Sewing needle

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Sewing needle

  1. 1. NEEDLE © Student Handouts, By, Sunil Talekar, Faculty, SOFT-Pune
  2. 2. Contents 1. The basic functions of a needle 2. Needle Parts: Physical characteristics 3. Needle Identification 4. Round Point Needles 5. Needle Size / Thickness 6. Comparison of Equivalent Needle Sizes 7. Common Problems and Solutions 8. Needle Checklist 9. Checking a Needle that is already in a Machine
  3. 3. SEWING MACHINE NEEDLE Functions of the needle • To produce hole in the material • To carry the needle thread through the material and there form a loop • To pass the needle thread through the loop
  4. 4. SEWING MACHINE NEEDLE PARTS
  5. 5. PARTS OF THE NEEDLE • • • • • • • • • BUTT SHANK SHOULDER LONG GROOVE SHORT GROOVE EYE NEEDLE POINT SCARF BLADE
  6. 6. SEWING NEEDLE PARTS BUTT • The end of the needle • The butt determine the length of the needle when it is fully inserted into the needle bar of the sewing machine. SHANK • upper part of the needle • may be cylindrical or have a flat side. • larger in diameter than the rest of the needle for reason of strength SHOULDER • Intermediate between shank and the blade • It is also called shaft
  7. 7. SEWING NEEDLE PARTS BLADE • Below the shoulder of the blade to the eye of the needle • Longest part of the needle. • Accommodates the groove, the eye and the scarf. • The blade reduces the fabric resistance as the needle point and its eye passes through the fabric • Greatest amount of the friction .
  8. 8. SEWING NEEDLE PARTS LONG GROVE • Slit above needle eye, should be large enough to "cradle" thread for smooth stitches. • Provides a protective channel in which the thread is drawn through. • A Correctly shaped long groove of a depth matched to the thread diameter, offers considerable protection to the thread. SHORT GROOVE • It extends a little above and below the eye • Its function is to assist in the formation of the loop in the needle thread.
  9. 9. SEWING NEEDLE PARTS SCARF • Concave section above the eye of the needle • Indentation at back of needle. • A long scarf helps eliminate skipped stitches by allowing bobbin hook to loop thread more easily.
  10. 10. SEWING NEEDLE PARTS EYE • • • • Hole in end of needle through which thread passes. The hole through which the thread pass Eye is located below the scarf Needle size and type determine size and shape of eye. Point: minimizes the damage of the fabric
  11. 11. SEWING NEEDLE AND THREAD IF THE NEEDLE IS TOO SMALL FOR THE THREAD • Thread will not pass freely through the eye • Thread will not fit properly into the long groove. • Thread will suffer from excessive abrasion. • Can lead to costly thread breakages in production. IF THE NEEDLE IS TOO LARGE FOR THE THREAD • There will be poor control of the loop formation which may cause slip stitches. • It will create holes in the fabric which are too big for the stitches and give an unattractive seam appearance. • Tends to give rise to damaged fabric along the stitch line, and in closely woven fabrics, pucker along the seam line due to fabric distortion.
  12. 12. NEEDLE POINTS Most machine needles will look similar but they will differ in their tips: Set/Spear point - These are used for most woven fabrics. Ball point - These have a rounded tip and are used for knitted fabrics. The rounded end allows the needle to separate the yarns without cutting them, which reduces the chance of the fabric laddering. Wedge point - These are designed to cut a hole as they penetrate the fabric. They are used for machining leather and plastic materials.
  13. 13. SPEAR NEEDLE POINT SLIM SET POINT SET POINT HEAVY SET POINT
  14. 14. BALL NEEDLE POINT LIGHT BALL POINT MEDIUM BALL POINT HEAVY BALL POINT
  15. 15. CLOTH POINT NEEDLE BALL POINT NEEDLE
  16. 16. NEEDLE POINT EFFECT OF DIFFERENT NEEDLE POINTS
  17. 17. NEEDLE POINT Slim Set Point also referred to as acute round point (SPI) * This point is used for dense woven fabrics as it causes less damage, helps set a straighter stitch and minimizes seam pucker. * Commonly used for microfibre and densely woven fabrics, coated materials, topstitching of collars and cuffs in shirts.
  18. 18. NEEDLE POINT Set Cloth Point also referred to as normal round point (R) This point is used for normal fabrics with standard seams as it pushes the yarn to the side.
  19. 19. NEEDLE POINT Light Ball Point (SES) This point is used for sewing lightweight knitted fabric. It is sometimes used for fine denim and light, densely woven material to avoid damaging the material.
  20. 20. NEEDLE POINT Medium Ball Point (SUK) This point is used for sewing medium weight knitted fabric. It is also used for medium to coarse denims, particularly sand-washed and stonewashed grades
  21. 21. NEEDLE POINT Heavy Ball Point (SKF) This point is used for coarse knitwear and for sewing dense woven elastic (it won’t push the elastic yarn through).
  22. 22. NEEDLE POINT Special ball point (SKL) Used for medium to course elastic materials with covered elastomeric threads and very coarse knitwear.
  23. 23. NEEDLE POINT
  24. 24. NEEDLE POINT CUTTING POINTS OVERVIEW
  25. 25. NEEDLE POINT Cutting Point Needles • Cutting point needles have sharp tips like blades. • These tips are available with a wide variety of crosssectional shapes such as lens, rounded, triangular and square. • They can be used while sewing dense, non-fabric based material. • They pierce the material more readily than the round point types thereby generating less needle heat. • There are a large number of cutting points of which around 11 are in regular use.
  26. 26. NEEDLE POINT CUTTING POINTS SPEAR
  27. 27. NEEDLE POINT CUTTING POINTS WEDGES
  28. 28. NEEDLE SIZE / THICKNESS The size of a needle is generally represented in one of two ways (although there are others). One method is by a number metric (Nm). This represents the diameter of the needle blade in hundredths of a millimetre measured just above the scarf but not at any reinforced part of the blade.
  29. 29. NEEDLE SIZE / THICKNESS For example, a Nm 110 needle is 1.1 millimetre in diameter, while a Nm 50 needle is half a millimetre in diameter. The thickness of the blade on the right is 1.1mm wide which is shown in Nm as 110. The alternative standard needle sizing method is the Singer/Asia numbering system sometimes referred to as the American system that uses a number that represents a size.
  30. 30. DETERMINING THE RIGHT NEEDLE FOR A THREAD Here’s a quick way to determine if the thread and the sewing machine needle are compatible: 1. Take half a metre of the thread being used on the machine and thread it through the eye of a loose needle. 2. Hold the thread vertically with the needle at the top. If the needle is too big, it will drop to the bottom of the thread If the needle is too small, it will stick at the top of the thread If the needle is the right size, it will slowly spiral to the bottom of the thread
  31. 31. NEEDLE CHECKLIST INSERTING A NEW NEEDLE • Always ensure the needle is the correct needle system for the sewing machine • Make sure the needle size / eye fits the thread size being used • Make sure the needle is pushed all the way into the needle holder • Ensure that the angle of the needle is correct • After inserting a needle in the machine turn the machine hand wheel manually to make sure the needle isn't contacting any parts
  32. 32. CHECKING A NEEDLE THAT IS ALREADY IN A MACHINE • Is the needle inserted correctly? • Is the needle contacting any machine parts? • Is the needle bent? • Is the eye rough or blocked with melted fibre? • Is the point damaged? • When in doubt change the needle!
  33. 33. UNIVERSAL NEEDLE Uses: Safest needle choice for most fabrics. Configuration: Has slightly rounded point and elongated scarf to enable almost foolproof meeting of needle and bobbin hook. Troubleshooting: When fabric is not medium-weight woven, consider needle specifically suited to fabric. For example, size 18 universal needle works on heavy denim, but size 18 jeans needle works better.
  34. 34. BALLPOINT & STRETCH NEEDLES Uses: Ballpoint needle for heavier, looser sweater knits; stretch needle for highly elastic fabrics, like Spandex, or Lycra. Configuration: Both have rounded points that penetrate between fabric threads rather than pierce them. (Stretch-needle point is slightly less rounded than ballpoint.) Troubleshooting: Test-stitch knits with ballpoint, stretch, and universal needles to see which doesn't cut yarn and yields best results. If ballpoint skips stitches, try stretch needle.
  35. 35. MICROTEX & SHARP NEEDLES Uses: Sewing microfiber, silk, synthetic leather; precisely stitching edges; and heirloom sewing. Configuration: Has an acute point. Troubleshooting: Essentially trouble-free, but fabric may require a Teflon, roller, or even/dual-feed presser foot.
  36. 36. LEATHER NEEDLE Uses: Excellent for sewing natural leather. Configuration: Has slight cutting point (almost like an arrowhead). Troubleshooting: On synthetic leather, unless it's very heavy synthetic, cuts rather than pierces stitch hole and can tear leather. Most synthetic leathers require Microtex or sharp needle.
  37. 37. DENIM (JEANS) NEEDLE Uses: For heavyweight denim, duck, canvas, upholstery fabrics, artificial leather, and vinyl. Configuration: Has deeper scarf, acute point, and modified shaft to sew without pushing fabric down into needle-plate hole. Goes through fabric and meets bobbin hook better on dense woven fabrics. Troubleshooting: If stitches skip when sewing very heavy fabrics, try larger needle and sew more slowly or walk needle through fabric (by turning hand crank).
  38. 38. HANDICAP/SELF THREADING NEEDLE Uses: Enables easier threading for sewers with vision problems. Configuration: Universal needle with slip-in threading slot at the eye. Troubleshooting: Always pull sewn piece back away from needle before cutting thread so needle doesn't unthread. Needle works well on woven fabrics, but may occasionally snag knits, so test-sew to check for fabric and needle compatibility.
  39. 39. HEMSTITCH (WING) NEEDLE Uses: Hemstitching or heirloom embroidery on linen and batiste. Configuration: Has fins on sides of shank to create holes as you sew. Troubleshooting: Stitch is more effective when needle returns to same needle hole more than once.
  40. 40. TWIN (DOUBLE) NEEDLE Uses: Topstitching, pin tucking, and decorative stitching. Configuration: Two needles on single shaft produce two rows of stitches. Measurement between needles ranges from 1.6mm to 6mm, and needles come with universal, stretch, embroidery, denim, and Metallica points. Troubleshooting: Be sure throat plate allows for distance between needles
  41. 41. TRIPLE NEEDLE Uses: Same uses as for double needle. Configuration: Cross bar on single shaft connects three needles to sew three stitching rows. Comes with universal point in 2.5mm and 3mm widths. Troubleshooting: Same as for double needle.
  42. 42. SPRING NEEDLE Uses: Free-motion stitching with dropped feed dogs. Configuration: Has wire spring above point to prevent fabrics from riding up onto needle, eliminating need for presser foot. Troubleshooting: Before using, practice free-motion stitching with heavy regular needle, paper, and dropped feed dogs. Don't pull paper/fabric; instead gently guide it through stitching. Wear safety glasses for free-motion work, since needles often break.
  43. 43. Thanks

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