Presentation on swarnjayanti gram swarozgar yojana (sgsy
Presentation on Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) Presented by SONALI PATNAIK BIRAJINI DALAI SUNIL KUMAR BISWAL
INTRODUCTION In April 1999, the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was restructured and combined with Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM), Supply of Improved Tools for Rural Artisans (SITRA), Ganga Kalyan Yojana, Million Wells Scheme (MWS) and Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA), and a single self- employment programme known as Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) was put in place.
Aim and Objective Establishment of large number of micro enterprises in the rural areasSGSY is to bring the assisted poor families above poverty line by providing them income- generating assets through bank credit and government subsidy.
Approach’s of SGSY Formation of organizations of the poor at the grassroots level through a process of social mobilization for poverty reduction is central to the programme. The approach of SGSY is based on SHGs that have to act as a financial intermediary and in many cases there are women SHGs which are also expected to serve as vehicle for their empowerment. Non-Government organizations (NGOs) are expected to facilitate the formation of these groups. The community involvement as emphasized in SGSY, in contrast to IRDP, is reflected in the mobilization for the formation of SHG groups.
SGSY has been conceived as a holistic self- governing programme covering all aspects of self-employment of the rural poor such as organization of the poor into SHGs, their capacity building, selection of key activities, planning of activity clusters, infrastructure build-up, technology and market support The main principles of the SGSY are: (a) key activities, (b) cluster approach, and (c) group method.
Salient Features of SGSY• SGSY: A Centrally sponsored self-employment scheme. Funding isshared between the Centre and the State in the ratio of 75:25. For North- Eastern States, the ratio is 90:10.• The scheme is implemented by District Rural Development Agency(DRDAs)/Zilla Parishads through Panchayat Samithis with active involvement of Panchayats based on the funds provided for the SGSY.• NGOs, CBOs and Self Help Promoting Institutions (SHPIs) are assistedupto Rs.10,000 per group by government for the formation and development of Self Help Groups (SHGs)• DRDA may incur a maximum amount of 10 per cent of allocation towards training and capacity building• SGSY Infrastructure Fund comprises upto 20 per cent of the allocation toStates and 25 percent in the case of North Eastern States.
DRDA provides Rs.10,000 to each SHG as Revolving Fund, banksprovide cash credit of Rs.15,000 for Grade-I SHGs.• Banks provide loans to Grade-II SHGs with minimum repayment period of three to five years depending on the nature of scheme.• Subsidy under SGSY is uniform at 30 per cent of the project cost, subjectto a maximum of Rs.7,500 per swarojgari (Rs.10,000 for SC/ST / disabledswarojgari) .• The programme predicts establishing a large number of micro-enterprises by the poor in rural areas with an emphasis on four to five key activities identified at the block level based on resources, occupational skills of the people and availability of markets.
ACTVITY CLUSTERS – PLANNINGAND SELECTION SGSY lays stress on the cluster approach. What this means is that instead of funding diverse activities, each block should concentrate on a few select activities (key activities) and attend to all aspects of these activities, so that the Swarozgaris can draw sustainable incomes from their investments Selection of key activities :- The success of SGSY will therefore depend, to start with, on the choice of activities. The key element is that the choice of activity should be based on the local resources, the aptitude as well as the skill of the people. It is also necessary that the products have ready market
For selection of key activities, a profile of the poor families, as reflected in the BPL Census should be analysed. There will be poor families with assets, such as land. Efforts should be made to see that those having a minimum extent of land are enabled to cross the poverty line by making additional investment on their lands, such as wells or other irrigation facilities, pump sets etc. The Block SGSY Committee must interact with as many sarpanches as possible and also discuss with groups of the rural poor such as the landless labour, the educated unemployed, those rural poor with lands, the artisan groups etc. Where self-help groups are in position, they should also be consulted. In their discussions, the Committee should explore various opportunities that are available (provided credit, technology skill up gradation and marketing are assured) to enable the poor to cross the poverty line.
Minor irrigation projects may be group oriented or individual oriented. It is referable to adopt as far as possible, a project approach under minor irrigation instead of spreading the investment in a scattered manner. Minor irrigation can also be the basis for activity clusters or formation of SHGs. As regards the non-farm activities, care must be taken to identify only those activities which result in the production of goods/services that have a ready market. Based on this consultation process, the committee may identify about 8-10 activities, which they may rank in the order of preference. This list should then be placed before the general body of the Panchayat Samiti (Block Panchayat). The Panchayat Samiti should be asked to give its recommendations
PROGRAMME INFRASTRUCTURE Proper infrastructure is essential for the success of micro enterprises. The infrastructure may be either for production, processing, quality testing, storage or marketing. SGSY will seek to ensure that the infrastructure needs for the identified activities are met in full, so as to enable the Swarozgaris to derive the maximum advantage from their investments The provision of infrastructure is essentially the responsibility of the State Governments. Therefore, the States will strive to provide for necessary investments as part of their plan efforts of the respective departments
The District SGSY Committee should review the infrastructuregaps and identify the areas of intervention for financing projects in activity clusters. Infrastructure needs and theirfulfilment will be constantly and closely monitored by theDRDA.In order to meet expenditure on such critical infrastructure,SGSY will provide for a fund, which will be known as ‘SGSY-Infrastructure Fund’. 20% (25% in the case of North EasternStates) of SGSY allocation for each district will be set apart forthis fund
Principles may be kept in view while framing theInfrastructure proposals The infrastructure activities should enable SGSY Swarozgaris’ to make full utilization of their assets. Marketing linkages should be given priority. The proposals should emerge out of the specific activities being taken up by the Swarozgaris and the location decisions should be made by the Blocks/DRDAs in consultation with Bankers. Only village or block or district level infrastructure should be planned. In no case should the proposals envisage development of infrastructure at the State or regional level. Only the fixed cost and not the recurring expenditure should be met out of SGSY funds. There should be an undertaking that the State Government or the organization concerned would meet the recurring expenditure on staff and other items. In the case of assistance for development of infrastructure to cooperative societies, it should be ensured that at least 50% of the members are SGSY Swarozgaris.
SWAROZGARIS Under Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY), the beneficiaries are known as Swarozgaris. The Swarozgaris can be either individuals or groups. SGSY lays emphasis on the group approach, under which the rural poor are organized into Self Help Groups. The list of BPL households identified through BPL census, duly approved by the Gram Sabha will form the basis for identification of families for assistance under the SGSY. The Self Help Groups should also be drawn from the BPL list approved by the Gram Sabha.
SELF HELP GROUPS (SHGS) & Self Help Groups go through various stages ofevolution SGSY will focus on organization of the poor at grassroots level through a process of social mobilization for poverty eradication. Self Help Groups go through various stages of evolution 1) Group formation 2) Group Stabilization 3) Micro credit 4) Micro enterprise development
Formation of Self Help Groups Under the SGSY, generally a self-help group may consist of 10 to 20 persons. However, in difficult areas like deserts, hills and areas with scattered and sparse population and in case of minor irrigation and disabled persons, this number may be from 5-20. The group should devise a code of conduct (Group management norms) to bind itself. This should be in the form of regular meetings (weekly or fortnightly), functioning in a democratic manner, allowing free exchange of views, participation by the members in the decision making process.
The group should be able to draw up an agenda for each meeting and take up discussions as per the agenda. The members should build their corpus through regular savings. The group corpus fund should be used to advance loans to the members. The group should develop financial management norms covering the loan sanction procedure, repayment schedule and interest rates The members in the group meetings should take all the loaning decisions through a participatory decision making process.
The group should be able to prioritise the loan applications, fix repayment schedules, fix appropriate rate of interest The group should operate a group account preferably in their service area bank branch, so as to deposit the balance amounts left with the groups after disbursing loans to its members The group should maintain simple basic records such as Minutes book, Attendance register, Loan ledger, General ledger, Cash book, Bank passbook and individual passbooks.
IMPLEMENTATION A close involvement of different agencies is essential for the success of Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) SGSY is implemented by District Rural Development Agencies (DRDAs) through the Panchayati Samithis and, with the active involvement of other Panchayati Raj Institutions, the banks, the line departments and the NGOs The DRDAs are expected to co-ordinate the implementation of the programme. In particular their role will be critical in organization of the Self Help Groups and their capacity building as well as in terms of coordination with the technical institutions for technology and training
The Gram Panchayats will play a crucial role in SGSY. The Gram Sabha will first approve the list of BPL families. Besides, at the beginning of each year, the potential Swarozgaris for taking up the designated key activities would be identified in each habitation by a 3-member committee including the Sarpanch. The NGOs have also an important role to play. They can be used in the formation and nurturing of the SHGs as well as in the monitoring of the progress of the Swarozgaris The Bankers play a very critical role in the implementation of Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana. SGSY is a credit-cum- subsidy programme.