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Knitting technology
 

Knitting technology

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    Knitting technology Knitting technology Presentation Transcript

    • WARP AND WEFT KNITTING By Sunil Talekar, Student handout-SOFT -Pun BASIC KNITTING
    • WEAVING-WARPING PROCESS •Warping- A process of transfer the warp yarn from the single yarn packages to an even sheet of yarn representing hundreds of ends and then wound onto a warp beam.
    • WEAVING-SIZING PROCESS •Sizing/slashing- A process to give the strength to the yarn make it smoother and lubricate it (no effect on subsequent process or resulting fabric), also reduce the abrasion by give it through the section of the slasher.
    • WEAVING-DRAW IN PROCESS Draw-in- A process of draw every warp yarns through its dropper, headle eyes and reed dent. [3]
    • WEAVING-TIE IN PROCESS •Tie-in- A process of tying each of a new beam to its corresponding end of the old beam when mass producing the same fabric.
    • KNITTING What is Knitting? Knitting is a method by which thread or yarn may be turned into cloth or other fine crafts. Knitted fabric consists of consecutive loops, called stitches. As each row progresses, a new loop is pulled through an existing loop. The active stitches are held on a needle until another loop can be passed through them. This process eventually results in a final product, often a garment. No of threads required for knitting?
    • KNIT VS WOVEN KNIT FABRIC W OVEN FABR IC INTERLOOPING YARNS TO CREATE FABRIC CHEAPER TO PRODUCE INTERLACING YARNS TO CREATE FABRIC EXPENSIVE TO PRODUCE REQUIRE HIGHER QUALITY YARNS CAN USE ANY YARN YARNS MUST BE UNIFORM SO THAT THIN SPOTS DON’T FORM ON THE FABRIC KNIT FABRIC IS LESS OPAQUE CAN NOT FORM THIN MARKS HIGH OPAQUE ALLOWS FOR STRETCH + RECOVERY AS LESS STRETCH BODY MOVES REQUIRES THICKER AND/OR HEAVIER YARN TO PROVIDE EQUAL COVER TO THAT OF A WOVEN EVEN NORMAL THICKNESS YARN CAN WRINKLE RECOVERY SUPERIOR NEED TO TREAT FOR WRINKLE FREE GIVE HIGHER FABRIC COVER
    • KNIT VS WOVEN FABRIC W OVEN FABRIC LENGTHWISE STITCHES ARE CALLED LENGTHWISE STITCHES ARE CALLED “RIBS” AND THE CROSSWISE STITCHES “GRAIN” AND THE CROSSWISE ARE CALLED “COURSE” OR “CROSSGRAIN” STITCHES ARE CALLED THE MOST STRETCH IS EITHER IN THE CROSSGRAIN OR THE BIAS GENERALLY HAVE MORE STRETCH AND “CROSSGRAIN” THE MOST STRETCH IS ALWAYS ON THE BIAS ( DIAGONAL STRETCH) REQUIRE EASE WHEN SEWING NATURAL GIVE MOLD AND FIT THE CONTOURS OF THE LOOK GOOD WITH PLEATS AND BODY BETTER SHARP CORNERS
    • KNIT VS WOVEN FABRIC W OVEN FABRIC EDGES CURL AND SOME KNITS RUN EDGES ARE PRONE TO RAVEL (THINK NYLON PANTY HOSE) NO SEAM FINISH IS REQUIRED, REQUIRES SEAM FINISHING, LIKE ALTHOUGH OPTIONAL SERGING, TO PREVENT RAVEL REQUIRES STRETCH STICHES, LIKE ZIG EASIEST TO SEW ON AND FEED ZAGS THROUGH A SEWING MACHINE
    • TYPES OF KNITTING Types of basic Knits WEFT KNITTING WARP KNITTING
    • WEFT KNITTING JERSEY KNITS •Also called single knits •Economical to produce •Knit stitches on front/ Purl stitches on back RIB KNITS •Knit and purl wales alternate across width PURL KNIT •Alternate courses of knit and purl stitches on both sides of the fabric
    • TYPES OF KNITTING FLAT KNITTING •Polo t shirt collar and cuff •Sweaters •Scarves WRAP KNITTING •Lingerie •Home furnishing •Net fabric garments and related items
    • TYPES OF KNITTING
    • FLAT BED KNITTING Flat bed machine can manufacture, •Woolen fabric •Full cardigan •Half cardigan •Milano •Half Milano •Rib structure
    • CIRCULAR KNITTING Circular knitting machine can manufacture, •T shirt jersey fabric •Pique fabric •Rib •Interlock •Socks •Lycra blend fabric
    • KNITTING TERMINOLOGY STITCH The loop of yarn formed by the knitting process Knit GAGE OR GAUGE the density of knitting machine needles, and the number of knitting needles per inch (approx. 2.54cm). The smaller the figure, the coarser the stitch, and vice versa
    • KNITTING TERMINOLOGY COURSES A series of successive loops laying crosswise in the Fabric FACE/BACK Just like a woven fabric, there is a face and a back to the knitted fabric CUT The fineness of weft knits made on a circular knitting Machine The higher the gauge or cut number, the finer the fabric
    • KNITTED LOOP STRUCTURE The knitted loop structure These are termed ‘courses’ and ‘wales’ respectively. A COURSE A course is a predominantly horizontal row of needle loops (in an upright fabric as knitted) produced by adjacent needles during the same knitting cycle
    • KNITTED LOOP STRUCTURE The knitted loop structure A WALE A wale is a predominantly vertical column of intermeshed needle loops generally produced by the same needle knitting at successive (not necessarily all) knitting cycles.
    • SINGLE JERSEY OR PLAIN FABRIC • Single jersey is the simplest to knit and it can be produced either on circular or flat machines by means of one set of needles which draw their loops to only one side of the fabric. • The fabric has one appearance on the face side and a different one on the reverse. The side on which the straight parts of the stitches appear in V formation is called the face side ( Technical Face) and the reverse side ( Technical Back ) has twin rows of opposed semi circles.
    • PROPERTIES OF SINGLE JERSEY • • • • • • • • Simplest knit structure. Face side smooth and sheen. Back side rough and dull. Lighter fabric. Economical. Easily ravels at both the ends. Highly extensible in length and width. The fabric curls towards the face at the top and bottom and towards the back at the sides. • Laddering is very common in these fabrics. • Knitted loops in plain knit fabrics tend to distort easily under tension which helps to give a form fitting and comfort due to property of elastic.
    • USE OF SINGLE JERSEY End Uses of Jersey Knits; •Sheets •Sweaters •T- s h i r t s •Men’s underwear •Dresses •Hosiery
    • VARIATIONS OF SINGLE JERSEY Jersey Knit Variations Fleece Intarsia Jacquard knits Knitted terry Knitted velour Lisle Plaited knits Silver-pile knits
    • RIB FABRIC • A fabric in which both back and face loops occur along the course, but all the loops contained with in any wale are of the same types • A rib structure implies a knitted fabric with face and back loops occurring in the same courses but not in the same wale • Rib fabric can be produced on V – bed machine and footwear machine.
    • PROPERTIES OF RIB FABRIC • • • • • • • • Rib is produced by two sets of needles being alternately set orated between each other. The simplest rib in (1 * 1) rib It is now normally knitted with two sets of latch needles and known as double jersey fabric. Rib has a vertical cord appearance Relaxed 1 x 1 rib is twice as thick and half the width of an equivalent plain fabric. 1 x 1 rib normally relaxes by 30% compound with its knitting width. Rib cannot be unroved from the end knitted first because the sinker loops are securely anchored by the cross meshing between face and reverse loop. It is used for loops for socks, cuffs of sleeves, rib bordery for
    • USE OF RIB FABRIC End Uses of Rib Knits Collars Necklines Cuffs Bottom edges of sweaters Knit hats Men’s hosiery
    • USE OF RIB FABRIC Double knits Sometimes called double jerseys Thicker than jersey knits Two-way stretch Very stable – will not ladder Apparel and Upholstery used
    • INTERLOCK FABRIC • This 2-sided fabric has slightly noticeable ribs and 2-way mechanical stretch. • It can be 100% polyester or 100% cotton, but is often a blend of the two. • More cotton content will make it feel heavier. Pilling in knits depends on the length of the fibers used, not on the Polyester content
    • PROPERTIES OF INTERLOCK FABRIC • Both sides of the fabric have an appearance like face side of the single jersey fabric. • The structure do nor curl at edges when laid flat on surface • Horizontal and vertical stripes can be produced by using coloured yarns • The fabric ravels only from the end knitted last • The rate of production is low. • Interlock the technical face of plain on both sides so the appearance of face and back are same. • The Wales of each side re exactly apposite to each other and are locked together. • Widthwise and length elongations are approximately the same as single jersey . • The fabric can be unraveled from the knitted last. • Fabric thickness is approximately twice than that of single jersey .
    • USE OF INTERLOCK FABRIC Double knits Sweat shirts Table mat
    • PURL FABRIC
    • PROPERTIES OF PURL • Both sides of the fabric are similar in appearance to the reverse side of the single jersey fabric • Ravels from both ends • Twice the thickness of the plain jersey • Rate of production is low • Almost equal extensibility in length and width • Most suitable for children’s garments, blankets shawls and scarf etc. • Purl is reversible structure the both side appearance are same. • Extensibility is same as all direction. • There is no curling tendency.(it does not curl at the edges. • The fabric will run in the wale direction starting from either end. • The fabric tends to be two or three times thicker than single jersey. • There are two types of purl needle bed machine: flat bed purl and circular purls.
    • USE OF PURL FABRIC End Uses for Purl Knits Infant and children’s wear Sweaters Scarves
    • WARP KNITTING Warp Knits •Second major category of knit fabrics •Characterized by vertical loops •More resistant to laddering than weft knits •Usually done on flat knitting machine •Two main types of warp knitting machine (name = machine and fabric name) * Tr i c o t * Raschel
    • WARP KNITTING Characteristics of Tricot Knits Good elasticity Best of warp knits Inexpensive and quick to produce Curls along crosswise edge Good air and water permeability Soft Crease resistant Good drapeability
    • WARP KNITTING End Uses for Tricot Knits Lingerie Nightwear Blouses Dresses Used as a backing fabric in multicomponent structures Limited interior uses because of high elongation
    • WARP KNITTING Tricot Knit Variations Brushed tricot Satin tricot Tricot-net fabrics Tricot upholstery Tulle
    • WARP KNITTING Raschel Knits Similar to Tricot Knits Greater diversity in design Differences between Raschel and Tricot Knits Raschel has: More texture Open spaces Made from heavier yarns
    • WARP KNITTING Variations and End Uses of Raschel Knits Warp knitted Fine laces and nets Heavy carpets Thermal underwear with a waffle effect Power-net fabrics for swimsuits and foundations Heavy blankets May resemble hand crocheted fabrics
    • Source, Stoll, Shima seiki, Mayer and Cie