WHAT IS QUALITY?
What would someone mean by the quality
of a shoe?
Let us suppose that it is a man’s shoe that he is asking
Does he mean by good quality that it wears a long time?
Or that it takes a shine well?
That is feels comfortable?
That it is waterproof?
That the price is right in consideration of whatever he
considers quality? Or it is good in design?
Put another way, what quality-characteristics are
important to the customer? - Deming
WHAT IS QUALITY?
• Product quality is based on a product attribute.
How will you differentiate the quality between woven shirt and
• User-based quality is fitness for use,
How will you differentiate the quality between women garments
and kids garments as a wearer?
• manufacturing based quality is conformance to requirements,
Which quality parameters will be followed when manufacturing
thermal wear and sweat jacket?
value based quality is the degree of excellence at an
Zara jacket or mango jackets are products gives value for money
Assurance: The act of giving confidence,
the state of being certain
or the act of making certain.
Quality Assurance: The planned and systematic activities
implemented in a quality system so that quality requirements for
a product or service will be fulfilled.
An evaluation to indicate needed corrective responses;
the act of guiding a process
in which variability is attributable
to a constant system of chance causes.
Quality Control: The observation techniques and activities used to
fulfill requirements for quality.
DEFINITIONS OF QUALITY
• Conformance to specifications
• The degree to which a product or
service meets the needs of the
• Uniformity around a customerdefined target
• Exceeding customer expectations
The customer is the most important part of the process.
IMPACT OF HIGHER QUALITY ON VALUE
QUALITY MUST BE CONSIDER AT ALL STAGES IN THE LIFE CYCLE, AS
SHOWN BELOW, OF A PRODUCT.
Quality inspection in apparel industries
“Visual examination or
review of raw materials,
partially finished components of garments
and completely finished garments in relation to some
standards, specifications, or requirements, as well as
measuring garments to check if they meet the
QUALITY INSPECTION IN APPAREL
• Do to control quality of garments.
• Checking of fabric,
• Sewing thread,
• Zipper and other trims,
• Garments measurements/size etc
according to required standard or specification is
known as inspection.
Quality inspection is important for every section
of apparel industries.
STEPS IN APPAREL INDUSTRIES TO CONTROL
IN PROCESS INSPECTION
RAW MATERIALS INSPECTION
It is done for the raw materials which are used in
the apparel production like fabric, sewing thread,
button, other accessories etc.
It is also termed as ‘incoming material inspection.
Normally this is mainly done for fabrics using 4
point system or 10 point system.
ONLINE OR IN-PROCESS INSPECTION
This is done during the manufacturing process so that if
there is any problem in the process that will be rectified
in that stage itself.
This will be carried out by the quality controllers
periodically say every two or three hours.
They will check the measurement and defects and make
the inspection report which will be intimated to the
This inspection is done after the goods are
manufactured and packed in carton boxes and which are
ready for the shipment.
The goods are inspected and will be graded as per
acceptable quality level (AQL) which is prescribed by the
The goods can be shipped after the final inspection is
QUALITY INSPECTION IN APPAREL
IN SAMPLE MAKING SECTION
IN-MARKER MAKING SECTION
INSPECTION IN FABRIC SPREADING SECTION
INSPECTION IN FABRIC CUTTING SECTION
INSPECTION IN FABRIC SEWN SECTION
INSPECTION IN PRESSING & FINISHING SECTION
QUALITY INSPECTION IN SAMPLING
MAINTAINING BUYER SPECIFICATION STANDARD
CHECKING THE SAMPLE AND ITS DIFFERENT ISSUES
FABRIC COLOR, GSM, FASTNESS ETC PROPERTIES
SPI AND OTHER PARAMETER CHECKING
ANY OTHER DETAILING CHECKING
QUALITY CONTROL IN MARKER MAKING
TO CHECK NOTCH OR DRILL MARK
FABRIC WIDTH MUST BE HIGHER THAN MARKER WIDTH
FABRIC LENGTH MUST BE HIGHER THAN MARKER
MATCHING OF GREEN LINE
CHECK PATTERN SIZE AND DIMENSION
MATCHING OF CHECK AND STRIPE TAKING INTO
CONSIDERING GARMENTS PRODUCTION PLAN
PATTERN DIRECTION CONSIDERATION
QUALITY CONTROL IN FABRIC SPREADING
FABRIC SPREADING ACCORDING TO CORRECT
ALIGNMENT WITH MARKER LENGTH AND WIDTH
MAINTAIN REQUIREMENTS OF SPREADING
LAY CONTAINS CORRECT NUMBER OF FABRIC PLY
CORRECT PLY DIRECTION
TO CONTROL THE FABRIC SPLICING
QUALITY CONTROL IN FABRIC CUTTING
The dimension of the pattern and the cut piece should be same and accurate
CUT EDGE SHOULD BE SMOOTH AND CLEAN
NOTCH SHOULD BE CUT FINELY
DRILL HOLE SHOULD MADE AT PROPER PLACE
NO YARN FRAYING SHOULD OCCUR AT CUT EDGE
AVOID BLADE DEFLECTION
MAINTAIN CUTTING ANGLE
MORE SKILLED OPERATOR USING
QUALITY CONTROL IN SEWING SECTION
CUT PANEL AND ACCESSORIES
MACHINE IS IN WELL CONDITION
SPECIAL WORK LIKE EMBROIDERY, PRINTING
STITCHING FAULT SHOULD BE
SEAM FAULT CHECK
MISMATCHING MATCHING OF
WRONG PLACEMENT OF
SIZE MISTAKE CHECK
SHADE VARIATION WITHIN THE
CREASED OR WRINKLE APPEARANCE CONTROL
QUALITY CONTROL IN FINISHING SECTION
Proper inspection of the garments including measurement, spot, dirt,
impurities Water spot
SMOOTH AND UNFOLD IN
IN SECURED OR BROKEN CHAIN OR
WANTED WRINKLE OR FOLD IN
PROPERLY DRIED IN AFTER
GET UP CHECKING
EVERY PARTS OF A
PROPER SHAPE IN
• Done through Fabric Inspection machine.
• Very important for every industries .
• In fabric inspection their checks several things i.e. in fabric
are there any defect available or not. In fabric, fabric
defects viz. off shade or shade variation, hole in fabric,
barre effect etc. can be visual after entering into the store
room. For those defects it will be problem able for making
• In fabric inspection, also test fabric strength, color,
• To check fabric there are different system i.e. 4 point
system, 10 point system etc.
SEWING THREAD INSPECTION
During stitching fabric frequently brakeage of sewing thread is one
of the great problems for garments manufacturing.
So that it is necessary to check
•YARDAGE OF SEWING THREAD.
TRIMS AND ACCESSORIES INSPECTION
The final quality of any garment is also affected by trims and
accessories applied in it.
So that it is necessary to check
also need to check so that quality can be maintain according to
•QUANTITY ETC ARE CHECKED.
IN PROCESS INSPECTION
• Inspecting different parts of garments before sewing are called
in process inspection.
• It starts from marker making, than fabric spreading, fabric
cutting, fabric sewing, pressing or finishing checking is done in
PRESSING/ FINISHING DEFECTS
PATTERN GRADING DEFECTS
1. Grade Not Conforming to Specification
•Finished product not measuring to specified dimension
•component parts not fitting in relationship to notches,
•openings and seams such as armholes sleeve heads
•neck openings and side seams inseams,
•waist measurements and etc.
2. Distorted Grading:
•Unbalanced patterns which would cause twisted seams,
•a general uneconomical yardage waste.
• It is necessary to check all the parts of garments pattern are in
• In marker labelling or coding of pattern should be checked
• Pattern direction should be checked.
• Pattern grain line is very important thing which must be
considered during marker making.
• During marker making every pattern pieces dimension should be
• During marker making fabric length and width should be
•Notches & drill marks
•Checks and stripes (mittering)
Shaded Parts:-All component pans not included in same
Pieces not Symmetrical:-Will not sew together without puckering
Not Marked by Directional Lines:-Bias will not lit together, causing
twisting, puckering. pleating and a general mismatching of
Skimpy marking:-Marker did not use outside perimeter of pattern.
Notches and Punch Marks:-Left out., not clearly marked or
Marker Too W
ide:-Parts will not catch in lay, causing skimpy
garments or requiring results.
Pattern moved after partially marked to fit into space.
Marker Too Narrow:-Results In wasted material
Mismatched Plaids-Marker did not block component parts to
Misdirected Napping:-Patterns not marked in same direction and
Factors which must be checked
•Selvedge alignment & tightness
1. Uneven Spreading:-Front edge o f lay is not even, resulting in
front or back edge of marker not catching all ply.
2. Narrow Material:-Bolts or rolls of material too narrow to cover
3. Missed Sectional Breaks:-Sectional marker breaks too long or
too short. Parts in lay will be short or material wasted.
4. Improper Tension:-Cloth spread too tight or too loose, causing
parts not to fit in sewing or distorting dimensions of garments.
5. Mismatching Plaids:-Material spread too loose or too tight
causing plaid lines to run diagonally or bow.
6. Misdirected Napping:-Air pockets not removed. Napped
material reversed in spreading.
7. Improper Matching of Face of Material:-Not spread face
down, face up or face to face as required.
Placing Marker Paper on to the Lay
100% checking & Parts Replacing if needed.
Shorting & Bundling
1. Misplaced Piece Rate Tickets or Bundle Members:-Attached to, or marked
on, wrong bundles, causing mixed sizes or land shades.
2. Drill Marks:-Drill marks misplaced, not perpendicular, omitted or wrong side
3. Opening Slits:-Cut under above to the side or at incorrect angle. Not cut
through entire bundle or omitted.
4. Improper Cutting:-Not following marker lines, resulting in distorted parts.
Letting knife lean causing top and bottom ply to be of different sizes.
5. Notches:-Misplaced, too deep, too shallow or omitted.
6. Oil Spots:-Equipment improperly oiled or cleaned.
7. Improper Knife Sharpening:-Causing ragged, frayed or fused edges on
It is necessary to check numbering, sorting, and
bundling is done accurately.
1. Not Stacked in Numerical Order: Bundle
numbers not in order on rack skid or box.
2. Matching Linings: Wrong size or wrong
•Poor clamping or insufficient
•The needle needs replacing.
•Wrong size needle.
•Wrong type of needle for the
•Wrong thread for the
•Poor quality thread.
•Needle size and thread weight
•Worn thread guides, paths or