Clothing and their
Basic needs of human;
Throughout history, clothing has had
great meaning. It has indicated
peoples handcrafted skill, artistic
imagination, and cultural rituals.
@ It also reflected advances in
@ Clothing does lot more than cover
Why People Wear
From the beginning,
clothing has served the
same basic human needs;
Protection = Physical needs
Adornment & identification =
Modesty = Social needs
Status = Social needs
Protection: Clothing can prevent harm
caused by the climate and the environment.
Cloth supplements our natural body
covering like a “ second skin”.
Protective clothing give physical protection
to the body
@ From weather
@ From environmental dangers
@ From occupational hazards
@ From Enemies
Adornment: Clothing can affect
a persons mental attitude or
morale in a good way. This is
done through adornment or
@ Beauty is quality that gives
pleasure to the senses, and
gives a positive emotional
reaction to the viewer.
@ The way one culture views
beauty in clothing may be
completely different than the
way one culture views beauty
Identification: Identification is the
process of establishing or describing
who someone is or what someone
@ Uniforms are a way of identifying
roles, uniforms identify that someone
is police officer, or a member of the
armed forces. Uniforms can
decrease racial, religious and other
@ The regular clothing peoples wear
may be considered “psychological
uniforms”-looks at your classmate,
aren‟t all of them pretty much
Identification: Identification is the
process of establishing or
describing who someone is or
what someone does.
@ Ceremonial garment: These
can provide identification-A white
wedding dress indicates a woman
is a bride.
@ A cap and gown indicates a
person is graduating
@ Institutional wear: some
businesses and institutes have
Modesty: Human beings wear clothing to
satisfy their social need for modesty
Modesty is the covering of a persons body
according to the code of decency of that
In the 1800‟s it was immodest for American
Women to let their ankles show.
Women's swimsuits were once made of thick
fabric and covered the entire body. Now
fashionable swimwear exposes lots of skin.
The event you attending also affects your
By wearing appropriate and inappropriate
clothing, people show their acceptance or
rejection of their social environment
Status: A persons
status is his or her
rank or position in
others. “good “ or
„high‟ status is
prestige and social
WHY PEOPLES SELECT CERTAIN CLOTHs
Some of the most important
factors that influence the
particular clothing choices are
people values and attitudes,
their tendencies toward
conformity or individuality, and
Fashion magazine is one book
were to be left from today for
people to read in hundreds of
Values are the ideas, belief, and
things that are important to an
individual. They are the
underlying motivations for a
Attitudes are formed from
values. They are an individuals
feelings or reactions to people,
things or ideas.
Some people select clothing
because they value comforts.
Personality can be defined as the total characteristics that
distinguish an individual, especially his or her behavior and
The domestic apparel
industry constitutes three
With the increasing fashion trends
in the global scenario Indian men
are also becoming increasingly
stylish. Indian is home to
numerous top men clothing brands
that are domestic.
Some of the Top Men Clothing
Brands in India are Madura
Garments, Provogue India
Ltd., Raymond Apparel
Ltd., Pantaloon Retail (India)
Ltd., Levi Strauss & Co. etc.
TOP DOMESTIC MEN CLOTHING
BRANDS IN INDIA
TIE & BOW
In India, woman's clothing varies widely and is
closely associated with the local culture, religion
Traditional Indian clothing for women in the north
and east are saris or ghagra cholis and
(lehengas) while many south
Indian women traditionally wear sari and children
wear pattu pavadai. .
Women started wearing more comfortable clothing
and exposure to international fashion led to a
fusion of western and Indian styles of clothing.
Women's clothing nowadays consist of both formal
and casual wear such as gowns, pants, shirts and
Traditional Indian clothing such as the kurti have
been combined with jeans to form part of casual
attire. Fashion designers in India have blended
several elements of Indian traditional designs into
conventional western wear to create a unique style
of contemporary Indian fashion.
The Retail Industry in India has come forth as one of the most dynamic and fast
paced industries with several players entering the market.
The total concept and idea of shopping has undergone an attention drawing
change in terms of format and consumer buying behavior, ushering in a
revolution in shopping in India.
Modern retailing has entered into the Retail market in India as is observed in
the form of bustling shopping centers, multi-storied malls and the huge
complexes that offer shopping, entertainment and food all under one roof.
Key Players in India
Future Group is an Indian privately held corporation
that runs chains of large discount department stores
and warehouse stores.
•Pantaloon Retail India (Now belongs to A. Birla)
The Mahindra Group is an Indian multinational
company headquartered in Mumbai, with
operations in over 100 countries across the globe.
•Mom & Me : Mahindra entered the retail market
with a unique mother child venture called Mom &
Reliance Retail, Ltd. is a subsidiary company of Reliance Industries.
Founded in 2006 and based in Mumbai, it is the second largest
retailer in India.
Various Subsidiaries & division under Reliance Retail.
•Reliance Fresh - Retail Outlets of fruits, Vegetables & Groceries.
•Reliance Digital - Consumer Electronics retail Store
•Reliance Jewels - Jewellery
Reliance Time Out - Lifestyle store of
Books, Music, Movies, Toys, Gaming, Fragrances, Stationery.
•Reliance Trends - Apparel and Clothing
In December 1999, Aditya Birla Nuvo, an Aditya Birla Group
company, acquired Madura Fashion & Lifestyle to become the
undisputed leader in the readymade menswear industry in India. In
2000, the company became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Aditya
•Planet Fashion, the multi-brand, apparel-retailing arm of Madura
Fashion & Lifestyle.
•Recently, the company launched Trendin.com, a one-stop
shopping destination for the style conscious. online store
showcasing the widest range of merchandise from Louis
Phillipe, Van Heusen, Allen Solly, Peter England and People
Fabindia (or Fabindia Overseas Pvt. Ltd.) is an Indian chain store
retailing garments, furnishings, fabrics,Organics ,Personal Care
and ethnic products handmade by craftspeople across rural
India. Established in 1960 by John Bissell , an American .
The products of Fabindia are mainly sourced from villages
helping to provide and sustain rural employment in India.
Shoppers Stop is an Indian department store chain promoted by
the K Raheja Corp Group started in the year 1991 with its first
store in Andheri, Mumbai. SS has more than 60 stores in India.
Shoppers Stop Sister Stores are:
PRODUCTS : Shoppers Stop retails products of domestic and
international brands such as Louis
Philippe, Pepe, Arrow, BIBA, Gini &
Jony, Carbon, Corelle, Magppie, Nike, Reebok, LEGO, and Mattel.
OWN LABELS :STOP, Kashish, LIFE and Vettorio Fratini, Elliza
Donatein, Acropolis etc
• Madura Garments is a market Leader in branded apparel. It offers wide range of
ready-to-wear clothes to cater to every market segment.
• Madura Garments has ramped up exclusive showroom space more than 3lakh
sq.ft through more than 200 stores across India.
• These include several large format exclusive brand outlets of world class
standards providing top quality retail experience to the consumers.
• The Power Brands are Van Heusen,Louis Philippe & Allen Solly.
Key Players in India :
• Arvind Brands Ltd the wholly owned subsidiary of Arvind Mills Ltd
has a joint venture with the US based VF Corporation to manufacture
and market the US based company's global brands in India.
• VF Corp owns brands such as Lee,Wrangler,Vanityfair,Jansport,Flying
Machine,Ruf & Tuf etc
Key Players in India :
• Raymond Apparel is one of the biggest textile players in India.
• Raymond Apparel has three major brands under its belt: Park Avenue ,
Parx & Manzoni.
• Other Key Players in the Apparel segment include Provogue India
Limited which started in 1997. ITC Wills lifestyle .
BOUTIQUES IN INDIA
BOUTIQUES IN INDIA
Ritu Kumar is the first women to introduce the
“Boutique”culture in India under the brand name Ritu.
Boutique or Concept stores are similar to specialty
stores. Concept stores only stock one brand.
They are run by the brand that controls them.
They are mostly found as Standalone stores in
prominent locations or in major Shopping Malls.
The exclusive outlets of these Designers are very
limited in number & displays all the categories under
Since highly priced due to the quality ,unique designs
& techniques they are catered to only Upper class in
India & abroad.
• Retail merchandising is the process used in order to conduct retail sales. As part of
the process, the merchandiser pays close attention to the types of products offered
for sale, how to best present those products to consumers, and determining what is
a reasonable retail price for each unit sold.
• The first important step in retail merchandising is establishing working
relationships with manufacturers who will provide the goods or services that
are ultimately sold by the retailer. This type of retail buying involves
determining what products will be carried in the retail
establishment, negotiating the unit price that will be charged by the
manufacturer, and arranging for the delivery of those goods.
• Once the goods are secured, the retailer must determine the unit price that
he or she will assign to the products. In all cases, this retail price will be
higher than the cost of purchasing the goods from the supplier.
• After setting the retail pricing, the process of retail merchandising moves on
to the task known as setup and display. Setup and display are often
considered especially important with fashion merchandising and similar retail
settings, in that the visual display is often the key means of attracting
customers who are highly likely to make a purchase.
• Marketing is an important aspect of any retail merchandising strategy.
Engaging in a publicity campaign to reach prospective customers may
involve something as simple as advertising in local publications as well as
electronic advertising on local radio and television stations. Direct mail is
also a common strategy in retailing, as the mailings make it possible to
reach people in their homes and places of business rather than relying
on them to approach the retailer first.
• In order to be successful with retail merchandising, it is necessary to provide
consumers with a couple of key benefits. First, the products must be of high quality;
this helps to ensure the customer will return for more purchases in the future. Along
with the quality, the retailer must also sell the products at prices the consumer finds
reasonable. By providing quality products at affordable prices, the retailer has a
much better chance of standing out from the competition and remaining in business
for many years to come.
Visual Merchandising is the art of displaying
merchandise in a manner that is appealing to
the eyes of the customer.
It sets the context of the merchandise in an
aesthetically pleasing fashion, presenting
them in a way that would convert the window
shoppers into prospects and ultimately
buyers of the product.
Visual merchandising includes window
displays, signs, interior displays, cosmetic
promotions and any other special sales
promotions taking place.
To encourage them to buy more of the products
you want them to, increasing your sales, margin
and return on space after all, you are running a
The exterior of your premises should be
instantly appealing with clear, consistent
branding applied to your signage. The entrance
reflects the personality of your store and must
entice the passer by to enter.
An excellent opportunity to bring more
customers to your store. Customers have only a
few seconds to view and be attracted by your
displays so keep them simple, bold and
uncluttered. Use of bright colors & lighting to
draw the eye, maybe even motion.
Importance of Visual Merchandising
are a perfect
Mothers day, Fathers day, Easter, Diwali, Christmas
etc. Ensure any special offers are clearly readable
and not too big / small.
Your in store signage must be clear and concise.
Keep it simple and in line with your existing store
branding. Use fonts and colors that are easily
readable from a distance, avoid script or
fussy, ornate styles.
POS : Point of Sale
Point of sale (POS) or checkout is the location
where a transaction occurs. Use this area to display
new products, special offers. Be really creative with
these displays. Keep them simple and bold.
The Concept of Retail Price
Concept of Retail Price
• Price is an Integral element of the
retail marketing mix. It is the
factor which is the source of
revenue for the retailer.
• The price of the merchandise also
communicate the image of the
retail stores to the customer.
• The Key Factors:
• Depends on the business model that the
retailer has chosen to follow.
• Demand for the product and the Target
• The store policies and the image to be
• Competition for the product and the
competitors price for a similar product the
• India’s textiles and clothing industry is one of the mainstays of the national economy. It is also
one of the largest contributing sectors of India’s exports worldwide.
• The report of the Working Group organized by the Planning Commission on boosting India’
manufacturing exports during 12th Five Year Plan (2012-17), predicts India’s exports of
Textiles and Clothing at USD 64.41 billion by the end of March, 2017. The textiles industry
accounts for 14% of industrial production, which is 4% ; employs 45 million people and
accounts for nearly 11% share of the country’s total exports basket.
Designer work sheet
• The apparel export Industry,
Merchandising in both export
production and manufacturing function
encounter many challenges in buying
and Planning, Understanding
merchandising calendar, Fashion
forecasting, costing and future of
Develop Fit proto
Revise Fit PP
Size set sample
added if its wash
The next step in product development is
making the first pattern, which is used to cut
and sew the first sample garment.
The pattern is made in sample size, one is
used for testing and selling purpose.
The prototype is made by sample maker, the
best of the factory sewers. Sample- makers
must have factory sewing skills and know how
to put an entire garment together. The factory
construction methods must be tested as the
garment is sewn.
The next step is to test the sample for fit and
total effect. The ability to create good fit is the
most important skill needed in the
development of the garment. The garment
Records are kept on all styles as they
develop. Work sheets containing
information that guides the production
department in figuring costs and in
fabrics and the trimmings.
Ordering the materials
necessary to produce
garment is usually done by
the manufacturer‟s fabric or
piece goods buyers.
The piece goods buyer act as
a liaison between the mill or
converter and the
manufacturer. The buyer
must know all properties of
fabrics and have information
on prices , availability and
Marker making is the process of
determining a most efficient layout
of pattern pieces for a style, fabric
and distribution of sizes.
Factories those don‟t have CAD
system perform this process
manually. In manual marker
making to make an efficient
marker one need time, skill and
concentration. Now-a-day Marker
making is mostly done by CAD
systems which give accuracy,
increase control over variables
and reduces time required in
Using the markers made graded
patterns, in accordance with the
issue plan, fabric are cut to
prepare for garment assembly.
The cutting order tells what to cut
, What fabrics to uses
programmed data to determine
what makers should be made, how
fabric should be spread and
cut, and the most cost – effective
numbers of piles, colors, and size
Costing is an exact calculation by
using actual figures for material and
labor. The costing department uses
designer worksheet, a prototype
garment, and the production pattern
to analyze materials and
construction step by step.
3.Production, patternmaking, gradin
g and marking
4. Spreading and cutting
The production manager or merchandiser
schedule cutting and garment assembly in
time to meet shipping dates.
This schedule is reverse timetable
, usually covering six months.
Quality control is the standardization
of production using specifications as
guides. The last garment sewn
should be the same as first garment.
They inspect all the garment
production. Production standard is
• In apparel , this may include some handwork, For most apparel
pressing, washing, labeling and folding are sufficient . The packaging
of garment should be proper.