and hence no freedom isavailable, the subjective analysis of the superior is likely to be hotly contested.Ranking methodThis is relatively easy method of performance evaluation. In it, the ranking of anemployee in a work group is against that of another employee. The relative position ofeach employee is tested in terms of his or her numerical rank, for example, when thereare five employees (A,B,C,D,E) to be compared, then A’s performance is comparedwith that of B’s and decision is arrived at as to whose is the better or worst. Next, B is
  6. 6. also compares with all others. Since A is already compared with B, this time B is tobe compared with only C, D, and E In this evaluation is asked to rate the employeesfrom highest to lowest on some overall criterion. It is easier to rank the best and theworst employee, it is very difficult to rank the average employees.Graphical rating scaleIt is the oldest and the most commonly used method of performance in this, a printedform is used to evaluate the performance of an employee. Four to twelve factors areselected, depending upon the category to which the employee belongs. Some of thesefactors are quantity of out put, quality of out put, initiative, integrity, dependabilityetc. these factors and their degrees are marked on a graph paper provided in the form.The rater has merely to check on the scale where he thinks the employee belongs.Checklists and weighted checklistsThe checklist is a simple rating technique in which the supervisor is given a list ofstatement or world and ask to check statement representing the characteristic andperformance of each employee a checklist represents a set of objective statementabout the employee and his behavior. A more recent variation of the checklist isweighted list. Under this the value of each question may be weighted more heavilythan others.The following are sample questions in the checklist:- Is the employee is really interested in the task assigned? Yes/ No- Is he respected of his colleagues? Yes/ No- Does he follow instructions properly? Yes/ No- Does he give respect to his superiors? Yes/ No- Does he make mistakes frequently? Yes/ NoA rating score from the checklist helps the manager in evaluation of the performanceof the employee.Forced distribution methodIt was developed to eliminate the bias and the preponderance of high ratings thatmight occur in some organizations. Its primary purpose is the correct tendency of the
  7. 7. rates to give consistently high and low ratings to all employees. This method makesthose of several sets of pair phases, two of which are positive and two of them arenegative and the rates is asked to indicate which of the four phrase is the most or leastdescriptive of a particular employee. Actually the statement items are grounded insuch a way that the rater cannot which statement applies to the most effectiveemployee. The favorable qualities earn a plus credit and the unfavorable ones earn theseverest. In this the overall objectivity is increased in the employee’s performancebecause the rater does not know how high or low he is evaluating the individual, as hehas no access to the storing key.Critical incident method The manager prepares test of statements of every effective and ineffectivebehavior of an employee. These critical incidents or events represent the outstandingpoor behavior of the employees. The manager prepares records of the criticalincidents of the worker’s behavior. At the end of the rating period, the recordedcritical incidents are used in the evaluation of the workers’ performance.Essay AppraisalUnder this method the rater is asked to express the strong as well as the weak pointsof the employee’s behavior. This technique is normally used with a combination ofthe graphical rating scale because the rater an elaborately present the scale bysustaining an explanation for his rating. In it, the rater considers the following factors:Job knowledge and potential of the employee.Employees understanding about the company’s programmes, policies, objective, etc.The employees general planning, organizing and controlling ability.The employee’s relation with the co-workers and superiors.The attitude and perceptions of the worker, in general.Group appraisalIn this method an employee is appraised by a group of appraisers. This group consistsof the immediate supervisor of the employee, other supervisors who have closecontact with employee’s work, manager or head of department or consultant. Thehead of department or manager may be the chairman of the group and the supervisormay act as the coordinate for the group activities. The immediate supervisor enlighten
  8. 8. other members about the job characteristics, demand, standards or performance etc.then the group appraise the performance of the employee, compares the performancewith the standards, finds out the deviation, discusses the reasons, therefore suggestsways for improvement of performance, prepares an action plan, studies the need forchange in the job analysis and standards and recommends changes, if necessary. Thismethod eliminates “personal bias” to a large extent, as performance is evaluated bymultiple rates. However, it is very time consuming process.B) Modern Methods:Human resource accountingHRA is a sophisticated way to measure in financial terms the effectiveness of thepersonal manager activities and the use of people in an organization. It is process ofaccounting people as an organization resource. It tries to place a value on theorganizational human resources as assets and not as expenses. This method shows theinvestment the organization makes in the people and how the value of these peoplechange over a time. The acquisition of employee is compared with the replacementcost from time to time. In brief, in this method the employees’ performance isevaluated in terms of costs and contributions of employees.Management by objectivesIt is the modern method of evaluating the performance of personnel. Managers havebecome increasingly aware that the traditional performance evaluation systems arecharacterized by facing goals. The concept of MBO is actually the outcome thepioneering work of Drucker, Mcgreger and Odioine in management science. MBOcan be described as the process whereby the superior and subordinate manager of anorganization jointly identify its common goals, each individual’s areas of operations,responsibility in terms of results expected of him and use these measures as a guidefor operating the unit and assessing the contributions of each of its members. MBOthus represents more than an evaluation process.The MBO can be described in four steps:The first step is to establish the goals each subordinate is to attain. The goals typicallyrefer to the desired outcome to be achieved. The goals can be then used to evaluatethe employee performance
  9. 9. The second step involves setting of the performance standard fro the subordinates in apreviously arranged time period.In the third step, the actual level of goal attainment is compared with the goals agreedupon. The evaluator explores the reasons or the goals that were not met and the goalsthat were exceeded. This step helps to determine the training needs. It also alerts thesuperior of the conditions that may affect but over which the subordinate has nocontrol.The final step involves establishing new goals and, possibly, new strategies for goalsthat previously not attained. At this point, subordinate and superior involvement in thegoal setting may change. Subordinates who successively reach the established goalsmay be allowed to participate more in the goal setting process the next time. Theprocess is repeated.Assessment center In this approach individuals from various departments are brought together tospend two or three days working on an individual or a group assignment similar to theones they would be handling when promoted. Observers rank the performance of eachand every participant in order to merit since assessment centers are basically meantfor evaluating the potential of candidates to be considered for promotion, training ondevelopment, they offer an excellent means for conducting evaluation process in anobjective way. All assesses get an equal opportunity to show their talents andcapabilities based on merit.Behaviorally anchored rating scaleThis method is also known as behavioral expectation scale. This method represent helatest innovation in the performance appraisal. It is the combination of the rating scaleand critical incident techniques of employee performance evaluation. The criticalincidents serve as the anchor statement on a scale and the rating form usually containssix to eight specifically defined performance dimensions.
  10. 10. 360° PERFORMANCE APPRAISALThe appraisal may be any person who has thorough knowledge about the job contents,contents to be appraised, standards of contents and who observes the employees byperforming a job. The appraisal should be capable of determining what is moreimportant and what is relatively less important. He should prepare reports and madejudgments without bias. Typical appraisals are supervisors, peers. Subordinates,employees themselves, user of service and consultants. Performance Appraisal by allthese parties is called 360° Performance Appraisal.SupervisorsSupervisors include superiors of the employee, other superiors having knowledgeabout the work of the employee and department head or manager. General practice isthat immediate superior appraises the performance, which in turn is reviewed by thedepartmental head/ managers. This is because superiors are responsible free managingtheir subordinates and they have the opportunity to observe, direct and control thesubordinate continuously. Moreover, they are accountable for the successfulperformance of their subordinates. Sometimes other supervisors, who have closecontact with employee work also appraise with a view to provide additionalinformation.PeersPeer appraisal may be reliable of the workgroup is stable over a reasonably longperiod of time and performs tasks that require interaction.Subordinates
  11. 11. In developed countries, the concept of change superiors rated by subordinates in beingused in most organizations. Such a method can be useful provided the relationshipsbetween superiors and subordinates art cordial. Subordinates ratings in such cases canbe quite useful in identifying competent superiors.Self-AppraisalIf individuals understand the objectives they are expected to achieve and the standardsby which they are to be evaluated, they are to a great extent in the best position toappraise their own performance. Also, since employee development means self-development, employees who appraise their own performance may become highlymotivated.Users of Services/CustomersThe customers on users of services can, better judge employee performance in serviceorganizations relating to behaviors, promptness, speed in doing the job and accuracy.Example, students better judge a teacher’s performance.ConsultantsSometimes consultants may be engaged for appraisal when employees or employersdo not trust the supervisory appraisal and management does not trust the self-appraisaland the appraisal done by subordinates. In such situation, the consultants are trainedand they observe the employee at work for sufficiently long periods for the purpose ofappraisal.When to appraise?Informal appraisals are conducted whenever the supervisor or personnel manager feelit necessary. However, systematic appraisals are conducted on a regular basis; say forexample, every six month or annually.
  12. 12. PURPOSES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISALTo create and maintain a satisfactory level of performance.To contribute to the employee growth and development thought training, self andmanagement development programmes.To help the superior to have a proper understanding about their subordinates.To guide the job changes with help to continuous ranking.To facilitate fair and equitable compensation based on performance.To provide information for making decision regarding lay off, retrenchment etc.REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD APPRAISAL SYSTEM:It must be easily understandable:If the system is too much complex or to time consuming, it may be anchored to theground by its own dead weight of complicated forms which nobody but the expertsunderstand.It musty has support of all line people who administer it:If the line people think that there role is not very important then they will not considerthe system seriously. Similarly, if the people find that the system is too theoretical,too ambitious, or that has been foisted on them by the ivory-tower staff consultantswho have no comprehension of the demand then they will recent it.The system should be sufficiently grounded in the requirement of the organization:It should reflect the value system of the organization. In fact functioning as adefinition of performance, it should tell he employee what set of activities or whatqualities are considered desirable by the organization. As such it should have linkagewith the job description.The system should be both valid and reliable:The validity of the ratings is the degree to which they are truly indicative of theintrinsic merit of the employees. The reliability of the ratings is the consistency withwhich the ratings are made, either by different sectors, one by one rater at differenttimes. Both validity and reliability result from objectivity. The appraisal system ofmany organizations lacks this objectivity and bunches all employees into one or two
  13. 13. top ranks without taking into account their merits. This raises outstandingperformances but also raises doubts about the validity of the system.The system should have built-in incentive:This means that the reward should follow satisfactory performance. Many authorshowever, advocate against the direct linkage between the appraisal and rewards. Intheir opinion, such a connection throttles downward communication of performanceappraisal because superiors do not like being questioned by disgruntled subordinates.The system should be open and participative:It should involve employees in goal-setting process. This helps in planningperformance better.The systems should focus more on the development and growth:Of the employee than on generating data for administrative decision making related topromotions, increments, etc. the system must help in identifying employee’s strengthsand weaknesses and indicate corrective actions. For example it may reveal that goalsneed to be modified on; there is need for classification of duties or for additionaltraining or job rotation or job enrichment.
  14. 14. GREIVANCE1) MEANING/ DEFINITION : The concept ‘Grievance’ has been defined in several ways by different authoritiessome of the definition are follows: Beach defines a grievance as “any dissatisfaction or feeling of injustice inconnection with one’s employment situation that is brought to the notice of themanagement”, where as Flippo indicate the grievance as “a type of discontent whichmust always be expressed A grievance is usually more formal in character than acomplaint. It can be valid or ridiculous, and must grow out of something connectedwith company operations or policy. It must involve interpretation or application of theprovision of the labour contract.” Jucius defines a grievance as “any discontent or dissatisfaction, whether exposedor not, whether valid or not, arising out of anything connected with company whichan employee thinks, believes or even feels to be unfair, unjust or inequitable.” A grievance is more than likely a violation of an employees rights on the job, aright that is usually, but not always defined by the contract. In seeing a grievance inthis way, we can understand better that the best place to look for a way to defend themember is in the language of the contract. So for all practical purposes, every unionofficer must go back to the contract first when a member comes in with a complaint ora problem. The contract provides us with the strongest ammunition in resolving theissue for our member. Is the contract the only means to resolve members grievances?Of course not. But it is probably the strongest leg you have to stand on. Lastly, thereare many grievances that fall into a large category which we say are discipline-related.The union can challenge certain rules or their application. We may argue that amember is being disciplined without "just cause" or he or she is suffering fromdisparate treatment. The two expressions are simply an arbitrators or lawyers way ofsaying the member is being disciplined unfairly. So the best advice that can be offered in handling a members problem is tocheck the contract first. If there is any reasonable way of dealing with the issue as a
  15. 15. contract violation, you ought to use it. You and your local union are only limited bythe contract, the skills of the grievance representatives, and the power of the localunion.NEED FOR A GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE Grievance procedure is necessary for any organization due to the following reason:Most grievances seriously disturb the employees. This may affect their moral,productivity and their willingness to cooperate with the organization. If an explosivesituation develops, this can be promptly attended to if grievance handling procedure isalready in existence.It is not possible that all the complaints of the employees would be settled by first-time supervisors, for these supervisor may not have had a proper training for thepurpose, and they may lack authority. Moreover, there may be personality conflictsand other cause as well.It serves as a check on the arbitrary action of the management because supervisorsknow that employees are likely to see to it that their protest dose reach the highermanagement.It serves as an outlet for employees gripes, discontent and frustrations. It acts like apressure value on a steam boiler. The employees are entitled to legislative, executiveand judicial protection and they get this protection from the grievance redressalprocedure, which also acts as a means of upward communication.2)CONSIDERS GOOD PRACTICE IN HANDLING DISCIPLINARY ANDGRIEVANCE ISSUES :endorses the ACAS Code of Practice1 for handling disciplinary and grievance issuessummarizes the statutory procedures which came into force in October 2004includes the CIPD viewpoint.Summary
  16. 16. A summary of issues which can be addressed through the Basic GrievanceProcedure include, but are not limited to, the following: All allegations ofdiscrimination; allegations of non-compliance with the Personnel Rules; improvementof systems, practices or procedures; safety; health; working conditions; materials orequipment; supervisory practices or procedures considered improper or unfair;disciplinary actions such as suspensions of 40 hours or less, reprimands or memos ofconcern; or any other matters subject to the authority of the ADOA Director and forwhich no other method of redress is provided or prohibited in the Personnel Rules.Restrictions An employee may not submit a grievance challenging the following managementrights, but may submit a grievance concerning the manner of their administration,insofar as these personally affect the employee: The agencys right to direct itsemployees; to hire, promote, transfer, assign, and retain employees; and, to maintainefficiency of government operations, and to determine the methods, means, andpersonnel by which these operations are to be conducted.An employee may submit a grievance concerning a specific performance factor ratingby utilizing the EPAS Grievance Procedure. An employee may not submit agrievance concerning the receipt of a performance decrease, the non-receipt of aperformance increase or special performance award, the amount of any increase ordecrease, or the use of any job-related supplemental rating factors to determine thereceipt or amount of an increase, decrease, or special performance award. Anemployee may submit a grievance using the Basic Grievance Procedure within 10days of receipt of a planning EPAS or within 10 days of failing to receive, afterwritten request, a planning document.Non-Applicable Matters A summary of issues which cannot be addressed through either the Basic or theEPAS Grievance Procedure, include, but are not limited to, the following: Retirementissues; life insurance or health insurance issues; suspension for more than 40 workinghours, demotion, or dismissal resulting from disciplinary action; any examination,certification or appointment; any classification action; and any reduction in force
  17. 17. action and matters not subject to the Department of Administration control. Otheravenues exist to seek redress or remedy involving these actions.Amendments Once a grievance is referred to any step beyond the immediate supervisor, it maynot be amended. If additional documentation is submitted by the grievant after theinitiation of the grievance, the reviewing official may remand the grievance to theappropriate previous level for reconsideration. It is the employees responsibility toprovide documentation to support the allegations raised in the grievance.Confidentiality and Use of Official Authority The preparation, submittal, review and response to a grievance are confidential.Correspondence regarding a grievance should be handled in a confidential manner,and envelopes containing grievance material should be clearly labeled "confidential."No reference to the complaint shall be included in the employees official personnelfile.Copies of written responses sent at each step of the procedure are limited torespondents at the preceding steps, the agency head or the agency heads designeeunless it is necessary to notify additional personnel because the response requiresanother individual to take some action.No person shall directly or indirectly use any official authority or influence in anymanner to discourage the use of this procedure. Any person found guilty may besubject to penalty under ADOA Personnel Rule R2-5-501.Representation At any step of the grievance procedure after the mandatory pre-grievance oraldiscussion (see below), grievant may select one representative to provide adviceand/or speak for the grievant at any meetings determined necessary by management inthe course of the grievance process. An ADOA employee who serves as arepresentative is required to request and obtain prior approval for annual orcompensatory leave for any time devoted as a representative during regular working
  18. 18. hours. If a representative is chosen, the representative shall be identified on thegrievance formGroup Grievance Should a group of employees file a grievance, all employees of the group arerequired to sign the grievance and to clearly designate, on the grievance form, onemember who will act as the groups contact person. The contact person will act as aspeaker for the group in any meetings determined necessary by management.Preparation Time During the entire formal grievance process (after the oral discussion at Step I),employees are allowed up to four hours with pay to prepare the grievance and/orconfer with their official representative on the grievance. Employees cannot use stateequipment for this process. Employees must request and obtain prior supervisoryapproval for time off, which will be subject to the operational needs of the unit. Thetime an employee devotes to attending any meetings scheduled by management todiscuss the grievance is considered work time and is not included in the four-hourlimitation specified above.Extensions The ADOA Personnel Rules require that the agency head respond to a grievant notlater than 40 working days after receipt of the grievance at the first step. Within the40 working days requirement, the time at any step may be extended by the agencyhead with concurrence of the grievant. If at any step the response is not made withinthe prescribed time and no extension has been agreed upon, the employee may submitto the next step.Mandatory Oral Discussion In accordance with Personnel Rule R2-5-702.A.1, the employee is REQUIRED tohave an oral discussion with the immediate supervisor prior to initiating a formal
  19. 19. grievance. The employee must clearly state to the supervisor the employeesintentions of filing a formal grievance, the issues involved, and the requestedresolution. The purpose of the meeting is for both parties to explore the issues and therequested resolution. If the employee fails to take this step, the grievance WILL NOTbe accepted through the formal grievance procedure. It is the employeesresponsibility to remember that the Step I grievance must be submitted within 10working days after the occurrence of the action being grieved, and that these 10 daysare not extended by the date on which the oral discussion takes place.The employee may select a representative at any step after the oral discussion with thesupervisor.Procedures When an employee wants to submit a basic grievance, the employee must: Use theappropriate form; state the problem and outline all of the specific facts, circumstancesand issues involved; provide all the appropriate documentation to support theallegations; state the specific resolution which is sought; of a Personnel Rule violationis alleged, the specific rule alleged to have been violated must be stated as well as anexplanation of how the rule was violated; and, the employee must sign the grievanceat each step and state why the response at the previous level was not satisfactory.The employee must also meet the mandatory oral discussion requirement prior tosubmitting the complaint and adhere to the required time limitation for submitting agrievance.Step I The Step I responding authority is the employees immediate supervisor.The time limit for submitting the grievance is 10 working days from the date of theaction being grieved. If a suspension is being grieved, the date of the action isconsidered to be the first day of the suspension. The date the action occurred is notcounted when determining3)WHY ARE DISCIPLINARY AND GRIEVANCE PROCEDURESNECESSARY?
  20. 20. Disciplinary and grievance procedures provide a clear and transparent frameworkto deal with difficulties which may arise as part of their working relationship fromeither the employers or employees perspective.They are necessary to ensure that everybody is treated in the same way in similarcircumstances, to ensure issues are dealt with fairly and reasonably and that they arecompliant with current legislation.Disciplinary procedures are needed:So employees know what is expected of them in terms of standards of performance orconduct (and the likely consequences of continued failure to meet these standards).To identify obstacles to individuals achieving the required standards (e.g. trainingneeds, lack of clarity of job requirements, additional support needed) and takeappropriate action.As an opportunity to agree suitable goals and timescales for improvement in anindividuals performance or conduct.As a point of reference for an employment tribunal should someone make a complaintabout the way they have been dismissedGrievance procedures are needed: To provide individuals with a course of action should they have a complaint(which they are unable to resolve through regular communication with their linemanager).To provide points of contact and timescales to resolve issues of concern.The legal position Most of the provisions governing discipline and grievances at work are to be foundin the Employment Act 2002 and the detailed regulations made to implement theprovisions of that Act namely the Employment Act 2002 (Dispute Resolution)Regulations 2004 (SI2004/752).Numerous other pieces of legislation cross refer to discipline and grievance issues.Some important examples include the:Employment Rights Act 1996 as amendedEmployment Rights Dispute Resolution Act 1998
  21. 21. Employment Relations Act 1999.The statutory disciplinary, dismissal and grievance proceduresFrom 1 October 2004, the Employment Act 2002 made it a legal requirement for allorganizations to follow minimum disciplinary, dismissal and grievance procedures incertain circumstances. These statutory procedures amount to a minimum standard thatmust be followed by all employers and employees.The Main Features Of The Procedures Are: Three step statutory disciplinary, dismissal and grievance procedures which mustbe followed in most casesfailure to follow the statutory procedures by the employer prior to dismissal willrender that dismissal automatically unfairemployers will pay a potential increase in compensation of between 10-50% if theprocedures are not followed by the employeran employee may be prevented from presenting some types of claim in theemployment tribunal if they have not followed the grievance procedure firstthe procedures are non-contractual until further notification by the Department ofTrade and Industry unless an organization chooses to incorporate the statutoryminimum into their own contractual procedures.There are two sets of procedures: standard, and modified. It is envisaged that thestandard procedure will be used in all but the most exceptional circumstances. Theseprocedures apply in a wide range of circumstances which are not limited to issuesrelating to the capability or conduct of the employee but, for example, to dismissalswhich occur on the expiry of a fixed-term contract and in a smaller scaleredundancies.There are some exemptions to the statutory procedures, for example if one partyreasonably believes there is a significant threat, harassment or it is not practical to gothrough the procedures for reasons beyond their control, or if there are issues ofnational security.The ACAS Code of Practice Disciplinary and Grievance Procedures1 providesdetailed guidance for employers. CIPD endorses this Code.CIPD members can find out more on the legal aspects of this topic from our FAQ onin the Employment Law at Work area of our website.
  22. 22. Top of FormGrievance policy and practice It is essential that grievances from employees are treated in the same fair manner.Failure to address grievances leaves employees with ‘residual anger’ and can lead togeneral unrest and disputes in the workplace.Employees must know to whom they can turn in the event of a grievance and thesupport, such as counseling or sources of advice, that is available to them. All line andsenior managers must be familiar with their organization’s grievance procedure.There are a number of additional factors to bear in mind when dealing with grievancesconcerning harassment. For further details see our fact sheet onHandling grievances informally Individuals should be encouraged to discuss ordinary, day-to-day issues informallywith their line manager. This helps concerns to be heard and responded to as soon aspossible.Where this has been unsuccessful, or circumstances make this route inappropriate forthe individual, then matters should raised formally through the grievance procedure.Handling grievances formally Employees should also be aware of the formal route open to them, including:the three stages of the statutory procedure and any further elements of theorganization’s additional procedureswith whom to raise the complaint and appropriate sources of supporttimescales within which the organization will seek to deal with the complaintdetails of the stages of the grievance procedure e.g. how a complaint may be raisedwith the next level of management if a satisfactory resolution is not reached.An employee should be given the right to be accompanied to grievance hearings by acolleague or trade union representative as explained above.As in disciplinary matters, record keeping is important
  23. 23. 4)GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES: THE STANDARD THREE-STEPPROCEDUREYour employer’s grievance procedure may have more than three steps, but it mustinclude the following.1. Written statement You must set out your grievance in writing (often called a ‘step one letter’). Youremployer’s grievance procedure should say who to send your letter to. If that’s theperson causing the problem, or if they’ve ignored previous complaints, send it to theHR department or to the person’s boss.2. Meeting: Your grievance should be looked into in a fair and unbiased way. Your employershould invite you to a meeting (sometimes called a hearing) to discuss the problem,and you should attend if you can. If there is someone else involved, they might also bethere (but you should tell your employer if you are uncomfortable with this).Themeeting should be at a convenient time for you and anyone else involved. If you thinkyou’ve not had enough time to prepare, ask for more time. If your employer doesn’tagree (and they don’t have to), you should go to the hearing, but make sure that yourlack of preparation time is noted. Gather your thoughts before the meeting. Don’t beafraid to write down what it is you want to say. There is nothing wrong with readingthis out at the meeting. It is up to your employer what format the meeting takes butthey will normally go through the issues that have been raised and give you theopportunity to comment. The main purpose of the meeting should be to try toestablish the facts and find a way to resolve the problem. The Advisory, Conciliationand Arbitration Service (Aces) have a code of practice which sets out how youremployer should carry out a grievance procedure. If you ask your employerbeforehand, you have a legal right to take a ‘companion’ (who is a colleague or tradeunion representative) to the meeting with you. If no colleague is willing to accompanyyou, and you’re not a union member, ask if you can bring a family member or aCitizen’s Advice Bureau worker (but your employer does not have to agree to this).The companion can present and/or sum up your case, talk on your behalf and conferwith you during the hearing. They’re protected from unfair dismissal or othermistreatment for supporting you. The meeting must be at a convenient time for yourcompanion. You can ask for a postponement of up to five days if necessary to get
  24. 24. your chosen companion there. You should be given notes of the meeting, and copiesof any information given by other people. Unless they need to investigate further,your employer should tell you reasonably quickly what’s been decided, and aboutyour right to appeal if you’re not satisfied. You might be told of the outcome verballyat first but it will usually be confirmed in writing.3. Appeal meeting: If you’re not satisfied with the decision, or you think the procedure followed wasseriously flawed, you have the right to an appeal. This is usually heard by a higherlevel of management. If that isn’t possible, your employer could ask an Acesmediator or other independent person to hear it. The appeal hearing is similar to theoriginal meeting, and you have a right to a companion, as before. Your employershould give you enough time to appeal. If they don’t, make your appeal anyway, andsay that you’ll provide more information later. If you are considering taking yourissue to an Employment Tribunal you may want to appeal even if it seems pointless,because a tribunal award could be reduced if you don’t. If you can’t sort out thedispute, you can get help through mediation, conciliation or arbitration, if youremployer agrees to it.DISCIPLINE1)INTRODUCTION: Discipline is required for both the organization and the individual. In theorganization it is needed to regulate the behavior of people, maintain peace andchannel their efforts towards organizational goal. Sad to sate, most people do notexercise self discipline and this fact makes external control necessary for briningorder within an organization.CONCEPT
  25. 25. Discipline is not a glamorous term. It is viewed with fear and suspicion inorganization. The multiple explanation advanced by different expert in the filed haveonly added to the prevailing confusion.NEGAIVE DISCIPLINE Traditionally, discipline is interpreted as a sort of check or restraint on the freedomof person. Discipline is used to the act of imposing penalties for wrong behavior. Ifemployees fail to observe rules, they are punished. “Discipline is the force thatprompts an individual or a group to observe the rules, regulations and procedureswhich are deemed to be necessary to the attainment of an objective,”POSITIVE DISCIPLINE Employees comply with rules not out fear of punishment but out of an inherentdesire to cooperate and achieve goals. Where the organizational climate is market bytwo-way communication, clear goals, effective leadership, adequate compensationemployees need not be discipline in the traditional way. Positive discipline, accordingto Spriegel enables an employee, “to have a greater freedom in that he enjoys agreater degree of self-expression in striving to achieve the objective, which heidentifies as his own.”2)DIFFEREANCE BETWEEN POSITIVE & NEGATIVE DISCIPLINE :Point Negative Discipline Positive DisciplineConcept It is adherence to established It is the creation of a norms and regulation, out of conductive climate in an fear of punishment. organization so that employees willingly confirm to the established rules
  26. 26. Conflict Employees do not perceptive There is no conflict between the corporate goals as there individual and organizational own. goals.Supervision Require intense supervisory Employees exercise self- control to prevent employees control to meet organizational from going off the track. object ivies.3)SELF DISCIPLINE AND CONTROL: Behavioral scientist view discipline as a self- control to meet organizationalobjectives. Megginson clarified the term thus. “By self- discipline he mans thetraining that correct, moulds and strengthens. It refers to one’s efforts at self control tocertain needs and demands. This form of discipline is raised on to psychologicalprinciples. First, punishment seldom produce the desired result. Often, it produceundesirable result. Second, a self- respecting person tends to be a better worker thanone who is not.”4)PROGRESSIVE DISCIPLINE: The concept o progressive discipline states that penalties must be appropriate tothe violation. If inappropriate behaviour is minor in nature and has not previouslyoccurred an oral may be sufficient. If the violation requires a written warning, it mustbe done according to a procedure. After written warnings, if the conduct of theemployees is still not along desired lines, serious punitive steps could be initiated. Incase of major violations such has hitting a supervisor may justify the termination of anemployee immdiately. In order to assist a manager to recognize the proper level ofdisciplinary action, some firms have formalized the procedure.5)THE RED HOT STOVE RULE:
  27. 27. Without the continual support of the subordinate, no manager can get things done.But disciplinary action against a delinquent employee is painful and generatesresentment on his part. According to the Red Hot Stove rule disciplinary action should have followingconsequences: A} Burns immediately: If disciplinary action is to be taken, it must occurimmediately so the individual will understand the reason for it. With the passage oftime, people have tendency to convince themselves that they are not fault. B} provides warning: It is very important to provide advance warning thatpunishment will follow unacceptable behaviour. As you move closer to hot stove youare warned by its heat that will be burned. C} Burns impersonally: Disciplinary action should be impersonal. There are nofavorites when this approach is followed.6)JUSTICAL APPROCH TO DISCIPLINE: The Industrial Employment Act was passed in 1946 with a view to improve theindustrial relation climate. The Act requires that all establishment must define theservice rules and prepare standing order. The term Standing order refers to the rulesand regulation which governs the condition of employment of workers. They indicateduties and responsibility on the part of both the employer and the employees. Thestanding order contains rules relating to classification of employees, working hours,holidays, shift working, attendance, leave, suspension, stoppage of work, redreassal ofthese terms and condition may lead to misconduct or indciplpine.7)DISCIPLINARY ACTION: Though there is no rigid and specific procedure for taking disciplinary action, thedisciplinary procedure followed in Indian industries usually consist of the followingsteps:a. Issuing the letter of charge: When a employee commits an act of misconduct that required disciplinary action, the employee concerned should be issue a charge
  28. 28. sheet. Charges of misconduct or indiscipline should be clearly and precisely stated in the charge sheet.b. Consideration of explanation: On getting the answer for the letter of charge served, the explanation furnished be consider and if it is a satisfactory, no disciplinary action need be taken. On the contrary when the management is not satisfied with the employees explanation there is a need for serving a show-cause notice.c. Show-cause notice: Show-cause notice is issued by the manager when he believes that there is a sufficient prima facie evidence of employees misconduct. Enquiry should also initiated by first serving him a notice of enquiry indicating clearly the name of enquiring officer, time, date and place of enquiry etc.d. Holding of a full fledge enquiry : These must be in conformity with the principle of natural justice, that is the employee concerned must be given an opportunity, of being heard. When the process of enquiry is over an findings of the same are record, the enquiry officer should suggest the nature of disciplinary action.8)DISCIPLINARY POLICY AND PRACTICE:-Using the disciplinary process There are two main areas where the disciplinary system is used:capability/performance and conduct.Capability/performance It is inevitable that at some stage all employers will encounter difficulties with theperformance of their employees in the workplace (these can stem from difficulties onthe part of the organization such as insufficient training and support, or a lack ofleadership or inappropriate systems of work, as well as the individual who isstruggling to fulfill their responsibilities). It is good practice and also more efficient
  29. 29. that such issues are addressed informally, as and when they arise, by managers viadiscussions which clarify what good performance looks like, goal setting, supportand timely positive feedback where appropriate. Only when these options have beenexhausted and where there is no alternative should managers should enter a moreformal disciplinary procedure.Situations where an individual is unable to do their job because of ill-health also fallinto this category. In these instances an employee should be dealt withsympathetically and offered support. However, unacceptable levels of absence couldstill result in the employer making use of warnings.Conduct Employee misconduct could range from continued lateness, failure to follow areasonable management instruction, abuse of the organization’s computer system orInternet access, bullying behaviour or creating a hostile work environment, through totheft, fighting and committing criminal offences. The more grave offences mayconstitute gross misconduct. In all cases, even gross misconduct, an employer shouldattempt to follow the statutory procedures.Stages of the processIf disciplinary action is to be taken, it should always have three main stages: 1] Letter 2] Meeting 3] Appeal.There must always be a full and fair investigation to determine the facts and to decideif further action is necessary.Record-keeping All records should be kept meticulously, as this will be vital should a case beperused at an employment tribunal. Since the burden of proof is on the employer toshow that the dismissal is not unfair or unreasonable, keeping records is vital. Type ofrecords that should be kept by employers is minutes of meetings, attendance, notes oftelephone calls, copies of correspondence etc.
  30. 30. Handing disciplinary interviews All line managers should be trained and supported so that they are able to carry outdisciplinary meetings with their team. The HR department should be able to assistthem by providing a source of independent advice on preparing for and conductingthe interview, as well as sharing knowledge about similar cases in the organizationand relevant legislation.The key points to consider are:Ensure you have investigated all the facts in advance (including consulting theindividuals personal file for relevant information) and plan how you will approachthe meeting.Make sure the employee knows from the letter inviting them to the meeting why theyhave been asked to attend and that they have a right to have a companion present.Make sure the individual has reasonable notice, ideally more than 48 hours; so thatthey have a chance to arrange an appropriate representative if they wish.Make sure another member of management can be there to take detailed notes andhelp.Conduct the interview. Never pre-judge the outcome of the interview before hearing the employeesperspective.Start the interview by stating the complaint to the employee and giving appropriatestatements from people involved.Give the employee ample opportunity to put forward their side of the story and callany supporting witnesses.You can also call witnesses, but they can only be in the room for the relevant part ofthe interview - not the duration.Make use of adjournments: always take a break to consider and obtain any extrainformation you need before reaching your decision. You can also use if thingsbecome heated or people are upset during the interview.
  31. 31. Deliver the decision (and give reasons, taking into account any mitigatingcircumstances), confirm review periods and ensure you give details of how to appeal.Confirm the decision in writing.It is important that everyone involved in disciplinary action understand theimportance of following the correct procedure, as even if the case against anemployee seems proven, they can still be deemed to have been treated unfairly if thecorrect procedures are not followed.An individual is entitled to be accompanied by a work colleague or trade unionofficial at formal disciplinary and grievance interviews, and to select a companion oftheir choice. It would be good practice for an employer also to offer this at any purelyinvestigatory meeting.No action After the meeting, the employer may decide that no action is necessary. Forexample, if an employee was unclear about what was expected from them and theyagree to try to resolve the issue via additional support or counseling.Warnings Alternatively, the employer may decide to give the employee a warning. Anorganization’s policy should outline exactly what warnings will be given, but thefollowing are likely:Recorded oral warningFirst written warningFinal written warning.Clearly these stages represent an increase in seriousness. With the exception ofextreme examples of misconduct, it would be inappropriate to skip stages in theprocess. Ultimately, failure to reach the organization’s standards may result indismissal.Any warning should also specify a review period during which the individual receivesappropriate support and their performance can be monitored.
  32. 32. Disciplinary warnings should normally have a specified life after which they aredisregarded when considering any subsequent warnings. Typical timescales for thetypes of warning are:recorded oral warning - 6 monthsfirst written warning - 1 yearfinal written warning - 2 years.Where misconduct has been very serious, it may be appropriate for the warning tocontinue to be regarded indefinitely.RECURITMENTRecruitment means to estimate the available vacancies and to make suitablearrangements for their selection and appointment. Recruitment refers to “Discoveringpotential applicants for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies. Recruitment isa process “To discover the source of manpower to meet the requirements of staffing,to employ effective measures for attracting potential manpower in adequate number”.Recruitment is the process of identifying the sources for prospective candidates and tostimulate them to apply for the job. It’s linking activity bringing together those withjobs and those seeking jobs. It locates the source of manpower to meet therequirements and job specifications. In recruitment process available vacancies aregiven wide publicity and suitable candidates are encouraged to submit application soas to have a pool of eligible candidates for scientific selection.
  33. 33. In recruitment, information is collected from interested candidates. For these differentsources of recruitment such as newspaper advertisement, employment exchange,internal promotions, etc. are used. In the recruitment, a pool of eligible and interestedcandidates is created for the selection of most suitable candidate. Recruitmentrepresents the first contact that a company makes with potential employees.Recruitment is a positive function in which publicity is given to the jobs available inthe organization and interested candidates (qualified job applicants) are encouraged tosubmit applications for the purpose of selection.DEFINITION OF RECREUITMENTAccording to Edwin Flippo, “Recruitment is the process of searching for prospectiveemployees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization.OBJECTIVES OF RECRUITMENTThe objectives of recruitment are as follows: (i) To attract people with multi-dimensional skills and experiences that suit the present and future organizational strategies, (ii) To induct outsider with a new perspective to lead the company, (iii) To infuse fresh blood at all levels of the organization, (iv) To develop an organizational culture that attracts competent people to the company, (v) To search or head hunt/head pouch people whose skills fit the company’s values, (vi) To search for talents globally and not just within the company.PURPOSE OF RECRUITMENTRecruitment has three major purposes: 1) to increase the pool of job applicants with minimum cost. 2) To meet the organization’s legal and social obligations regarding the demographic composition of its workforce.
  34. 34. 3) To help increase the success rte of the selection process by reducing the percentage of applicants who are either poorly qualified or have the wrong skills.NEED FOR RECRUITMENTThe need for recruitment may be due to the following reasons/situations: (a) Vacancies due to promotions, transfers, retirement, termination, permanent disability, death and labour turnover. (b) Creation of new vacancies due to growth, expansion and diversification of business activities of an enterprise. In addition, new vacancies are possible due to job respecification.SOURCES OF RECRUITMENTThe sources of recruitment may be grouped into:Internal sourcesExternal sourcesINTERNAL SOURCES: As the term implies internal source of recruitment is forthose who are currently members or the organization. Whenever any vacancy arises,somebody from within the organization may be looked into, following are the internalsources of recruitment. 1) Promotions: - In order to motivate the existing employees, management follows the policy of internal promotions. Promotion means shifting of an employee to a higher position carrying higher responsibilities, facilities, status and salaries. Various positions in the organization are usually filled up by promotions of existing employees on the basis of merit or seniority or a combination of both. 2) Transfers: - Transfer refers to a change in job assignment. It may involve a promotion or demotion, or no change in terms of responsibility or status. A transfer may be either temporary or permanent, depending the necessity of filling jobs. E.g. transfer from head office to branch office.
  35. 35. 3) Retirements: - At times, management may not find suitable candidate in place of the one who had retired, after meritorious service. Under this circumstances management may decide to call retired manager with new extension. 4) Recalls: - When management faces a problem, which can be solved only by a manager who has proceeded on long leave, it may be decided to recall that person. After the problem is solved, his leave may be extended. 5) Former employees: - Individuals who left for some other job, might be willing to come back for higher wages incentives. An advantage with these sources is that the performance of the person/employee is already known.EXTERNAL SOURCESAs the term implies the external source of recruitment is of potential workers who arenot currently member of the organization. It usually includes new entrants to thelabour force the unemployed and people employed in the other organization seekingthe change. Company managements have to use eternal sources for the recruitment ofsupervisory staff and managers as and when necessary. This may be with a view tointroducing the ‘new blood’ in the organization. External recruitment is one way ofbringing into the organization that has new skills or abilities and different way ofapproaching job task. Following are the most common external source of managerialrecruitment. 1) Newspaper Advertisement:-Newspaper advertisements are overwhelmingly popular source of recruitment. A message containing general information about the job and the organization is placed in various newspapers. Newspaper advertising typically generates a large applicant flow. Though costly, it provides wide choice as it attracts a large number of suitable candidates from all over the country. The best example for newspaper advertisement is the Times of India’s Asscent supplement which comes on every Wednesday and contains both domestic as well as international jobs. 2) Campus Recruitment: - College Campuses are another very popular recruitment source. The growth of Management institutes, IIts and Regional Engineering Colleges has provided a popular source of recruitment. Private sector is able to attract many aspirants. It is an excellent source of recruiting
  36. 36. management trainees. The promising students get job security immediately after securing degrees due to such campus interviews/recruitment.3) Recruitment through internet: - The Internet has quickly become a very popular source of employment advertising. This source is quickly growing in popularity. Currently employers can post their openings to any of several newsgroups for free. Most employment advertisement firms can also post the jobs on the Internet; however, they charge a fee. A large and fast growing proportion of employers use the internet as a recruitment tool. More and more organizations are placing information about open positions on the World Wide web. There are many web sites through which recruitment takes place. Some of the examples are www.naukri.com, www.monster.com, etc.4) Job Fairs: - Job fairs are very effective. A job fair is an event sponsored by a "job fair" company who charges a fee to participating employers. The "job fair" company will typically advertise in local media to attract qualified applicants. Hiring managers can meet multiple candidates and conduct on-the- spot interviews. Because the applicants may be interviewing with multiple employers, it is imperative to respond quickly with invitations for in-plant interviews of qualified candidates. If a job fair results in just one hire it is usually cost effective.5) Employment Agencies: - The firm contacts an organization whose main purpose is locate job seekers. The company provides the agency with information about the job, which the agency then passes along to its clients. Clients may be either employed or unemployed. Agencies can either be public or private. Fees may be charged to either or both the client seeking a job and the company seeking applicants.6) Walk-ins, Write-ins and Talk ins:- The most economical approach for recruitment of candidates is direct applications. The job seekers submit applications or resumes directly to the employer. The advertisement mentions date, day and timing during which the applicant can ‘walk in’ for an interview. Write-ins are those who send written inquiries. These applicants a raked to complete application forms for further processing. Talk-ins is now becoming popular and the applicants are required to meet the employer for detailed talks. The applicant is not required to submit any applications.
  37. 37. ADVANTAGES OF INTERNAL RECRUITMENT 1) Internal recruitment is economical. 2) The present employees already know the company well and are likely to develop a loyalty for the same. 3) It tends to encourage existing employees to put in greater efforts and to acquire additional qualification. This means there is motivation to employee to develop and reach to higher positions. 4) It provides security and continuity of employment. 5) Internal recruitment helps to raise the morale of employees and develop cordial relations at the managerial levels. 6) It reduces labour turnover as capable employees get promotion within the organizations. 7) Internal recruitment is a quick and more reliable method. 8) People recruited from within the organization do not need induction or training.DISADVANTAGES OF INTERNAL RECURITMENT 1) Internal promotions create a feeling of discontent among those who are not promoted. 2) It prevents the entry of young blood in the organization. 3) Promotion to certain key post may not be possible due to non-availability of competent persons. 4) The organization will not be able to attract capable persons from outside if internal sources are used extensively. 5) It may encourage favoritism and nepotism. 6) Promotions by seniority may not be always beneficial to the organization.In brief, internal methods of recruitment should be used to extent possible but toomuch dependence on internal methods is undesirable and may prove costly to theorganization in the long run.ADVANTAGES OF EXTERNAL SOURCE OF RECRUITMENT
  38. 38. 1) Entry of young blood in the organization is possible. 2) Wide scope is available for selection. This facilitates selection of people with rich and varied experience. 3) Selection can be made in an impartial manner as large number of qualified and interested candidates are available. 4) Scope for heartburn and jealousy can be avoided by recruiting from outside. 5) The management can fulfill reservation requirements in favour of the disadvantaged section of he society.DISADVANTAGES OF EXTERNAL SOURCE OFRECRUITMENT 1) External recruitment leads to labour turnover particularly of skilled, experienced and ambitious employees. 2) The relations between employer and employee deteriorate leading to industrial disputes and strikes. 3) The present employees may lose their sense of security. Their loyalty to the organization may be adversely affected. 4) Employees feel frustrated due to external recruitment and their morale is adversely affected. SELECTION MEANING AND DEFINITION OF SELECTION
  39. 39. Selection is one of the most important of all functions in the management ofpersonnel. Selection is more closely related to recruitment because both areconcerned with processing individuals to place them in a job. Selection is next torecruitment. After identifying the sources of human resources, searching forprospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organization,the management has to perform the function of selecting the right employees atthe right time. “Right man at the right job” is the basic principle in selection.Selection is the process of collecting and evaluating information about anindividual in order to extend an offer of employment. It is the process of logicallychoosing individuals who posses the necessary skills, abilities and personality tosuccessfully fill specific jobs in the organization.Selection means a process by which the qualified personnel can be choosen fromthe applicants who have offered their services to the organization for employment.Thus selection process is negative function because it attempt to eliminateapplicants, leaving the best to be selected. In the words of Dale Yodev, “Selectionis the process in which candidates for employment are divided into two classes –those who are to be offered employment and those who are not”. In short,selection is the process of choosing a person suitable for the job out of severalpersons.The objective of the selection decision is to chose the individual who can mostsuccessfully perform the job from the pool of qualified candidates. The selectionprocedures are the system of functions and devices adopted in a given company toascertain whether the candidate’s specification is matched with the jobspecification and requirements or not. The selection procedures cannot beeffective until and unless:1) Requirements of the job to be filled, have been clearly specified (job analysis, etc)2) Employee specifications (physical, mental, social, and behavioral, etc) have been clearly specified.3) Candidates for screening have been attracted.Thus, the development of job analyses, human resource planning and recruitmentare necessary prerequisites to the selection process. The breakdown in any ofthese processes can make even the best selection system ineffective.
  40. 40. IMPORTANCE OF SELECTION The importance of selection may be judged from the following facts:- 1) Procurement of Qualified and Skilled Workers: - Scientific selection facilitates the procurement of well qualified and skilled workers in the organization. It is in the interest of the organization in order to maintain the supremacy over the other competitive firms. Selection of skilled personnel reduces the labour cost and increases the production. Selection of skilled personnel also facilitates the expansion in the size of the business. 2) Reduce Cost of Training and Development:- Proper selection of candidates reduces the cost of training because qualified personnel have better grasping power. They can understand the technique of work better and in less time. Further, the organization can develop different training programmes for different persons on the basis of their individual differences, thus reducing the time and cost of training considerably. 3) Absence of Personnel Problems: - Proper selection of personnel reduces personnel problems in the organization. Many problems like labour turnover, absenteeism and monotony shall not be experienced in their severity in the organization. Labour relation will be better because workers will be fully satisfied by the work. Skilled workers help the management to expand the business and to earn more profits and in turn management compensates, the workers with high wages, benefits etc.SELECTION PROCEDURESelection procedure employs several methods of collecting information about thecandidate’s qualification, experience, physical and mental ability, nature andbehaviour, knowledge, aptitude and the like for judging whether a given applicant isor is not suitable for the job. Therefore, the selection procedure is not a single act but
  41. 41. is essentially a series of methods or stages by which different types of information canbe secured through various selection techniques. At each step, facts may come to lightwhich are useful for comparison with the job requirement and employeespecifications.Selection procedure is lengthy and time consuming particularly in the case ofsupervisory post.Following are the steps/ procedures of selection: 1) Job Analysis: - Job analysis is the basis for selecting the right candidate. Every organization should finalize the job analysis, job description, job specification and employee specification before proceeding to the next step of selection. 2) Application Form: - Application Form is also known as application blank. The technique of application blank is traditional and widely accepted for securing information from the prospective candidates. Where application forms are use, the data become a part of the employee’s record. The information is generally required on the following items in the application forms: Personal background information, Educational information, Work experiences, salary, personal details, expected salary and allowances etc. 3) Preliminary Interview: - Preliminary or initial interview is often held in case of “at the gate” candidate. This interview usually of short duration and is aimed at obtaining certain basic information with a view to identifying the obvious misfits or unqualified. Thus preliminary interview is useful as a process of eliminating the undesirable and unsuitable candidate. If the candidate seems to possess the basic minimum requirements for efficient job performance, he is given an application form for being filled out by him. 4) Screening Application Form: - Information given in the application form is used for selection purposes. The applicant who seems to be not fit for the job on the basis of information given in the application blank is rejected out rightly at this stage. The applicants who have not furnished the required information may also be rejected. Applications will not be accepted after the
  42. 42. close date. After the close date of the recruitment, the Job Expert for the hiring department and Human Resources will screen the application forms for minimum education and qualification requirements. A recruitment date may be extended if there are no qualified candidates. Recruitments can also be open until the position is filled; in this situation, applicants are reviewed and interviewed on a regular basis until an eligible candidate can be selected and appointed to the available position.5) Written test:- The organization have to conduct written examination for the qualified candidates after they are screened on the basis of the application blanks so as to measure the candidate’s ability in arithmetical calculations, to know the candidate’s attitude towards job, to measure the candidates aptitude, reasoning, knowledge in various disciplines, general knowledge and English language. Intelligence test measures the individuals capacity or reasoning, verbal comprehension, numbers, vocabulary, word fluency etc. aptitude test measures individuals capacity or talent ability to learn a job if he is given adequate training.6) Final interviewing: - Final interview is usually followed by testing. This is the most essential step in the process of selection. In this step the interviewer matches the information obtained about the candidate through various means to the job requirements and to the information obtained through his own observation during the interview. The basic objective of the interview is to measure the applicant against the specific requirements of the job. Interview must be conducted in a friendly atmosphere and the candidate must be made to feel at ease. The interviewer should not ask unwarranted questions which make the candidate nervous. It being the two way communication, the interviewee should also be given a chance to ask questions if he so likes, about the job and the organization.7) Reference Checks: - After completion of the final interview, the personnel department will engage in checking references. Candidates are required to give the name of reference in their application forms. These references may be from the individuals who are familiar with the candidate’s academic
  43. 43. achievement or from the applicant’s previous employer, who is well versed with the applicant’s job performance, and sometime from co-workers. If reference is checked in the correct manner, a great deal can be learned about a person that an interview or tests cannot elicit. A good reference check used sincerely fetches useful and reliable information to the organization.8) Physical Examination: - The candidates who have crossed the above hurdles are required to go for the medical examination. This is very important because of a person of poor health cannot work competently and the investment in him may go waste. Thus, a thorough medical examination is essential.9) Selection: - If a candidate successfully overcomes all the obstacles or tests given he would be declared selected. A appointment letter will be given to him mentioning the terms of employment, pay scales, post on which selected etc.
  44. 44. MEANING AND DEFINITION OF PLACEMENT
  45. 45. Placement means offering of the job to the finally selected candidate. One theemployee is selected he should be placed on a suitable job. According to Pigorsand Myres, placement may be defined as “the determination of the job to which anaccepted candidate is to be assigned, and his assignment to that job. It is matchingof what the supervisor has reason to think he can dos with the job demands(jobrequirements); it is matching of what he imposes(in strain, working condition) andwhat offers is the form of pay roll, companionship with other promotionalpossibilities etc.” A proper placement reduced the employee turnover,absenteeism and accident rate and improves the morale. Placement is not an easyprocess. It is very difficult for a new employee who is quite unknown to the joband environment. For this reason, the employee is generally put on a probationperiod ranging from one year to two years. At the end of the probation period, ifthe employee show a good performance, he is confirmed as a regular employee ofthe organization. Thus, the probation period or trial period is a transition period atthe end of which management has to take decision whether the employee shouldbe made regular or discharged from the job.PRINCIPLE OF PLACEMENTFollowing principles are followed at the time of placement of an employee:1) The man should be placed on the job according to requirements of the job. The job should not be adjusted according to the qualifications or requirements of the man. “Job first, man next” should be the principle of placement.2) The job should be offered to the man according to his qualifications. Neither higher, nor lower job should be offered to the new employee.3) The employee should be made conversant with the conditions prevailing in the industry and all things relating to the job. He should also be made aware of the penalties if he commits a wrong.4) While introducing the job to the new employee, an effort should be mad to develop a sense of loyalty and cooperation in him so that he may realize his responsibilities better towards the job and the organization.
  46. 46. CAREER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENTINTRODUCTION:- The term career planning is frequently used in relation young boys and girlsstudying at the college level. College students are expected to consider their qualities(physical and mental), psychological make-up, likes and dislikes, inclinations, etc.and decide what they want to be in their life. In other words, they should decide whatthey want to achieve in their life and adjust their education and other activitiesaccordingly. This means they have to plan their career. In such career planning,parents, family members and college teachers offer helping hand and guide youngboys and girls in selecting the most suitable career. Lot of literature, psychologicaltests etc. are also available on career planning. Even lectures, workshops and TVprogrammes are arranged for guiding students on career selection (particularly afterthe declaration of HSC results). Career planning enables them to use theirabilities/qualities fully and make their life happy, prosperous and rich in quality. Atpresent, even experts are available to help youth in their career planning. IQ and othertests are also conducted for this purpose. The term career planning and development is used extensively in relation tobusiness organizations. It is argued that if the organizations want to get the best out oftheir employees, they must plan the career development programmes in theirorganization effectively. Such programmes offer benefits to employees and also to theorganizations. The employees will develop new skills will be available to theorganization. This type of career planning can be described as organizational careerplanning.MEANING OF CAREER (WHAT IS CAREER?):- A career is a sequence of positions/jobs held by a person during the course of hisworking life. According to Edwin B. Flippo “a career is a sequence of separate butrelated work activities that provide continuity, order and meaning to a person’s life”.Career of an employee represents various jobs performed by him during the course ofhis working life. This is described as career path. In the case of an ordinary worker,the career path includes the following job positions:
  47. 47. Unskilled worker – Semi-skilled worker – Skilled worker – Highly skilled worker – Assistant foreman – Foreman. Employees (of all categories) want to grow in their careers as this provides moresalary, higher status and opportunity to use knowledge, education and skillseffectively. An individual with potentials joins a firm not for job but for careerdevelopment. An organization has to provide better opportunities to its employees intheir career development and also use their efficient services for the benefit of theorganization.MEANING OF CAREER PLANNING (WHAT IS CAREERPLANNING?):- Career planning is one important aspect of human resource planning anddevelopment. Every individual who joins an organization desires to make a goodcareer for himself within the organization. He joins the organization with a desire tohave a bright career in terms of status, compensation payment and future promotions.From the point of view of an organization, career planning and development havebecome crucial in management process. An organization has to providefacilities/opportunities for the career development of individual employees. If the organizations want to get the best out of their employees, they must planregularly the career development programmes in their organizations. In brief, careerplanning refers to the formal programmes that organizations implement to increasethe effectiveness and efficiency of the human resources available. Career planningand development is the responsibility of the HR department of the organization. Asalready noted, every person joining an organization has a desire to make career as perhis potentiality, ability, skills and so on.NEED/PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES OF CAREER PLANNING:- 1) To map out careers of employees as per their ability and willingness and to train and develop them for higher positions. 2) To attract and retain the right type of persons in the organization.
  48. 48. 3) To utilize available managerial talent within the organization fully. 4) To achieve higher productivity and organizational development. 5) To provide guidance and assistance to employees to develop their potentials to the highest level. 6) To improve employee morale and motivation by providing training and opportunities for promotion.SCOPE OF ORGANISATIONAL CAREER PLANNING:- The following activities/areas are covered within the scope of organizational careerplanning: a) HUMAN RESOURCE FORECASTING AND PLANNING:- Here, efforts will be made to identify the number of employees required in future. In addition, the selection procedure will be adjusted with the overall strategic goals of the organization. b) CAREER INFORMATION:- Here, information relating to career opportunities (promotions, training for self development, etc) will be supplied to employees. Supplying career information/opportunities has special significance as this motivates employees to grow and reach to higher position. c) CAREER COUNSELLING:- Such counselling is next to supplying career information. Career counselling is possible by senior executives through periodic discussions with their subordinates. Such career guidance encourages subordinate employees to take interest in certain areas where suitable opportunities of career development are available. It is a type of internal guidance and motivation of employees for the selection of possible career paths. Such counselling is needed when employees have to plan their own careers and develop themselves for career progress. d) CAREER PATHING:- Management now plans job sequences for transfers and promotions of their employees. This makes transfers and promotions systematically with advance information to employees. Career pathing creates suitable mental make up of employees for self development. e) SKILL ASSESSMENT TRAINING:-
  49. 49. Training is essential for career planning and also for manpower development. Along with job analysis, organizational and job manpower requirement analysis should be undertaken by the management. This prepares proper background for the introduction of career planning programmes for employees.ADVANTAGES OF CAREER PLANNING:- A properly designed system of career planning can provide the following benefits: i. Career planning helps an employee to know the career opportunities available in an organization. ii. Career planning encourages him to avail of the training and development facilities in the organization so as to improve his ability to handle new and higher assignments.iii. Career planning involves a survey of employee abilities and attitudes. It becomes possible, therefore to group together people talking on a similar wavelength and place them under supervisors who are responsive to that wavelength.iv. Career planning anticipates the future vacancies that may arise due to retirement, resignation, death, etc. at managerial level. Therefore, it provides a fairly reliable guide for manpower forecasting. v. Career planning facilitates expansion and growth of the enterprise. The employees required to fill job vacancies in future can be identified and developed in time.DISADVANTAGES/LIMITATIONS OF CAREER PLANNING:- The main problems in career planning are as follows: i. Career planning can become a reality when opportunities for vertical ability are available. Therefore, it is not suitable for a very small organization. ii. In a developing country like India, environmental factors such as government policy, public sector development, growth of backward areas, etc. influence
  50. 50. business and industry. Therefore, career plans for a period exceeding a decade may not be effective. iii. Career planning is not an effective technique for a large number of employees who work on the shop floor, particularly for illiterate and unskilled workers. iv. In family business houses in India, members of the family expect to progress faster in their career than their professional colleagues. This upset the career planning process. v. Systematically career planning becomes difficult due to favouritism and nepotism in promotions, political intervention in appointments and reservations of seats for scheduled castes/tribes and backward classes.HOW TO INTRODUCE CAREER PLANNING PROGRAMME?(PROCESS OF CAREER PLANNING):- It is not easy to introduce career development programme at the level of anorganization. Moreover, such career development planning is a continuous activity.What is happening in most of the organizations is that this concepts is given only lipservice and theoretical importance. If the organization wants to get the best out oftheir employees, it must plan the career developments programmes continuously andeffectively in its organization.DETAILS OF THE STEP IN CAREER PLANNING:- 1) ANALYSIS OF PERSONEL SITUATION:- This is the first step which needs to be completed before the introduction of career planning programme. This relates to a time from which career planning is to be introduced. Here, the base line will be prepared to help the planners to make projections for the planning period and to help in the evaluation of plans. In order to analyze the present career situation, the following information will be required: i. Total number of employees – their age distribution, qualifications, positions, specializations, etc. ii. Structure – broad as well as detailed and the qualifications required for each grade. iii. Personnel need of the organization. (Category wise) iv. Span of control available within the organization.
  51. 51. v. Field staff at head office with necessary details, and vi. Facilitates available for training and development within and outside the organization. The information collected on these aspects serves as the base for the preparation ofcareer development plan for the future period. 1. ANALYSIS OF PESONNEL SITUATION 2. PROJECTION OF PERSONNEL SITUATION 3. IDENTIFYING CAREER NEEDS 4. SELECTION OF PRIORITIES 5. DEVELOPMENT OF CAREER PLANS 6. WRITE UP OF FORMULATED CAREER PLANS 7. MANAGERIAL PLANNING 8. IMPLEMENTATION 9. REVIEW AND EVALUATION 10. FUTURE NEEDS 2) PROJECTION OF PERSONNEL SITUATION:- In this second step, an attempt is being made to find out the situation likely to develop after the completion of career development plan. This can be done on the basis of assumption which can predict what is likely to happen at the close of the career development plan. 3) IDENTIFYING OF CAREER NEEDS:- In this third step of career development plan, efforts are made to find out precisely the career development needs of the future period. It is possible to
  52. 52. identify the scope and limitations of career development needs on the basis of the data collected (through personnel inventory of the organization, employee potentials, and appraisal of employees).4) SELECTION OF PRIORITIES:- It is rather difficult to meet all the needs of the employees and the organization for career development immediately i.e. through one career development plan. Naturally, there is a need to select the pressing and urgent problems of employees and organization. In addition, other factors such as technical, financial and administrative must be taken into consideration while finalizing the priorities.5) DEVELOPMENT OF CAREER PLAN:- This is the most important step in the whole process of career developing plan. Such plan must describe the following in concrete form/forms: a. What is to be attained/achieved? b. The extent to which it is to be attained, c. The employees involved, d. The department in which the proposed plan will operate; e. The length of time required the achieving the goals. In order to execute the career development plan, the organization should: a) Introduce systematic policies and programmes of staff training and career development for all categories of employees so as to enable them to: I. Improve their level of skill and knowledge; II. Gain wider experiences; and III. Assume higher responsibilities. b) Establish and effectively implement a system of study leave; c) Develop the experience of the employees by encouraging their rotation from one region to another; d) Take positive steps to encourage career development, such as: I. Providing within the organization; II. Giving priorities in the filling of vacancies in the following order for: 1. promotion within the organization; 2. Transfer within the organization; 3. Outside recruitment.
  53. 53. III. Removing artificial barriers to promotion; IV. Establishing a register of employees for promotion on merit-cum- seniority basis;6) WRITE-UP OF FORMULATED PLAN:- After deciding the priorities of career development plan, the next major step is to prepare a write up (brief report) of the career plan. This writ-up should contain all necessary details such as schedule (time sequence of plan), procedures and other details so that the evaluation of the plan will be easy and meaningful.7) MONITORING PLANNING i.e. MONITORING OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT PLAN:- Monitoring of the plan is essential for its effective execution. Expected results/benefits will be available only when the plan is implemented properly. Planned (expected) targets and targets actually achieved can be compared through suitable monitoring of the plan. The gap between the two (i.e. short falls) can be located quickly. In addition, suitable remedial measures can be taken to rectify the shortfalls.8) IMPLEMENTATION (OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT PLAN):- Implementation/execution of the plan is an integral aspect of planning process itself. For effective implementation, co-operation and co-ordination at all levels is necessary. The implementation needs proper monitoring so as to avoid possible shortfalls.9) REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF CAREER PLANS:- A plan needs periodical review. Such evaluation avoids mistakes, deficiencies, etc during the implementation stage. It is built-in device to measure the effectiveness of the plan. Actual benefits available will be known only through such review and evaluation. Such evaluation should be done by experts. It should be conducted systematically and also impartially.10)FUTURE NEEDS:- This is the last step/stage of the current career development plan and the first step/stage of the next plan. Here, on the basis of the achievements of the current plan, the career needs of the future period (of employees and also of the organization) are estimated. The new priorities are decided and the details of the new career development plan are prepared. Planning is a continuous
  54. 54. process/activity. This rule is applicable to career development plans of an organization.CAREER STAGES:- Education is thought of in terms of employment. People go for school and collegeeducation and prepare for their occupation. Very few people stick to the same jobthroughout their life. Most of them switch job either within the organization or insome other organization. Chances are they change jobs, depending on availableopportunity, several times before retirement. Where opportunity is restricted theycontinue with the same job. They go through the following stages: 1) EXPLORATION:- Almost all candidates who start working after college education start around mid-twenties. Many a time they are not sure about future prospects but take up a job in anticipation of rising higher up in the career graph later. From the point of view of organization, this stage is of no relevance because it happens prior to the employment. Some candidates who come from better economic background can wait and select a career of their choice under expert guidance from parents and well-wishers. 2) ESTABLISHMENT:- This career stage begins with the candidate getting the first job getting hold of the right job is not an easy task. Candidates are likely to commit mistakes and learn from their mistakes. Slowly and gradually they become responsible towards the job. Ambitious candidates will keep looking for more lucrative and challenging jobs elsewhere. This may either result in migration to another job or he will remain with the Same job because of lack of opportunity. 3) MID-CAREER STAGE:- This career stage represents fastest and gainful leap for competent employees who are commonly called “climbers”. There is continuous improvement in performance. On the other hand, employees who are unhappy and frustrated with the job, there is marked deterioration in their performance. In other to show their utility to the organization, employees must remain productive at this stage. “climbers” must go on improving their own performance. Authority, responsibility, rewards and incentives are highest at this stage.

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