Nuclear energy1
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Nuclear energy1 Nuclear energy1 Presentation Transcript

  • Nuclear energy is the energy stored in the nucleus of an atom and released through fission, fusion and radioactivity
  • There are two types of nuclear energy 1. Nuclear Fission 2. Nuclear Fusion
  • NUCLEAR FISSION When a particle of sufficient energy is shot on to a heavier nucleus the nucleus splits and releases energy. This reaction is called NUCLEAR FISSION
  • When Uranium 235 nucleus is bombarded with a neutron 0n1 + 92U235 
  • Fission of U235
  • When an Uranium nucleus undergoes fission, neutrons are released. These neutrons in turn split the surrounding uranium nuclei releasing neutrons in each reaction. This is called CHAIN REACTION
  • CHAIN REACTION
  • Controlled fission reaction
  • Example for nuclear fission ATOM BOMB
  • On Aug 6 1945 a Uranium bomb was dropped on the city of Hiroshima killing 1.5 lakhs of people. Here is the picture of that bomb. Length: Approx. 3 meters (120 inches) Weight: Approx. 4 tons (9,000 lbs)  Diameter: Approx. 0.7 meters (28 inches) Element: Uranium 235
  • Another bomb was dropped at Nagasaki on Aug 9 killing thousands of people. Here is the picture of that bomb. Length: Approx. 3.2 meters (128 inches) Weight: Approx. 4.5 tons (10,000 pounds) Diameter: Approx. 1.5 meters (60 inches) Element: Plutonium 239
  • A device that is used to produce nuclear energy by controlled fission reaction is called nuclear reactors
  • There two types of nuclear reactors • Pressurized Water Reactor • Boiling Water Reactor
  • Pressurized Water Reactor
  • Boiling Water Reactor
  • In India Pressurized Water Reactors are used. Mentioned below are some reactors present in India
  • First nuclear reactor in Asia – Apsara
  • Tarapur India’s First nuclear Power Station
  • Rawatbhata India’s first commercial nuclear reactor
  • Kalpakkam Mini Reactor
  • Narora Atomic Power Station
  • Advanced Heavy Water Reactor
  • Parts Common to all reactors • REACTOR CORE – Part of the reactor where fuel is kept • FUELS – Commonly used fuels are Uranium (233,235), Plutonium(239) • SOURCE OF NEUTRONS – Mixture of polonium and beryllium powder
  • • MODERATORS – Materials used to slow down neutrons e.g. – Heavy Water (D2O), Graphite • CONTROL RODS – Used to control the no: of neutrons in the reactors e.g. – Boron, Cadmium
  • • SHIELD TO PROTECT RADIATION – protect living organism from harmful rays like gamma, some shields made of thick lead and concrete are used around the core and the reactor
  • • COOLANTS – To reduce the heat generated as part of reaction, some fluids like high pressure water liquids, metals and gases take heat out of the core
  • NUCLEAR FUSION The process of merging two or more light nuclei to form a heavier nucleus is called NUCLEAR FUSION
  • Deuterium is a hydrogen isotope with mass number 2.At very high temperature Deuterium nuclei with high kinetic energy fuse to form Helium nucleus
  • Example for nuclear fusion Energy liberated from sun, stars etc Figures are given below
  • Galaxy
  • Energy Liberated from Sun