Nuclear energy1


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Nuclear energy1

  1. 1. Nuclear energy is the energy stored in the nucleus of an atom and released through fission, fusion and radioactivity
  2. 2. There are two types of nuclear energy 1. Nuclear Fission 2. Nuclear Fusion
  3. 3. NUCLEAR FISSION When a particle of sufficient energy is shot on to a heavier nucleus the nucleus splits and releases energy. This reaction is called NUCLEAR FISSION
  4. 4. When Uranium 235 nucleus is bombarded with a neutron 0n1 + 92U235 
  5. 5. Fission of U235
  6. 6. When an Uranium nucleus undergoes fission, neutrons are released. These neutrons in turn split the surrounding uranium nuclei releasing neutrons in each reaction. This is called CHAIN REACTION
  8. 8. Controlled fission reaction
  9. 9. Example for nuclear fission ATOM BOMB
  10. 10. On Aug 6 1945 a Uranium bomb was dropped on the city of Hiroshima killing 1.5 lakhs of people. Here is the picture of that bomb. Length: Approx. 3 meters (120 inches) Weight: Approx. 4 tons (9,000 lbs)  Diameter: Approx. 0.7 meters (28 inches) Element: Uranium 235
  11. 11. Another bomb was dropped at Nagasaki on Aug 9 killing thousands of people. Here is the picture of that bomb. Length: Approx. 3.2 meters (128 inches) Weight: Approx. 4.5 tons (10,000 pounds) Diameter: Approx. 1.5 meters (60 inches) Element: Plutonium 239
  12. 12. A device that is used to produce nuclear energy by controlled fission reaction is called nuclear reactors
  13. 13. There two types of nuclear reactors • Pressurized Water Reactor • Boiling Water Reactor
  14. 14. Pressurized Water Reactor
  15. 15. Boiling Water Reactor
  16. 16. In India Pressurized Water Reactors are used. Mentioned below are some reactors present in India
  17. 17. First nuclear reactor in Asia – Apsara
  18. 18. Tarapur India’s First nuclear Power Station
  19. 19. Rawatbhata India’s first commercial nuclear reactor
  20. 20. Kalpakkam Mini Reactor
  21. 21. Narora Atomic Power Station
  22. 22. Advanced Heavy Water Reactor
  23. 23. Parts Common to all reactors • REACTOR CORE – Part of the reactor where fuel is kept • FUELS – Commonly used fuels are Uranium (233,235), Plutonium(239) • SOURCE OF NEUTRONS – Mixture of polonium and beryllium powder
  24. 24. • MODERATORS – Materials used to slow down neutrons e.g. – Heavy Water (D2O), Graphite • CONTROL RODS – Used to control the no: of neutrons in the reactors e.g. – Boron, Cadmium
  25. 25. • SHIELD TO PROTECT RADIATION – protect living organism from harmful rays like gamma, some shields made of thick lead and concrete are used around the core and the reactor
  26. 26. • COOLANTS – To reduce the heat generated as part of reaction, some fluids like high pressure water liquids, metals and gases take heat out of the core
  27. 27. NUCLEAR FUSION The process of merging two or more light nuclei to form a heavier nucleus is called NUCLEAR FUSION
  28. 28. Deuterium is a hydrogen isotope with mass number 2.At very high temperature Deuterium nuclei with high kinetic energy fuse to form Helium nucleus
  29. 29. Example for nuclear fusion Energy liberated from sun, stars etc Figures are given below
  30. 30. Galaxy
  31. 31. Energy Liberated from Sun