Understanding fashion includes knowing many specific fashion and
What is fashion??
The display of the currently popular style of clothing. A fashion is the
prevailing type of clothing that is favored by a large segment of the public at
any given time and influenced by Social, Political, Economical and Artistic
What is Style??
A particular design, shape or type of apparel item. The style of the garment is
determined by the distinct features that create its overall appearance.
What is difference between style and fashion??
Styles come and go. Fashion is always here in some form. Fashion reflects a
continuing process of change in the styles of apparel that are accepted
What is Apparel?
Any and all men‟s, women‟s, and children‟s wear
clothing is called as an „Apparel‟
What is Garment?
Any article of apparel, such as a dress, suit, coat,
evening gown or sweater.
What is Garment components?
Any part of garment like sleeves, cuff, collar,
waistband, etc are called as Garment components
Silhouette: The shape of the clothing style.
It is formed by the width and length of the
neckline, sleeves, waistline and pants or skirts.
If you were to squint your eyes and look at a
suit, dress or coat, the outline (shape) of the
garment would show its silhouette.
Silhouettes are always changing in fashion. The
general direction that a silhouette takes (widernarrower-longer-shorter) shows a fashion trend.
Silhouette of fashion cycle
Three specific silhouettes have separately rise, and fall in popularity;
Hi fashion:: High fashion are the
latest or newest fashions. They
are usually of top quality, with
fine workmanship and beautiful
fabrics. Because of the quality,
they are expensive. High fashion
styles originate from top name
designers in leading fashion
Details of high fashion filter down
into generally accepted fashions.
The term designer label refers to clothing, luxury automobile manufacturers and other personal
accessory items sold under an often prestigious marque which is commonly named after a designer.
Labels such as Gucci, Chanel, and Alexander McQueen are derived from the company's founding
designer, while others do not directly refer to the company's founder: for example, Red or Dead, Miu
Miu, and Chloe may be referred to as designer labels.
Designer labels are not only restricted to the fashion industry. Many people consider designer labels
to be a status symbol.
The relationship between consumer products, and social status is highly debated
A more variable range of garments still inspired by creativity and innovation. Not made for
individual customers but great care is taken in the choice and cut of the fabric. These clothes are
made with high quality materials and proposed only in small quantities to guarantee exclusity. They
Avant garde: The most daring and wild designs. They are unconventional and startling.
Clothes to cater to a wider range of customers, producing ready-to-wear clothes in large
quantities and standard sizes.
Less costly materials and construction techniques, creatively used, produce affordable
high street fashion. Standardized sizing is used, trims and notions are scaled down but
still try to keep the look of designer clothing.
Other names for mass-market:ready-to-wear, off the rack.
e.g.:-old navy, target
They copy trends and movies.
They don‟t work on inspiration or any specific story.
Indian markets- Global desi, Westside….
Fad: A temporary, passing fashion. It is an item or look that has great appeal to many
people for a short period of time.
Ti is usually pout of the ordinary. A fad becomes popular fast, and the dies out quickly.
Craze: Craze is like a fashion because it is a passing love for a new fashion. However, this
has a display of emotion or crowd excitement with it. Store have a hard time keeping such
items in stock because people are so eager to buy them.
Classic: An item of clothing that continues to
be popular even though fashion changes.
It is always acceptable.
Classics were originally fashion items, but
their general appeal and simple stylelines
have kept them popular.
They can worn year after year.
Examples of classics: White dress shirts,
dark business suits, pleated skirts, loafer
shoes, blues jeans, and salwar kameez.
Wardrobe: all the apparel a person owns, a
wardrobe includes all of your garments
Accessories: are the articles needed to
complete or enhance your needs, like belt,
ties. Hats, jewelry, shoes, gloves etc
•Made by first cutting garment pieces
then sewing them together to fit the
shape of a body.
•The first tailored garments were made
when the eyed needle was invented,
because seams could be sewn together.
•Eg. Raymond‟s Make to Measure
Made with a combination of tailored
and draped methods.
Garment parts are cut and sewn.
Some parts may fit close to body,
other parts may drape.
(Japanese kimono, tunics, bathrobe
Knock offs or high street : lower priced copies of
They are produced in high quantity with lower
priced materials. Copies of Haute Couture garments
are made in quantity by high prices manufacturerthey look like the original, but the price had been
Some of the top high fashion brands are,
It is claimed that Zara needs just two weeks to develop a new
product and get it to stores, compared to the six-month
industry average, and launches around 10,000 new designs
each year. Zara has resisted the industry-wide trend towards
transferring fast fashion production to low-cost countries.
Perhaps its most unusual strategy was its policy of zero
advertising; the company preferred to invest a percentage of
revenues in opening new stores instead. This has increased the
idea of Zara as a "fashion imitator" company and low cost
products. Lack of advertisement is also in contrast to direct
competitors such as Uniqlo and United Colors of Benetton
There are two main seasons:- spring-summer, autumn-winter….
International fashion week happen during August till September.
Designers showcase their collection six months before the season.
Buyers go to fashion shows & note down the details of dresses according to their budget.
Company‟s profit or loss depends on buyer because they are the one responsible for
taking the dresses.
Merchandiser‟s are the people who tells what sells more. They are the one‟s when stock
it. He plans the layout the store.
Both require different fashion look & a new range of colors & fabric design for the time
•Light weight fabrics in summer..
•Heavy weight fabrics in winter..
Designers work a year in advance.
•In the spring the studio works for the spring summer of the fall year.
Each collection is researched so that all the items in it compliment each other, will be in
style, & have the particular look for which the company is known for
Predicting Trends:•A designers most difficult task is forecasting what will be in style for the coming years.
To do this, they know the past trends & look at repeats. They also purchase High priced
trend magazines. Additional they observe what succeeded with customers in the past.
Theme: A designer selects a theme that represents their collection. It can be a period in
history, a foreign place, a range of colors, a type of fabric.
Designing:Need to have inspiration.
Can combine a collection.
Designer make samples.
After the groundwork is completed for the nature of the collection the designer must
decide how many and what type of garments should be included in the collection.
Usually they have a three month period to design, produce and publicize. The
collection in time for their fashion show.
Press and buyers get their first look at the collection at the show.
Haute couture: ”Finest Dress Making” in French. It
means the high fashion industry. It refers to a group of
firms or “Fashion house”, each with a designer who
creates original, individually designed fashions. The
designer who owns the firm in the couturier or maker.
@ Haute couture fashions originate in Paris, New York,
or other fashion centers. They are very expensive. They
are constructed with expensive fabric, and include a
great deal of hand work. They are some times;
a. Custom designed made for a specific person
b. Made to order, or custom made are not designed for
a particular person, although they are made for a
specific person. He or she places an order after
seeing a sketch or picture.
Haute couture is made to order for a specific customer, and it is usually made from high-quality, expensive fabric
and sewn with extreme attention to detail and finished by the most experienced and capable seamstresses, often
using time-consuming, hand-executed techniques.
"Couture" means dressmaking, sewing, or needlework and is also used as a common abbreviation of haute
couture and refers to the same thing in spirit. "Haute" means elegant or high.
An haute couture garment is made specifically for the wearer‟s measurements and body stance. It originally
referred to Englishman Charles Frederick Worth‟s work, produced in Paris in the mid-nineteenth century.
In modern France, haute couture is a "protected name" that can be used only by firms that meet certain welldefined standards.
However, the term is also used loosely to describe all high-fashion custom-fitted clothing, whether it is produced
in Paris or in other fashion capital such as London, Milan, New York or Tokyo.
To earn the right to call itself a couture house and to use the term haute couture in its advertising and any other
way, members of the Chambre syndicale de la haute couture must follow these rules:
Design made-to-order for private clients, with one or more fittings.
Have a workshop (atelier) in Paris that employs at least fifteen people full-time.
Must have twenty full-time technical people in at least one atelier (workshop).
Each season (i.e., twice a year), present a collection to the Paris press, comprising at least thirty-five runs/exits
with outfits for both daytime wear and evening wear.
What is be spoke?
The term “Bespoke” actually dates
back to the 17th century. Tailors then
held full lengths of cloth within their
premises and a customer would come in
and chose a length of fabric material
for garments, it was then said to have
“been spoken for”.
So, a tailor who makes custom clothes
individually, to your specific personal
measurements, design requirements
and creates a custom one-of pattern for
that garment is called “bespoke”.
How Be spoke is this different
from “Made to Measure”?
The term “made-to-measure”,
refers simply to the use of basic,
pre-existing template patterns,
and then taking the template
pattern adjusting to the
measurements that have been
taken from you.
Ready to wear: Those garments that are massproduced in factories. They are manufactured in
quantity according to standard sizes. Each garment
design has thousand made. They are all alike and
are for sale in many sizes.
Consumers: Those who buy and wear the garments.
Consumers purchase and use apparel as well as
other economics goods. Consumers are very
important in determining what fashion will or will
not become popular.
Retail Store: Sell to consumers. They advertise and
sell their items directly to the general public. Retail
stores include department stores, chain and
discount or factory outlet.
Fit: The fit of a garment refers to how tight or loose it fits on the
person who is wearing it. A good fit means that the garment is
the right size and does not pull tightly or sag loosely when
worn. Garment can be designed to be loose, semi fitted or fitted
to achieve different fashion looks.
@ Seams are the lines of stitches that join two garment to pieces
@ Darts are short, tapered, stitched areas that takes out excess
fabric in to it and enable the garment to fit the figure.
@ Bodice: the bodice of a garment is the area above the waist,
such as the upper part of a dress or jumpsuit. The bodice is
usually closely fitted and is distinguished by a seam at the
In fashion cycle, high fashion is first introduced by the
-Fashion leaders are men and women who have the
credibility to start new styles
• Jennifer Lopez
Every community in the world has fashion leaders. They are the ones
who are first to adopt and display new styles within their special
As fashion comes and go, they seem to be extreme and daring when
they are first introduced, smart and stylish when they are popular,
and dowdy and out of date after their peak
Distributor: Store goods of many brands in large quantities and sell to retails (MBO) they
usually distribute their goods from large warehouses. Each item costs less from a
wholesaler, but usually dozens of each must be purchased.
MBO: Multi Brands outlet, mainly cater into trading of apparels of different brands, using
pull system, skims and different promotions.
EBO: Exclusive Brand Outlet, have their own store or franchise store where it can display
and sell merchandise of its own brand category.
LFS: Large Format Stores, have huge area to display different brands on one floor to
improve customer/consumer walk in.
Shopping Malls: LFS are part of shopping malls as well exclusive brand outlets (EBO) of
different brands will available in one shelter.