What is Push?
In push marketing, a company tries to push its products through the
distribution channel. It advertises to intermediaries, such as
wholesalers and retailers, who then try to generate demand from end
users. Sometimes, companies may push information and promotional
material directly to end users through email or fliers to generate
All private labels send mobile SMS for
any new offer and discount.
Push marketing reaches potential
A company could create an email
database of potential customers and
send them product announcements and
Supermarkets often employ push promotional tactics by giving away samples of new products.
What is Pull?
In pull marketing, the company tries to draw in customers through
different kinds of advertising, such as TV ads, online banner ads and
social media. Some companies use both push and pull marketing to
A more creative pull marketing strategy might be to
advertise in social media literary forums and build online
communities around authors.
Grocery stores often advertise leader items in the weekend
fliers to attract customers hoping that they would then
buy some of the higher-priced items.
A company could create an email database of potential
customers and send them product announcements and
Online banner ads, and radio and TV ads are other forms
of pull marketing.
Push marketing is so-named because suppliers effectively try to push
their products through the distribution channel by inducing their
buyers to purchase them for resale. Trade buyers generally want to
buy at a low price, add a markup and resell to their buyers to earn a
profit. When a manufacturer offers a wholesaler a sales promotion or
a volume discount, it enables the wholesaler to earn a higher profit
margin if it can resell effectively to retailers. Wholesalers can then
offer similar inducements to retailers to give them profit advantages.
Pull marketing is so-named because marketers try to stimulate
demand at the end customer level by promoting the benefits or value
of products to consumers. This includes brand building advertising as
well as consumer sales promotions that given consumers a better price
for the same benefits. The premise is that if end customers demand
products in the marketing place, all businesses in the distribution
channel benefit because of strong demand and likely higher price
Using Push and Pull
A company may use both push and pull
marketing to drive sales growth.
company, uses push marketing to create
awareness in a new or existing product, and
then targets banner ads to pull in customers
information on the product. 2.
2. A pizza restaurant may use newspaper ads
to pull in customers and fliers to push
information about its menus directly into
Push and pull marketing both rely on conveying benefits to customers.
What is pull marketing?
Pull marketing is where you develop advertising and promotional
strategies that are meant to entice the prospect to buy your product or
service. Some classic examples are "half off!" or "bring in this coupon to
save 25%" or "buy one get one free", etc.
With pull marketing, you are trying to create a sense of increased,
time limited value so that the customer will come into your store to
What is push marketing?
Push marketing is where you develop advertising and promotional
strategies geared toward your marketing and distribution channels to
entice them in promoting your product. As consumers, you rarely see this
type of marketing when it is directed to the distributors. It might include
wholesale discounts, kickbacks, bonuses, and other types of support. It's all
designed to have the retailer promote your product to the end users over a
When companies encourage happy customers to spread the word to their
friends and families, that's a type of push marketing. Or, when companies
make ads that are controversial, cheeky, or downright shocking, they
create a little buzz - that's another type of push marketing.
Advertising as Both Push and Pull
Retailers and manufacturers sometimes cooperate in joint
advertising campaigns, utilizing both push and pull strategies. A
manufacturer may push a new product, for example, along with a
retailer by both agreeing to pay for TV and print ads promoting the
new product as "available at Retailer X now."
Advertising can be viewed as both a push and a pull retailer
strategy. Ads attempt to pull the customer into the store, ideally
asking by name for the very products that appeared on TV or in
But the technique also pushes a manufacturer's products directly to
consumers. In addition, TV commercials that create buzz --- annual
Super Bowl ads are a good example --- often provide good word-ofmouth push advertising while simultaneously creating a pulladvertising effect on recipients of such second-hand renditions.
Retailers utilizing a push-pull strategy must divide their efforts and
money between promotions and end-user advertising, according to
Difference Between Promotional Push Strategies & Promotional Pull Strategies?
Push versus pull are two prominent marketing strategies used by companies to
market their products.
Pull marketing means marketing to end customers to create
demand, while push marketing means enticing trade buyers to
purchase and carry your product by offering promotions and price
inducements that give them better profit potential.
To understand the implications of push and pull marketing you need
familiarity with the distribution or trade channel. This is the systematic
process products typically go through as they flow from initial product
and development at the manufacturing level to final purchase at the
consumer level. Along the way, distributors traditionally buy products
from manufacturers and resell them to retailers. Retailers then hold
products in inventory and offer them for sale to the end customer.
1. A push strategy is
at the middlemen that are
the next link forward in
the producer’s distribution
2. a push strategy directs
communication efforts at
3. many products, such as
promoted with a push
personal selling and use of
1. A pull strategy has the
communication directed at
the end users — primarily
2. a pull strategy directs
promotion at the end
3. most consumer products
would rely more heavily
on a pull strategy where
promotion is directed at
the consumer to stimulate
Push and Pull Manufacturing
Push type" means make to Stock in which the production is not based
on actual demand. "Pull type" means make to Order in which the
production is based on actual demand. In supply chain management,
it is important to carry out processes halfway between push type and
pull type or by a combination of push type and pull type.
Pull type production or Make to order
MTO (Make to Order) is a manufacturing process in
which manufacturing starts only after a customer's order
is received. Forms of MTO vary, for example, an
assembly process starts when demand actually occurs or
manufacturing starts with development planning.
Manufacturing after receiving customer's orders means to
start a pull-type supply chain operation because
manufacturing is performed when demand is confirmed, i.e.
being pulled by demand. The opposite business model is to
manufacture products for stock MTS (Make to Stock), which
is push-type production. There are also BTO (Build to Order)
and ATO (Assemble To Order) in which assembly starts
according to demand.
Assembling after receiving a customer's orders is "ATO
(Assemble To Order)" and starting with development
designing is "ETO (Engineer To Order)". Construction by
general contractors and plant construction by engineering
companies are categorized as ETO.
Pull type production or Make to order
Pull-type production, such as MTO, BTO, ATO, and ETO, is a business model of the assembly
industry in which the quantity to produce per product specification is one or only a few.
For example, construction, plant construction, aircraft, vessels, bridges, and so on.
From the viewpoint of supply chain management, it has been proven that those who can satisfy
due dates promised with customers and can shorten lead times will have an competitive
advantage. Even if the production quantity increases, if push-type products that are manufactured
by MTS can be manufactured by pull-type production such as MTO and ATO models using SCM
software or information technology, then there will be greater business opportunities.
ATO (Assemble to Order) of computers by Dell Inc. and production of sports bicycle by National
Bicycle Industrial Co., Ltd. are examples of creating a new business model by matching the
diversification of products with ATO, BTO, ETO, and with new-style marketing.
National Bicycle Industrial Co., Ltd. says
"We can deliver a custom-made bicycle to you within two weeks."
Solectron Corporation says
"We can assemble the computer you requested and deliver it within a week."
These are examples of business models in which new supply chain models are created as
Make to Stock: In MTS (Make to Stock); products are manufactured
based on demand forecasts. Since accuracy of the forecasts will prevent
excess inventory and opportunity loss due to stock out, the issue here is
how to forecast demands accurately.
MTS (Make to Stock) literally means to manufacture products for stock
based on demand forecasts, which can be regarded as push-type
production. MTS has been required to prevent opportunity loss due to
stockout and minimize excess inventory using accurate forecasts. In the
industrialized society of mass production and mass marketing, this
forecast mass production urged standardization and efficient business
management such as cost reduction.